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About SchapbachiteHide

Pb is necessary for the stabilisation of the cubic structure of schapbachite.
Dark grey
3 - 4
Crystal System:
Named in 1853 by Gustav Adolph Kenngott after the locality where it was originally thought to have existed as a species: Schapbach, Schwarzwald, Baden, Germany. First discredited in 1863 by F. Sandberger as a mixture of bismuthite, argentite, and galena. (Matildite was not named until 1883 by Antonio D'Achiardi.) The original schapbachite specimens were later re-analyzed and found to be a mixture of galena and matildite (Ramdohr, 1936). Hey (1982) reported that schapbachite (of Kenngott) was discredited by vote of the IMA. Schapbachite was re-used in 2004 by Kurt Walenta, H. J. Burnhardt, and T. Theye, although schapbachite did not occur at Schapbach. Pre-2004 reports of "schapbachite" have to be evaluated on the data provided.
Dimorph of:
Note: many specimens originally described as "schapbachite (of Kenngott)" are in fact matildite with or without admixture of galena. Modern verification of any specimen with this designation is required.

Classification of SchapbachiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval Year:

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
2 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Ag

Physical Properties of SchapbachiteHide

Dark grey
3 - 4 on Mohs scale

Optical Data of SchapbachiteHide


Chemical Properties of SchapbachiteHide


Pb is necessary for the stabilisation of the cubic structure of schapbachite.
IMA Formula:

Crystallography of SchapbachiteHide

Crystal System:

Type Occurrence of SchapbachiteHide

Other Language Names for SchapbachiteHide

Simplified Chinese:硫铅铋银矿

Relationship of Schapbachite to other SpeciesHide

Structurally related to group(s):

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz1 photo of Schapbachite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.JA.05eBenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aCupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5 Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05iLivingstoniteHgSb4S6(S2)Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.JA.05dMakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9Mon. 2/m
2.JA.05aPavoniteAgBi3S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05bGrumipluciteHgBi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05cKudriavite(Cd,Pb)Bi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aCupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05DantopaiteAg5Bi13S22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10aCuprobismutiteCu8AgBi13S24Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10dPizgrischite(Cu,Fe)Cu14PbBi17S35Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10bKupčíkiteCu3.4Fe0.6Bi5S10Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.15CuboargyriteAgSbS2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.JA.20BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.JA.20MatilditeAgBiS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.2.1SmithiteAgAsS2Mon. 2/m
5.2.3ProustiteAg3AsS3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.2.4XanthoconiteAg3AsS3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.2.5Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.6Pearceite-T2acTrig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
5.2.7ArgentotennantiteAg6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12SIso. 4 3m : I4 3m
5.2.8MiargyriteAgSbS2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.2.9PyrargyriteAg3SbS3Trig. 3m : R3c
5.2.10PyrostilpniteAg3SbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.2.11StephaniteAg5SbS4Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
5.2.12Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.2.13BillingsleyiteAg7AsS6Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
5.2.14Polybasite-TacTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.15Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
5.2.16AramayoiteAg3Sb2(Bi,Sb)S6Tric. 1 : P1
5.2.17MatilditeAgBiS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.19PavoniteAgBi3S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.2.21BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.23Benleonardite[Ag6(Sb,As)2S6Te] [Ag9Cu(S,Te)2Te2]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SchapbachiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sandberger, F. (1863) Jahresbuch fur Mineralogie, p. 797.
Sandberger, F. (1882): Untersuch. Erzgadhge, 1, 90.
Ramdohr, P. (1936): Fortschr. Min. Krist. 20,56.
American Mineralogist (1951): 36: 436.
Acta Crystallographica (1959): 12:46.
American Mineralogist (1975): 60: 621.
Ramdohr, P. (1980) The Ore Minerals and their Intergrowths, 2nd edition: 665.
Hey, Max H. (1982) Mineralogical Magazine, 46, 513-514 [redefinition].
Walenta, K.; Bernhardt, H.-J. & Theye, T. (2004) Cubic AgBiS2 (schapbachite) from the Silberbrünnle mine near Gengenbach in the Central Black Forest, Germany. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 2004, 425-432.
Moëlo, Y., Makovicky, E., Mozgova, N.N., Jambor, J.L., Cook, N., Pring, A., Paar, W., Nickel, E.H., Graeser, S., Karup-Møller, S.; Balić-Žunić, T.; Mumme, W.G., Vurro, F., Topa, D., Bindi, L., Bente, K., Shimizu, M. (2008) Sulfosalt systematics: a review. Report of the sulfosalt sub-committee of the IMA Commission on Ore Mineralogy. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20, 7-46.
Staude, S., Dorn, A., Pfaff, K., Markl, G. (2010): Assemblages of Ag-Bi sulfosalts and conditions of their formation: The type locality of schapbachite (Ag0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4S) and neighboring mines in the Schwarzwald ore district, southern Germany. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 441-466.

