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Humboldtine

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About HumboldtineHide

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt
Formula:
Fe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
Colour:
Yellow to amber-yellow
Lustre:
Resinous, Dull
Hardness:
1½ - 2
Specific Gravity:
2.28
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named after Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 1769, Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia - 6 May 1859, Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia, German Confederation), naturalist, explorer and scientist.
The Fe analogue of lindbergite.

A rare authigenic organic mineral occurring on fracture surfaces in coal deposits and rarely in granitic pegmatites and hydrothermal mineral deposits.

Note that cleaning of specimens with oxalic acid may produce anthropogenic coatings of humboldtine on such specimens.

Common biomineral formed by the action of lichens (e.g., Acarospora smargdula) on Fe-rich limestones and Cu-bearing rocks (vide Burford et al., 2003).


Classification of HumboldtineHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
10.AB.05

10 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
A : Salts of organic acids
B : Oxalates
50.1.3.1

50 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1 : Oxalates
31.1.7

31 : Oxalates, Citrates, Mellitates and Acetates
1 : Oxalates

Physical Properties of HumboldtineHide

Resinous, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Yellow to amber-yellow
Hardness:
1½ - 2 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {110},perfect; on {100} and {010}, imperfect.
Density:
2.28 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.307 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HumboldtineHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.494 nβ = 1.561 nγ = 1.692
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.198
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
weak
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Very pale yellowish green
Y = Pale greenish yellow
Z = Intense yellow
Comments:
2V = Large.

Chemical Properties of HumboldtineHide

Formula:
Fe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O

Crystallography of HumboldtineHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.011(11) Å, b = 5.557(5) Å, c = 9.920(9) Å
β = 128.53(3)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.161 : 1 : 1.785
Unit Cell V:
517.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals small, rare, prismatic [001], or platy, exhibiting forms {100},{001},{110}, and {101}; commonly botryoidal incrusting masses with a fibrous to earthy internal structure; fine-granular to earthy and compact.
Comment:
Space group C2/c. Reduced cell: 9.707, 5.556, 9.921 A, 104.5°

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.80 (100)
4.70 (65)
3.880 (25)
3.597 (25)
3.004 (50)
2.654 (30)
2.616 (25)

Type Occurrence of HumboldtineHide

Synonyms of HumboldtineHide

Other Language Names for HumboldtineHide

Relationship of Humboldtine to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
LindbergiteMn2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Humboldtine)Zn(C2O4) · 2H2O

Common AssociatesHide

CassiteriteSnO2
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
QuartzSiO2
TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Moolooite6 photos of Humboldtine associated with Moolooite on mindat.org.
Analcime6 photos of Humboldtine associated with Analcime on mindat.org.
Copper6 photos of Humboldtine associated with Copper on mindat.org.
Malachite6 photos of Humboldtine associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Jarosite2 photos of Humboldtine associated with Jarosite on mindat.org.
Quartz2 photos of Humboldtine associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Mellite1 photo of Humboldtine associated with Mellite on mindat.org.
Chlorite Group1 photo of Humboldtine associated with Chlorite Group on mindat.org.
Feldspar Group1 photo of Humboldtine associated with Feldspar Group on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

10.AB.05LindbergiteMn2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.10GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
10.AB.15MoolooiteCu(C2O4) · 0.4H2OOrth.
10.AB.20StepanoviteNaMgFe3+(C2O4)3 · 8-9H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
10.AB.25MinguzziteK3Fe3+(C2O4)3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.30WheatleyiteNa2Cu(C2O4)2 · 2H2OTric.
10.AB.35ZhemchuzhnikoviteNaMgAl(C2O4)3 · 8H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
10.AB.40WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2OTet. 4/m : I4/m
10.AB.45WhewelliteCa(C2O4) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.50CaoxiteCa(C2O4) · 3H2OTric.
10.AB.55Oxammite(NH4)2(C2O4) · H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
10.AB.60NatroxalateNa2(C2O4)Mon.
10.AB.65Coskrenite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)2(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OTric.
10.AB.70Levinsonite-(Y)(Y,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.75Zugshunstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OMon.
10.AB.80NovgorodovaiteCa2(C2O4)Cl2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

