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Itoite

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About ItoiteHide

Tei-Ichi Ito
Formula:
Pb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2
Colour:
White
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Silky
Specific Gravity:
6.67 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1960 by Clifford Frondel and Hugo Strunz in honor of Tei-Ichi Ito (27 September 1898, Osaka, Japan - 10 October 1980), professor of mineralogy and crystallography at Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan. He made significant advances in the area of X-ray diffraction and worked out the structures of a large number of minerals. He was awarded the Roebling Medal in 1968.
Isostructural with:
Frondel and Strunz noted a similarity in structure with itoite and the baryte group and a slight relationship to roeblingite and indexed the powder pattern on an orthorhombic cell. The identity of itoite was once questioned: "Itoit ist damit keine homogene Phase und als Mineral zu streichen. Itoit ist ein pseudomorphes Umwandlungsprodukt nach Fleischerit und enthält neben Anglesit mindestens eine weitere Phase." (Otto, 1975). However, itoite is supposed to be a fine-grained replacement of fleischerite, as described.


Classification of ItoiteHide

Approved
First Published:
1960
7.BD.50

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
30.2.6.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
25.7.10

25 : Sulphates
7 : Sulphates of Pb

Physical Properties of ItoiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Silky
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
White
Streak:
White
Tenacity:
Brittle
Density:
6.67 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ItoiteHide

Type:
Biaxial
RI values:
n = 1.84 - 1.85
Birefringence:
0.010
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
Crystals are cloudy compared with transparent fleischerite. It is significant the the refractive indices of itoite are very very much higher than fleischerite. Type material from Harvard is supposedly a mixture of itoite and fleischerite (Carl Francis, pe

Chemical Properties of ItoiteHide

Formula:
Pb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2
IMA Formula:
Pb3GeO2(SO4)2(OH)2

Crystallography of ItoiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Setting:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.47 Å, b = 5.38 Å, c = 6.94 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.574 : 1 : 1.29
Unit Cell V:
316.25 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Acicular
Comment:
Analogous to anglesite

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.240 (80)
3.794 (60)
3.604 (60)
3.326 (90)
3.209 (70)
3.003 (90)
2.755 (60)
2.691 (60)
2.065 (100)
2.027 (80)
Comments:
The x-ray pattern of itoite is virtually indistinguishable from that of fleischerite that has been heated to 300°C suggesting a transformation of structure. Frondel and Strunz reported 7 minor d-values in the itoite pattern that were not present in the heated fleischerite d-value data set.

Type Occurrence of ItoiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
White acicular crystals
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidation zone of a germanium-bearing Cu, and As-rich polymetallic ore deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Frondel, Clifford and Strunz, Hugo (1960) Fleischerit und Itoite, zwei neue Germanium-Mineralien von Tsumeb. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1960: 132-142.

Other Language Names for ItoiteHide

German:Itoit
Spanish:Itoita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Fleischerite2 photos of Itoite associated with Fleischerite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BD.05SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
7.BD.05SulfohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
7.BD.10GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4ClTrig.
7.BD.10SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.BD.15KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)FMon.
7.BD.20CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3ClMon.
7.BD.20CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex.
7.BD.20AiolositeNa4Bi(SO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
7.BD.25BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2Orth.
7.BD.30HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
7.BD.35CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.BD.40LanarkitePb2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BD.45GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2Mon. 2/m
7.BD.55ChiluiteBi3Te6+Mo6+O10.5Hex.
7.BD.60HectorfloresiteNa9(SO4)4(IO3)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.BD.65PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10Orth. 2 2 2 : F2 2 2
7.BD.70SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.7.1SchaurteiteCa3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.7.2Zircosulfate(Zr,Ti)(SO4)2 · 4H2OOrth.
25.7.3AnglesitePbSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.7.4LanarkitePb2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.7.5Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.6LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
25.7.7ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2OMon. 2/m
25.7.8ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
25.7.9OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.11FleischeritePb3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.7.12Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.13PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Fluorescence of ItoiteHide

Not fluorescent in UV; fluoresces rose-violet in x-rays

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ItoiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Frondel, Clifford and Ito, Tei-Ichi (1957) The geochemistry of germanium in the oxidized zone of the Tsumeb Mine, South West Africa. American Mineralogist: 42: 743-653.
Frondel, Clifford and Strunz, Hugo (1960) Fleischerit und Itoite, zwei neue Germanium-Mineralien von Tsumeb. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1960: 132-142.
Fleischer, Michael (1960) Fleischerite, Itoite, New Mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 45: 1313.
Otto, H.H. (1975) Die Kristallstruktur von Fleischerit, Pb3Ge[(OH)6|(SO4)2]•3H2O, sowie kristallchemische Untersuchungen an isotypen Verbindungen. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen: 123: 160-190 (in German with English abs.).

Internet Links for ItoiteHide

Localities for ItoiteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Namibia (TL)
 
  • Oshikoto Region (Otjikoto Region)
    • Tsumeb
Neues Jahrb.Min.,Mh.(1960) 132-142
Mineral and/or Locality  
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