Internet Links for SchapbachiteHide

Localities for SchapbachiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Imst - Nassereith District
        • Nassereith
          • Heiterwand
Wetzenstein, W. (1972): Die Mineralparagenesen der Blei-Zinkerzlagerstätten St. Veit (Heiterwandgebiet, östliche Lechtaler Alpen, Tirol). Verh. Geol. B.-A., 1972/2, 288-298.
  • Pernik Province
    • Trun Obshtina
      • Trun (Tran)
- I. Kostov, V. Breskovska, J. Mincheva-Stefanova, G. Kirov (1964): Minerals of Bulgaria. Sofia, Bulgaria, 540 pp. (in Bulgarian).
  • Sofia City Province
    • Botevgrad
Kostov et al.(1964):Minerals of Bulgaria
  • Arica and Parinacota
    • Parinacota Province
      • Ticnamar area
Econ Geol (1991) 86:1206-1221
  • Jilin
    • Yanbian Chaoxianzu
      • Longjing Co.
Hongyuan Xu (2012): Gold Science and Technology 20(1), 46-49
  • Central Finland
    • Pihtipudas
      • Kanalanmäki area
        • Säkkärämäki
Novoselov, K., Belogub, E., Kotlyarov, V., Mikhailov, A. (2015): Ore mineralogy and formation conditions of the Pirunkoukku gold occurrence (Finland). European Journal of Mineralogy: 27(5): 639-649
  • Satakunta
    • Eurajoki
Pere Tuomas (2009) Fault-related local phenomena in the bedrock of Olkiluoto with particular Reference to Fault Zone. OL-BFZ100 Posiva Working Report 2009-125
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Langeac
        • Barlet
P.G. Pélisson : "Etude Minéralogique et Métallogénique du District Filonien Polytype de Paulhaguet (Haute-Loire, Massif Central Français)", Doctorate Thesis, Orléans, France, 1989
Germany (TL)
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Gengenbach
        • Haigerach valley
Walenta, K., Bernhardt, H.J., Theye, T. (2004): Cubic AgBiS2 (schapbachite) from the Silberbrünnle mine near Gengenbach in the Central Black Forest, Germany. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Monatshefte, 2004, 425-432; Staude, S., Dorn, A., Pfaff, K., & Markl, G. (2010). Assemblages of Ag–Bi sulfosalts and conditions of their formation: the type locality of schapbachite (Ag0. 4Pb0. 2Bi0. 4S) and neighboring mines in the Schwarzwald ore district, southern Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 48(3), 441-466.
Kenngott 1853
      • St Blasien
        • Urberg
Steen, H. (2013) Bergbau auf Lagerstätten des Südlichen Schwarzwaldes: Ein Beitrag zur Bergbaugeschichte und Lagerstättenkunde zwischen Dreisamtal und Hochrhein.
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Bavaria
      • Regen
        • Bodenmais
Obermüller, T., (1993): Der Silberberg bei Bodenmais/Bayer. Wald, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 44, 201-224
    • Upper Palatinate
Dill, H. G., & Weber, B. (2010). Accessory minerals of fluorite and their implication regarding the environment of formation (Nabburg–Wölsendorf fluorite district, SE Germany), with special reference to fetid fluorite (“Stinkspat”). Ore Geology Reviews, 37(2), 65-86.
  • Brandenburg
Kopp, J. C., Spieth, V., & Bernhardt, H. J. (2012). Precious metals and selenides mineralisation in the copper-silver deposit Spremberg-Graustein, Niederlausitz, SE-Germany [Edelmetall-und Selenerze in der Kupfer-Silber-Lagerstätte Spremberg-Graustein, Niederlausitz, SE-Deutschland]. Zeitschrift der deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 163(4), 361-384.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Mocheni Valley
        • Pergine Valsugana
Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
New Zealand
  • Tasman Region
    • Aorere Goldfield
Rabone, S.D.C. (1977) Molybdenum-base metal-bismuth mineralisation at Eliot Creek, Karamea Bend, and Taipo Spur, North-west Nelson, New Zealand. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Huancavelica
    • Angaraes Province
      • Julcani District
B. Duval, Y. Moëlo and P. Picot, Bull. Minéral. , 1986, 109, pp. 649-655.
  • Sakhalin Oblast
    • Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands)
      • Kunashir Island
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
      • Švedlár (Schwedler)
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
  • Sughd
    • Kuraminskii Range
      • Altyn-Topkan ore field
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
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