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Chrysotile

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Formula:
Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Colour:
Green
Lustre:
Silky
Hardness:
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1843 by Franz von Kobell from the Greek chrysos - "gold" and tilos - "fiber."
Serpentine Group.
Polytypes are clinochrysotile, orthochrysotile, and parachrysotile. Clinochrysotile represents almost all of the known chrysotile specimens. Orthochrysotile is rare and parachrysotile is very rare.

Lizardite and antigorite are closely related serpentine-group species.
Chrysotile and lizardite are the low-temperature serpentine minerals, whereas antigorite is the high-temperature (>250°C) serpentine mineral.

Most of the asbestos that was mined worldwide, consists of chrysotile.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Chrysotile.


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Classification of ChrysotileHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8/DX.00-00
9.ED.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
D : Phyllosilicates with kaolinite layers composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.1.5.1

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
14.4.4

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
4 : Silicates of Mg

Physical Properties of ChrysotileHide

Silky
Colour:
Green
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale

Optical Data of ChrysotileHide

Type:
Biaxial
RI values:
nα = 1.569 nγ = 1.570
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.001
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v or r < v

Chemical Properties of ChrysotileHide

Formula:
Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
IMA Formula:
Mg3Si2O5(OH)4

Crystallography of ChrysotileHide

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
ClinochrysotileOrthochrysotileParachrysotile
   
Monoclinic Orthorhombic Orthorhombic 
2/m - Prismatic  
   
   
a = 5.3 Å, b = 9.19 Å, c = 14.63 Å
β = 93°
a = 5.34 Å, b = 9.24 Å, c = 14.2 Å
a = 5.3 Å, b = 9.24 Å, c = 14.71 Å
a:b:c = 0.577 : 1 : 1.592a:b:c = 0.578 : 1 : 1.537a:b:c = 0.574 : 1 : 1.592
V 711.61 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 700.65 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 720.38 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
4  

Type Occurrence of ChrysotileHide

Synonyms of ChrysotileHide

Other Language Names for ChrysotileHide

Varieties of ChrysotileHide

Aluminian ChrysotileAn aluminium-rich Chrysotile
ChrysotilasbestAsbestiform chrysotile.
IshkilditeA variety differing in optical properties and X-ray powder pattern, and containing excess silica.

Relationship of Chrysotile to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
Baumite(Mg,Al,Mn,Zn,Fe)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon.
CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon.
KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex.
LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Népouite(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4Orth.
PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
Group Members:

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.ED.ClinochrysotileMon. 2/m
9.ED.05DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.05NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.10HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.ED.10Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m
9.ED.15AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
9.ED.15Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex.
9.ED.15LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.
9.ED.15Népouite(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4Orth.
9.ED.15PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.20Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.
9.ED.20ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2OOrth.
9.ED.20ImogoliteAl2SiO3(OH)4
9.ED.20Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.
9.ED.25BismutoferriteFe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.25ChapmaniteFe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)Mon. m : Bm

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.1.5.1Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.
71.1.5.2HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
71.1.5.3ImogoliteAl2SiO3(OH)4
71.1.5.4Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.4.1ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.4.2EnstatiteMgSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
14.4.3ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3Mon.
14.4.5ClinochrysotileMon. 2/m
14.4.6OrthochrysotileOrth.
14.4.7ParachrysotileOrth.
14.4.8LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
14.4.9TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
14.4.10SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
14.4.11SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
14.4.12LoughliniteNa2Mg3Si6O16 · 8H2OOrth.
14.4.13EifeliteKNa3Mg4Si12O30Hex.
14.4.14Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
14.4.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
14.4.16 Magnesio-anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ChrysotileHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Whittaker, E.J.W. (1953) The structure of chrysotile. Acta Crystallographica: 6: 747-748.
Whittaker, E.J.W. (1956a) The structure of chrysotile. II. Clinochrysotile. Acta Crystallographica: 9: 855-862.
Whittaker, E.J.W. (1956b) The structure of chrysotile. III. Orthochrysotile. Acta Crystallographica: 9: 862-864.
Whittaker, E.J.W. (1956b) The structure of chrysotile. IV. Parachrysotile. Acta Crystallographica: 9: 865-867.
Yada, K. (1971) Study of microstructure of chrysotile asbestos by high-resolution electron microscope. Acta Crystallographica: 27: 659-664.
Wicks, F.J. (1979) Mineralogy, chemistry and crystallography of chrysotile asbestos. Section I, Part B. In: Mineralogical Techniques of Asbestos Determination (R.L. Ledoux, ed.). Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Handbook 4: 35-78.
Evans, Bernard W. (2004): The Serpentinite Multisystem Revisited: Chrysotile is Metastable. International Geology Review, 46, 479–506.
Ristić, M., Czakó-Nagy, I., Musić, S., & Vértes, A. (2011). Spectroscopic characterization of chrysotile asbestos from different regions. Journal of molecular structure, 993(1), 120-126.
BURKE, A.E.J. (2006): Mass discreditation of GQN minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 1557-1560.

Internet Links for ChrysotileHide

Localities for ChrysotileHide

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Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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