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Rhönite

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About RhöniteHide

View on the Rhön mountains

Rhön, Fulda, Hesse, Germany
Formula:
Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|(Si,Al)6O18]
Colour:
Brown-red, black to reddish black
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
3.4 - 3.76
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
Named for the type locality in the Rhön Mountains, near Fulda, Hesse, Germany.
Rhönite Group.

Ti3+-bearing member, one of 3 currently known phases with essential trivalent titanium by tistarite and grossmanite, is known from Allende meteorite ('UM1971-21-SiO:AlCaMgTi').


Classification of RhöniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1907
9.DH.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
H : Inosilicates with 4-periodic single chains, Si4O12
69.2.1a.5

69 : INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
2 : Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
16.14.3

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
14 : Aluminosilicates of Ti, Zr, Sn and Pb

Physical Properties of RhöniteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Metallic
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Brown-red, black to reddish black
Streak:
reddish brown
Hardness:
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{010}, {001}
Density:
3.4 - 3.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of RhöniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.795 - 1.810 nβ = 1.806 - 1.825 nγ = 1.830 - 1.845
2V:
Measured: 50° to 90°, Calculated: 70° to 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v extreme
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X = dark greenish brown, red-brown; Y = dark reddish to greenish brown; Z = dark reddish brown to black

Chemical Properties of RhöniteHide

Formula:
Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Ti)6[O2|(Si,Al)6O18]
IMA Formula:
Ca4[Mg8Fe3+2Ti2]O4[Si6Al6O36]

Crystallography of RhöniteHide

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Rhönite-8Å
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.947 (100)
2.783 (31)
2.691 (65)
2.550 (69)
2.092 (56)
1.991 (25)
1.498 (38)

Type Occurrence of RhöniteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
nepheline basanite

Synonyms of RhöniteHide

Other Language Names for RhöniteHide

Relationship of Rhönite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe3+9)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)Tric.
HøgtuvaiteCa4[Fe2+6Fe3+6]O4[Si8Be2Al2O36]Tric. 1 : P1
LeucorhöniteCa2(Mg,Fe3+,Al)6(Si,Al)6O20Tric.
Makarochkinite(Ca,Na)2Fe2+4Fe3+Ti[O2|BeAlSi4O18]Tric. 1 : P1
SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
WelshiteCa4Mg9Sb3O4[Si6Be3AlFe2O36]Tric. 1 : P1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hematite5 photos of Rhönite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Amphibole Supergroup2 photos of Rhönite associated with Amphibole Supergroup on mindat.org.
Pyroxene Group1 photo of Rhönite associated with Pyroxene Group on mindat.org.
Erionite1 photo of Rhönite associated with Erionite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DH.05LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6FOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
9.DH.10OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2OMon.
9.DH.15HaradaiteSrVSi2O7Orth.
9.DH.15SuzukiiteBaVSi2O7Orth.
9.DH.20BatisiteBaNaNaTi2(Si4O12)O2Orth.
9.DH.20Shcherbakovite(K,Ba)KNa(Ti,Nb)2(Si4O12)O2Orth.
9.DH.25TaikaniteSr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2Mon.
9.DH.30KrauskopfiteBaSi2O5 · 3H2OMon.
9.DH.35Balangeroite(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+)42Si16O54(OH)40Mon.
9.DH.35GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20Mon. 2/m
9.DH.40AenigmatiteNa4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe3+9)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)Tric.
9.DH.40HøgtuvaiteCa4[Fe2+6Fe3+6]O4[Si8Be2Al2O36]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40KrinoviteNa2Mg4Cr3+2(Si6O18)O2Tric.
9.DH.40Makarochkinite(Ca,Na)2Fe2+4Fe3+Ti[O2|BeAlSi4O18]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40WelshiteCa4Mg9Sb3O4[Si6Be3AlFe2O36]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.40WilkinsoniteNa2Fe2+4Fe3+2(Si6O18)O2Tric. 1 : P1
9.DH.45SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DH.50Khmaralite(Mg,Al,Fe)16[(Al,Si,Be)12O36]O4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DH.55Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16Mon.
9.DH.60Deerite(Fe,Mn)6(Fe,Al)3[Si6O17]O3(OH)5Mon.
9.DH.65HowieiteNa(Fe,Mn)10(Fe,Al)2Si12O31(OH)13Tric.
9.DH.65Taneyamalite(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)12Si12(O,OH)44Tric.
9.DH.70JohninnesiteNa2Mn2+9Mg7(OH)8[AsO4]2[Si6O17]2Tric.
9.DH.75AgrelliteNaCa2Si4O10FTric.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

