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Scheelite

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Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Formula:
Ca(WO4)
Colour:
Tan, golden-yellow, colourless, white, greenish, dark brown, etc.; colourless in transmitted light
Lustre:
Adamantine, Vitreous
Hardness:
4½ - 5
Specific Gravity:
6.1
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1821 by Karl Caesar von Leonhard in honor of Carl Wilhelm Scheele [December 9, 1742, Stralsund, Pomerania, Sweden - May 21, 1786, Köping, Sweden], Swedish experimental chemist and commercial apothecary. His experimental work was monumental for the time period and he discovered chlorine and experimented with oxygen before Joseph Priestley recognized it as an element. He investigated many fundamentally important organic compounds. He proved the existence of tungstic oxide in the mineral now bearing his name in 1781.
Isostructural with:
Powellite-Scheelite Series.

A primary mineral commonly found as a component of contact-metamorphic tactite; in high-temperature hydrothermal veins and greisen; in granitic pegmatites and medium-temperature hydrothermal veins; in alluvial deposits.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Scheelite.


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Classification of ScheeliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.GA.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
G : Molybdates, Wolframates and Niobates
A : Without additional anions or H2O
48.1.2.1

48 : ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
1 : AXO4
27.4.2

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
4 : Tungstates

Physical Properties of ScheeliteHide

Adamantine, Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Opaque
Colour:
Tan, golden-yellow, colourless, white, greenish, dark brown, etc.; colourless in transmitted light
Comment:
May be compositionally colour zoned.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
4½ - 5 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on {101}, interrupted on {112}, indistinct on {001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
6.1(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    6.09 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ScheeliteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.918 - 1.921 nε = 1.935 - 1.938
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.017
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Comments:
May exhibit weak anomalous birefringence.

Chemical Properties of ScheeliteHide

Formula:
Ca(WO4)
IMA Formula:
CaWO4
Common Impurities:
Mo,Nb,Ta

Age informationHide

Age range:
Orosirian : 1893 ± 34 Ma to 1893 ± 34 Ma - based on data given below.
Sample ages:
Sample IDRecorded ageGeologic TimeDating method
11893 ± 34 MaOrosirian143Nd/144Nd vs 147Sm/144Nd
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Björkdal Mine, Sandfors, Skellefteå, Västerbotten, SwedenRoberts S, Palmer M R, Waller L (2006) Sm-Nd and REE characteristics of tourmaline and scheelite from the Björkdal Gold Deposit, Northern Sweden: Evidence of an intrusion-related gold deposit? Economic Geology 101 (7) 1415-1425.

Crystallography of ScheeliteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.2429(3) Å, c = 11.3737(6) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.169
Unit Cell V:
312.64 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals commonly pseudo-octahedral {011} or {112} predominant, with modifying forms include {001} {013}, {121} and/or several additional; tabular on {001} at times; {001} commonly rough; {112} frequently diagonally striated, usually parallel to [311], the intersection with {121}. Usually granular, massive; also columnar.
Twinning:
On {110} common, penetration and contact twins with a composition plane of (110)or (001).
Comment:
On synthetic material.

Crystallographic forms of ScheeliteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Scheelite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of ScheeliteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Epitaxy Comments:
Scheelite on wolframite, with scheelite {001} [110] parallel to wolframite {010} [001].

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.76 (55)
3.10 (100)
3.072 (30)
2.622 (25)
2.296 (20)
1.928 (30)
1.592 (30)

Type Occurrence of ScheeliteHide

Synonyms of ScheeliteHide

Other Language Names for ScheeliteHide

Varieties of ScheeliteHide

Cuprian ScheeliteA cuprian variety of Scheelite (possibly mixture with cuprotungstite).
Originally reported from La Paz, Mun. de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico.
MolybdoscheeliteA molybdenum-bearing variety of scheelite

Relationship of Scheelite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
PowelliteCa(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
RaspitePb(WO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
WulfenitePb(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Apatite"Apatite" is a field term for unidentified calcium phosphate members of the apatite group.
CassiteriteSnO2
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
FluoriteCaF2
TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz537 photos of Scheelite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Muscovite384 photos of Scheelite associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Fluorite177 photos of Scheelite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Calcite152 photos of Scheelite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Dolomite117 photos of Scheelite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Albite59 photos of Scheelite associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Ferberite59 photos of Scheelite associated with Ferberite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite58 photos of Scheelite associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.
Cassiterite48 photos of Scheelite associated with Cassiterite on mindat.org.
Arsenopyrite44 photos of Scheelite associated with Arsenopyrite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd)NbO4
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Nd)(Nd,Ce)(Nb,Ti)O4
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Y)YNbO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05PowelliteCa(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05WulfenitePb(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.10Formanite-(Y)YTaO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.10Iwashiroite-(Y)Y(Ta,Nb)O4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
7.GA.15Paraniite-(Y)Ca2Y(AsO4)(WO4)2Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

48.1.2.2PowelliteCa(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

27.4.1CuprotungstiteCu2(WO4)(OH)2Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
27.4.4AnthoiniteAlWO3(OH)3Tric. 1
27.4.5MpororoiteWAlO3(OH)3 · 2(H2O)
27.4.6Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3
27.4.7Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3Mon. 2 : P21
27.4.8StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
27.4.9RaspitePb(WO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
27.4.10RusselliteBi2WO6Orth.
27.4.11PinalitePb3WO5Cl2Orth.
27.4.12Uranotungstite(Fe2+,Ba,Pb)(UO2)2(WO4)(OH)4 · 12H2OOrth.
27.4.13HübneriteMnWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
27.4.14FerberiteFeWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
27.4.15Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
27.4.16FerritungstiteIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
27.4.17Phyllotungstite(H2O,M)x(W,Fe)(O,OH)3 · yH2O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
27.4.18Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10Orth.