50.1.3.2GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

31.1.1Oxammite(NH4)2(C2O4) · H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
31.1.2MoolooiteCu(C2O4) · 0.4H2OOrth.
31.1.3WheatleyiteNa2Cu(C2O4)2 · 2H2OTric.
31.1.4GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
31.1.5WhewelliteCa(C2O4) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
31.1.6WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2OTet. 4/m : I4/m
31.1.8StepanoviteNaMgFe3+(C2O4)3 · 8-9H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
31.1.9ZhemchuzhnikoviteNaMgAl(C2O4)3 · 8H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
31.1.10MinguzziteK3Fe3+(C2O4)3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HumboldtineHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Breithaupt, A. (1820) Kurze Charakteristik des Mineral-System’s. 8vo, Freiberg: 75 (as Faserresin).
de Rivero, M. (1821) Note sur une combinaison de l'acide oxalique avec le fer trouvé à Kolowserux, près Belin en Bohéme. Annales de Chimie et de Physique: 18: 207-210. (as Humboldtine and Oxalsaures Eisen)
Breithaupt, A. (1822) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 70: 426 (as Eisen-Resin).
Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed. (as Oxalit).
Leonhard, K.C. (1826) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. Heidelberg. second edition: 789 (as Humboldtit).
Manasse (1910) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rend., Rome: 19: 138.
Manasse (1912) Mem. Soc. Tosc.: 28: 118.
Hintze, C. (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 1346.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1102-1103.
Mazzi, F., Garavelli, C. (1957) La struttura della oxalite: FeC2O4 •2H2O. Periodico di Mineralogia: 26: 269-303. (in Italian with English abstract).
Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie (1959): 50.
National Bureau of Standards Mono. (1972): 25, 10, 24.
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M., Gadd, G.M. (2003) Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist: 17(3): 98-107; DOI: 10.1017/S0269915X03003112
Frost, R.L., Weier, M.L. (2003) Raman spectroscopy of natural oxalates at 298 and 77 K. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 34: 776-785.
Echigo, T., Kimata, M. (2008) Single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic studies on humboldtine and lindbergite: weak Jahn–Teller effect of Fe2+ ion. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 35: 467-475.
Echigo, T., Kimata, M. (2010) Crystal chemistry and genesis of organic minerals: A review of oxalate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 48: 1329-1358.

Internet Links for HumboldtineHide

Localities for HumboldtineHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Klein-Pöchlarn
        • Ebersdorf (Lehen-Ebersdorf)
Kolitsch, U. (2016): 1978) Hydrothermal gebildeter Humboldtin von Ebersdorf, Waldviertel, Niederösterreich. Pp. 225-226 in Walter, F. et al. (2016): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXV. Carinthia II, 206./126., 203-250.
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Kaprun valley
        • Kaprun
Kolitsch, U. & Brandstätter, F. (2012): 1750) Anglesit, Apatit, Azurit, Fayalit, Humboldtin, Laihunit, Magnetit, Vonsenit und eine Cu-S-Si-O-H-Phase aus einer Kupferschlacke vom Lechnerberg bei Kaprun, Salzburg. Pp. 153-155 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2012): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXI. Carinthia II, 202./122., 123-180.
      • Rauris valley
        • Hüttwinkl valley
          • Grieswies - Krumlkeeskopf area
            • Grieswies-Schafkar
peter neschen collection; Kolitsch (2015); Kolitsch, U. (2015): 1929) Humboldtin und eine ungewöhnliche, aus Calcit bestehende Pseudomorphose vom Erfurter Weg, Grieswies-Schafkar, Rauris, Salzburg. P. 236 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2015): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXIV. Carinthia II, 205./125., 207-280.
Kolitsch, U. & Putz, H. (2016): 1974) Humboldtin vom Kaisererbruch, Raurisertal, Hohe Tauern, Salzburg. Pp. 221-222 in Walter, F. et al. (2016): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXV. Carinthia II, 206./126., 203-250.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Coronel Murta
Sergio Varvello collection; Stephan Wolfsried collection
Matioli PA, Atencio DM, Coutinho JMV, Menezes Filho LAD (1997): Humboldtina de Santa Maria de Itabira, Minas Gerais, primeira ocorrência brasileira e primeira ocorrência mundial em fraturas de pegmatito. Anais Acad. Bras. Cien. 69, 431-432.; Rolando and Bruno Gioia collection
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Lambton Co.
      • Bosanquet Township
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1103.
  • Québec
    • Montréal
TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
Colombia
 
John Rakovan--see photo 875255; https://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,9,446817,446817#msg-446817
Czech Republic
 
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Sokolov (Falkenau an der Eger)
  • Ústí Region
    • Bílina (Bilin)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1103.
    • Kadaň (Kaaden)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1103; Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
    • Most
Mariano de Rivero, M. (1821): Note sur une combinaison de l'acide oxalique avec le fer trouvé à Kolowserux , près Belir en Bohême. Annal. Chim. Phys., Paris, XVIII, 207-211 (cited also in Karl Friedrich Rammelsberg: Handwörterbuch des chemischen Theils der Mineralogie); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1103; NBS Mon. 10 (1972), 24.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Offenburg
Walenta, K. (2003): Oxalatmineralien aus dem Schwarzwald. Erzgräber 17, 9-16. (in German)
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Spessart
        • Hösbach
          • Sailauf
            • Hartkoppe
No reference listed
            • Rehberg
Lorenz, J. (2006): Die Achate aus dem Rhyolith vom Rehberg bei Sailauf im Spessart. Lapis 31 (6), 13-20; 70.
  • Hesse
    • Großalmerode
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1103; S. Weiss: Mineralfundstellen Deutschland West, Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1103.
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Hungary
 
  • Fejér Co.
    • Bicske-Zsámbéki Basin
      • Bicske-Csordakút
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
Italy
 
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antigorio Valley
          • Devero Valley
            • Baceno
              • Devero Alp
A.Guastoni, P.Gentile, F.Nestola, F.Soldani, F.Zorzi (2015): Humboldtina e Whewellite: due nuovi ossalati per il Monte Cervandone, valle Devero (VB). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 04-2015, 252-256.
  • Trentino-South Tyrol
    • Trento
      • Valsugana
        • Vignola-Falesina
Infrared Spectroscopy at Zannato Museum of Montecchio Maggiore, Vicenza; M. Boscardin, personal communication, in Guastoni A., Gentile P., Nestola F., Soldani V., Zorzi F. (2015): Humboldtina e whewellite: due nuovi ossalati per il Monte Cervandone, valle Devero (VB). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 39, 4 (4-2015), 252-256.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Capoliveri
          • Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine)
Garavelli C.L. (1955): Ritrovamento di oxalite tra i minerali secondari del giacimento di Capo Calamita – Rend. Soc. Miner. Ital., 11, 176-181.
        • Porto Azzurro
Manasse E. (1910): Oxalite di Capo d'Arco (Isola d'Elba). Atti R. Acc. Lincei, Rend., ser. 5, 19, 2, 138-145.
Madagascar
Chukanov, N. V. (2014): Infrared spectra of mineral species. Extended library. Vol. 1. Springer: Dordrect, 2014. p. 205
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Camborne
        • Killivose
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Greenhorn Mts
        • Greenhorn District (Greenhorn Mountains District)
          • Alta Sierra
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
  • Michigan
    • Keweenaw Co.
      • Ahmeek
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineral and/or Locality  
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