69.2.1a.1AenigmatiteNa4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]Tric. 1 : P1
69.2.1a.2DorriteCa4(Mg3Fe3+9)O4(Si3Al8Fe3+O36)Tric.
69.2.1a.3HøgtuvaiteCa4[Fe2+6Fe3+6]O4[Si8Be2Al2O36]Tric. 1 : P1
69.2.1a.4KrinoviteNa2Mg4Cr3+2(Si6O18)O2Tric.
69.2.1a.6SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
69.2.1a.7WelshiteCa4Mg9Sb3O4[Si6Be3AlFe2O36]Tric. 1 : P1
69.2.1a.8WilkinsoniteNa2Fe2+4Fe3+2(Si6O18)O2Tric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.14.1ZoriteNa8(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 14H2OOrth.
16.14.2VinogradoviteNa4Ti4(Si2O6)2[(Si,Al)4O10]O4 · (H2O,Na,K)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
16.14.4Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2 Mon.
16.14.5Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe2+3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2Mon.
16.14.6JonesiteBa4(K,Na)2Ti4Al2(Si3O9)2(SiO4)4O2 · 6H2OOrth.
16.14.7Lourenswalsite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Mg,Ca,Fe)4(Si,Al,Fe)6O14(OH)12Hex.
16.14.8Labuntsovite-MnNa4K4(Ba,K)2Mn2+(Ti,Nb)8(Si4O12)4(O,OH)8 · 10-12H2OMon.
16.14.9KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
16.14.10EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10Hex.
16.14.11Carlosturanite(Mg,Fe,Ti)21(Si,Al)12O28(OH)34•H2OMon.
16.14.12EakeriteCa2SnAl2Si6O18(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.
16.14.13PlumalsitePb4Al2(SiO3)7
16.14.14WickenburgiteCaPb3Al2Si10O24(OH)6Trig. 3m : P3 1c
16.14.15MaricopaitePb7Ca2(Si,Al)48O100 · 32H2OOrth.
16.14.16Hancockite{CaPb}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
16.14.17BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
16.14.18MathewrogersitePb7FeAl3GeSi12O36(OH,H2O)6Trig.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RhöniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Soellner, J. (1907) Über Rhönit, ein neues änigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage: 24: 1-57.
Lacroix, M.A. (1909) Not sur la rhönite du Puy de Barneire a Saint-Sandoux. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie: 32: 325-331.
Tomita, T. (1934) On kaersutite from Dogo, Oki Islands, Japan, and its magmatic altration and resorption. Journal of the Shanghai Science Institute Section 2: 1: 99-136.
Ramdohr, P. (1937) Erzmikroskopische untersuchungen an einigen seltenen oder bisher wenig beachteten erzmineralien, Teil 2. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie Abteilung A: 289-303.
Yagi, K. (1953) Petrochemical studies on the alkalic rocks of the Morotu District, Sakhalin. Geological Society of America Bulletin: 64: 769-810.
Ficke, B. (1961) Petrologische untersuchungen an tertiaren basaltischen bis phonolithischen vulkaniten der Rhön. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, Ser 3: 7: 337-436.
Babkine, J.F., Conquere, F., Vilminot, J.C., Duong, P.K. (1964) Sur un nouveau gaisment de rhönite. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, Ser D: 258: 5479-5481.
Cameron, K.L. (1970) Rhönite from Big Bend National Park, Texas. American Mineralogist: 55: 864-874.
Stout, J.H., Johnston, A.D. (1985) Compositional variation of naturally occurring rhoenite. American Mineralogist: 70: 1211-1216.
Bonaccorsi, E., Merlino, S., Pasero, M. (1990) Rhönite: structural and microstructural features, crystal chemistry and polysomatic relationships. European Journal of Mineralogy: 2: 203-218.
Jambor, J.L., Puziewicz, J. (1991) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 76: 665-671.
Burt, D.M. (1994) Vector representation of some mineral compositions in the aenigmatite group, with special reference to hogtuvaite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 32: 449-457.
Jensen, B.B. (1996) Solid solution among members of the aenigmatite group. Mineralogical Magazine: 60: 982-986.
Kunzmann, T. (1999) The aenigmatite-rhönite mineral group. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 743-756.
Grew, E.S., Hålenius, U., Pasero, M., Barbier, J. (2008) Recommended nomenclature for the sapphirine and surinamite group (sapphirine supergroup). Mineralogical Magazine: 72: 839-876.
Treiman, A.H. (2008) Rhönite in Luna 24 pyroxenes: First find from the Moon, and implications for volatiles in planetary magmas. American Mineralogist: 93: 488-491.

Internet Links for RhöniteHide

Localities for RhöniteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Béchar Province
    • Béchar
Kuehner, S. M. & Irving, A. J. (2007) Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #P41A-0219. (Dec 2007)
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Ross Island
Am Min 60:722-725
  • Western Antarctica
    • Marie Byrd Land
      • Executive Committee Range
R.H. Grapes et al. , Mineralogical Magazine , August 2003, Vol. 67, N°4, pp. 639-651.
Argentina
 
  • Buenos Aires
    • Coronel Suaréz
      • D'Orbigny
Jambon, A. & Boudouma, O. (2011). Evidence for Rhönite in Angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555: 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Supplement, id.5167. (Sept 2011)
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Dorset municipality
      • Scottsdale district
        • West Scottsdale
http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
Cape Verde
 
  • Barlavento Islands
De Ignacio, C., Muñoz, M., & Sagredo, J. (2012). Carbonatites and associated nephelinites from Sao Vicente, Cape Verde Islands. Mineralogical magazine, 76(2), 311-355.
Denmark
 
  • Greenland
    • Northeast Greenland National Park
http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/green.htm
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Ardèche
      • Privas
        • Alissas
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 450-464.
        • Freyssenet
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 450-464.
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Besse-et-Saint-Anastaise
        • Murol
Queneau Patrice collection
hède
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Stuttgart
      • Ostfildern
Walenta, K. (1960) Jber. u. Mitt. oberrh. geol. Ver. Vol 42 (1960): 23-53
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
Soellner, J. (1907): Über Rhönit, ein neues änigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage, 24, 1-57.
    • Vogelsberg
      • Schotten
        • Gonterskirchen
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler
      • Brohltal
        • Wassenach
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
Soellner, J. (1907): Über Rhönit, ein neues aenigmatitähnliches Mineral und über das Vorkommen desselben in basaltischen Gesteinen, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie, Beilage, Vol. 24, 1-57
      • Kelberg
        • Drees
Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
[Hentschel, G., Seltene Minerale in Calcium-reichen Auswürflingen vom Bellerberg bei Mayen/Eifel, Aufschluß 29, 77-83, 1978] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
      • Polch
        • Ochtendung
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Lapis 1988(7+8), 70-72
    • Mayen-Koblenz
      • Andernach
        • Kruft
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
        • Nickenich
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
    • Vulkaneifel
      • Daun
        • Oberstadtfeld
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Üdersdorf
Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
Hungary
 
  • Nógrád Co.
    • Karancs-Medves Mts
      • Bárna
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
      • Salgótarján
EGU / EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held in Nice, France, 6 - 11 April 2003, abstract #748 "Silicate melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Hegyestu (Bakony-Balaton Highland) and Pecsko alkaline basalts (Nograd-Gomor), Hungary"
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Balaton Uplands
      • Zánka
XVI ECROFI European Current Research On Fluid Inclusions, Porto 2001, Abstracts (Eds F. Noronha, A. Dória and A. Guedes), Faculdade de Ciências do Porto, Departamento de Geologia, Memória nº 7, pp. 237-240. Porto, 2001
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
http://perso.club-internet.fr/rivierec/decembre_-_novembre_2001.htm.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku region
      • Shimane Prefecture
Monkawa et al. (2002) Abstract of the Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Japan, 65.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Pavlodar
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
American Mineralogist (1971): 56: 2053.
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Er Rachidia Province (Errachidia Province)
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.P41A0219K (as rhönite); http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2014/pdf/1818.pdf; Kuehner, S. M. & Irving, A. J. (2007) Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abs. #P41A-0219. (Dec 2007)
New Zealand
 
  • South Island
    • Otago Region
      • Dunedin City
Kyle, P.R., Price, R.C. (1975) Occurrences of Rhönite in Alkalic Lavas of the McMurdo Volccanic Group, Antarctica, and Dundedin Volcano, New Zealand. American Mineralogist, 60: 722-725.
Northwest Africa Meteorites
 
Mikouchi, T., McKay G., Koizumi E., Monkawa, A. & Miyamoto, M. (2003) Northwest Africa 1670: A new quenched angrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38(7,Suppl.): A115.
Russia
 
  • Kamchatka Krai
    • Klyuchevskiy volcano (Klyuchevskaya)
Anan’ev, V. V., & Selyangin, O. B. (2011). Rhonite in molten inclusions from the olivine of allivalite nodules from Malyi Semyachik Volcano and basalts of Klyuchevskoi Volcano, Kamchatka. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 5(5), 335-340.
Anan’ev, V. V., & Selyangin, O. B. (2011). Rhonite in molten inclusions from the olivine of allivalite nodules from Malyi Semyachik Volcano and basalts of Klyuchevskoi Volcano, Kamchatka. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 5(5), 335-340.
6th orogenic lherzolite conference 2014 Morocco
Sahara Desert
 
Jambon, A. & Boudouma, O. (2011). Evidence for Rhönite in Angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555: 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Supplement, id.5167. (Sept 2011)
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Lučenec Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    • Rimavská Sobota Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
Spain
 
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Gran Canaria (Grand Canary)
        • Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Analyzed by XRD by Dr. Joan Vinals (Barcelona)- Col. Agustin Agudo Espinosa
USA
 
  • Hawaii
    • Kauai Co.
AmMin 69:57
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
      • Big Bend National Park
Am Min 55:5-6 pp 864-874
Zimbabwe
 
  • Matabeleland South
    • Beitbridge District
Kopylova, M.G., Gurney, J.J., and Daniels, L.R.M. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 129, 366-384.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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