Fluorescence of ScheeliteHide

Inherently fluorescent (SW UV & X-rays). Pure end-member material ubiquitously fluoresces bright blue-white (SW UV). Even a small amount of Mo substituting for W produces a creamy yellow fluorescence (SW UV) with a fixed color based on % of Mo. Fe can que

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Thermoluminescent.
Notes:
Decomposed by HCl or HNO3, leaving a yellow powder of hydrous tungstic oxide, which is soluble in ammonia.

Alters to Tungstite, Hydrotungstite, or Cuprotungstite.

Replaced by Wolframite as perfect pseudomorphs. Often replaces Wolframite.
Pseudomorphs of Quartz, Kaolinite, and Bismutite after Scheelite have been noted.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ore of tungsten

Scheelite in petrologyHide

Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for ScheeliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 303 (as Tennspat, Lapides stanniferi spathecei).
Cronstedt, A. F. (1751) Rön och Försök Gjorde med trenne Järnmalms arter. Kongl.Svenska VetenskapsAcademien Handlingar 1751: 226-231.
Cronstedt, A. (1758) Forsök till Mineralogie eller Mineralrikets upställning. 12mo, Stockholm: 183.
Scheele (1781) Ak. Stockholm, Handl. (as Tungsten).
Werner (1789) Bergmaennisches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmännisches Journal): 386 (as Schwerstein).
Karsten, D.L.G. (1791) Tabellarische Übersicht der mineralogisch-einfachen Fossilien. Berlin (as Schwerstein).
Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 56 (as Scheelerz).
Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 4: 372 (as Scheelin calcaire).
Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. Second edition: 74 (as Scheelerz).
Breithaupt, A. (1820) Kurze Charakteristik des Mineral-System’s. 8vo, Freiberg: 23 (as Scheelspath).
Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition: 594 (as Scheelit).
Breithaupt (1851) Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 54: 130.
Dauber (1859) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 107: 272.
Bauer (1874) Württemburg. Naturwiss. Jahreshefte: 154.
Carnot (1874) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 79: 637.
Iwase (1877) in Harada (1936) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University: 3: [4]: 357 (as Trimontite).
Plattner-Richter (1878) Probierkunst m.d. Lothrohr: 185.
Traube (1890) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 7: 232, 238.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 985.
Traube (1895-1896) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 10: 457.
Wada, Tsunashiro (1904) Minerals of Japan. 144 pp., Tokyo: 75-76 (as Trimontite).
Colomba (1906) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Rend.: 15: 281.
Petterd, W.F. (1910) Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. 221pp., Hobart: 200.
Rohden (1914) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 159: 318.
Zambonini (1916) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 162: 835.
Dickinson (1920) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 42: 85.
Russell, A. (1920) On the occurrence of phenacite and scheelite at Wheal Cock, St. Just, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 19, n° 88, 19-22.
Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 12.
Lindroth and Mauzelius (1922) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 44: 110.
Carobbi (1924) Gazzetta chimica italiana, Rome: 54: 59.
Vegard (1926) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 1: 1151.
Honess, A.P. (1927) The Nature, Origin and Interpretation of the Etch Figures on Crystals. 171pp., New York.
Doelter, C. (1928) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [2]: 814.
Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4067, 4083, 4113.
Aanerud (1931) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo, Skrifter, no. 13.
Lacroix (1933) Bull. serv. Geol. Indochine: 20 [Min. Abs. (1935): 6: 21].
Harada (1934) Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University: 4,[2]: 279.
Kerr (1934) University of Nevada Bulletin 28, no. 2.
Royer (1936) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 202: 1346.
Kerr (1938) Economic Geology: 33: 390.
Lacroix (1940) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 210: 273.
Servigne (1940) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 210: 440.
Wilson (1941) Arizona Bureau of Mines, Geology Series, Bull. 148.
Greenwood (1943) Economic Geology: 28: 56.
Marsh (1943) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 577.
Sillén and Nylander (1943) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 17A, no. 4.
Johnston and Vasconcellos (1945) Economic Geology: 40: 34.
Ramdohr (1949) Heidelberger Beitr. Zur Min.: 1: 105.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1074-1079.
National Bureau of Standards Circular 539 (1956), 6, 23.
Journal of Chemical Physics (1964): 40: 504-506.
Hazen, R.M., L.W. Finger, and J.W.E. Mariathasan (1985) High-pressure crystal chemistry of scheelite-type tungstates and molybdates. Journal of Physical Chemistry Solids, 46, 253–263.
Kempe, U. & Wolf, D. (1989): Entmischungen von Seyrigit in Molybdoscheelit. Chemie der Erde 49, 5-6.
A. Senyshyn, M. Hoelzel, T. Hansen, L. Vasylechko, V. Mikhailik, H. Kraus and H. Ehrenberg (2011) Thermal structural properties of calcium tungstate. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 44, 319-326.
Rémy S. Poulin, Andrew M. McDonald, Daniel J. Kontak, and M. Beth McClenaghan (2016) On the Relationship Between Cathodoluminescence and the Chemical Composition of Scheelite From Geologically Diverse Ore-Deposit Environments. Can. Mineral., 54, 1147-1173.

Internet Links for ScheeliteHide

Localities for ScheeliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow