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About Synchysite-(Y)Hide

White, reddish brown, greyish yellow, dull yellow; colourless to light yellow in transmitted light
Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy
6 - 6½
Crystal System:
From the Greek σύγχΰσις "synchys" for "confounding" in allusion to its initially being mistaken for parisite, and the "-(Y)" suffix due to the dominance of yttrium in the composition.
Y analogue of synchysite-(Ce) and synchysite-(Nd).

Classification of Synchysite-(Y)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
D : With rare earth elements (REE)

1 : (AB)(XO3)Zq

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides

Physical Properties of Synchysite-(Y)Hide

Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy
White, reddish brown, greyish yellow, dull yellow; colourless to light yellow in transmitted light
Light brown
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
On {0001} ?
Splintery, Sub-Conchoidal

Optical Data of Synchysite-(Y)Hide

RI values:
nα = 1.653 nγ = 1.730
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.077
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively strong
Absorption E greater than O.

Chemical Properties of Synchysite-(Y)Hide


Crystallography of Synchysite-(Y)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.039(3) Å, b = 6.950(1) Å, c = 18.436(6) Å
β = 102.45(2)°
a:b:c = 1.732 : 1 : 2.653
Unit Cell V:
1,506.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals acute rhombohedral with small {0001}, or thick tabular {0001} and hemimorphic (ditrigonal-pyramidal). {0001} smooth and brilliant; lateral faces striated horizontally.
On {0001} common also lamellar.
Also given as space group P-6c2, a = 7.091, c = 18.2 Å. Pseudo-cell: R3, a ~ 7.0, c ~ 54.1 Å.

Type Occurrence of Synchysite-(Y)Hide

Synonyms of Synchysite-(Y)Hide

Other Language Names for Synchysite-(Y)Hide

Relationship of Synchysite-(Y) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
Synchysite-(La) Ca(La,Nd)(CO3)2F

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Anatase6 photos of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Anatase on mindat.org.
Gadolinite-(Y)3 photos of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Gadolinite-(Y) on mindat.org.
Fluorite2 photos of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Quartz2 photos of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Yttrofluorite2 photos of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Yttrofluorite on mindat.org.
Bastnäsite2 photos of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Bastnäsite on mindat.org.
Thorite1 photo of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Thorite on mindat.org.
Autunite1 photo of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Autunite on mindat.org.
Calcite1 photo of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Hingganite-(Y)1 photo of Synchysite-(Y) associated with Hingganite-(Y) on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.BD.05Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F Hex.
5.BD.05Lukechangite-(Ce)Na3Ce2(CO3)4FHex. 6mm : P63mc
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3FMon. 2/m : P21/m
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(La)Ba2(La,Ce,Th)(CO3)3FMon. 2/m : P21/m
5.BD.18Arisite-(Ce)NaCe2(CO3)2[F2x(CO3)1-x]FHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
5.BD.18Arisite-(La)NaLa2(CO3)2[F2x(CO3)1-x]FHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P6c2
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Y)Y(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P62c
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
5.BD.20bParisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2Mon. m : Bb
5.BD.20dRöntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3Trig. 3 : R3
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
5.BD.20aThorbastnäsiteThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Nd)Nd(CO3)F Hex. 6 m2 : P62c
5.BD.25Horváthite-(Y)NaY(CO3)F2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
5.BD.25Qaqarssukite-(Ce)Ba(Ce,REE)(CO3)2FTrig. 3 : P3
5.BD.35Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

16a.1.3.1Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

12.1.1NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2ClIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.1.3RouvilleiteNa3(Ca,Mn,Fe)2(CO3)3FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.4ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
12.1.5DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
12.1.7Stenonite(Sr,Ba,Na)2Al(CO3)F5Mon. 2/m
12.1.8Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P6c2
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)Y(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P62c
12.1.11Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2Mon. m : Bb
12.1.13Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3Trig. 3 : R3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F Hex.
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
12.1.22ThorbastnäsiteThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
12.1.23PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mbm
12.1.24BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
12.1.25AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2OTric. 1 : P1
12.1.26KettneriteCaBiCO3OFOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Rather easily soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Synchysite-(Y)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Nordenskiöld (1894) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 16: 338 (as Parisite).
Flink (1901) University of Upsala, Geological Institution, Bulletin: 5: 81 (Synchisite).
Flink (1901) Meddelelser om Grønland: 24: 29.
Bøggild (1907) Meddelelser om Grønland: 33: 99.
Palache, C. and Warren (1911) American Journal of Science: 31: 533.
Quereigh (1912) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Rend.: 21: 581.
Oftedal (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 79: 437.
Parker, et al (1939) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 19: 293.
Söhnge (1944) Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa: 47: 176.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 287-289 (as Synchisite).
Smith, W.L., Stone, J., Ross, D.R., Levine, H. (1960): Doverite, a possible new yttrium fluocarbonate from Dover, Morris County, New Jersey, American Mineralogist, 45, 92-98.
Canadian Mineralogist (1994): 32: 865.
Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica: 14: 336-344.

Internet Links for Synchysite-(Y)Hide

Localities for Synchysite-(Y)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Huambo Province
    • Bailundo City Council
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Beleque, A. R. C. (2010). Minerais de ETR no complexo carbonatítico de Bailundo (Mungo, Angola): ocorrência, composição e significado económico.
    • Ekunda City Council
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
    • Longonjo City Council
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
  • Huíla Province
    • Lubango City Council
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
  • Namibe Province
    • Tombwa City Council
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
      • Nolans Bore
Huston, D. L., Maas, R., Cross, A., Hussey, K. J., Mernagh, T. P., Fraser, G., & Champion, D. C. (2017). The Nolans rare earth element-phosphorus-uranium mineral system: formation and modification over 1800 million years. AGES 2017 Proceedings, NT Geological Survey
  • Lower Austria
    • Industrieviertel
      • Gloggnitz
Kolitsch, U., Auer, C., Schachinger, T., Slama, M. (2018): 2093) Aeschynit-(Y), Allanit-(Ce), Ankerit, Ankylith-(Ce), Bastnäsit-(Ce), Cassiterit, Cubanit, Fergusonit-(Y) (?), Hingganit-(Y), Ilmenit, Rutil, Synchisit-(Y), Synchisit-(Ce), Thorit, Xenotim-(Y) und Zirkon vom niederösterreichischen Anteil des Semmering-Basistunnels, Niederösterreich. Pp. 231-236 in Walter, F. et al. (2018): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVII. Carinthia II, 208./128., 185-254.
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Gastein valley
        • Böckstein
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
      • Rauris valley
        • Hüttwinkl valley
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Canaã dos Carajás
Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.
  • São Paulo
    • Itapirapuã Paulista
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Val-des-Monts
          • Lac Saint-Pierre (Wakefield Lake)
Hogarth, D.D., Chao, G.Y., Plant. G.A. & Steacy, H. R. (1974): Caysichite, a new silico-carbonate of yttrium and calcium. Canadian Mineralogist.12: 293-298
  • Jiangxi
    • Ganzhou
      • Dayu Co.
Rucheng Wang, Fontan, F., Xiaoming Chen, Huan Hu, Changshi Liu, Shijin Xu, and de Parseval, P. (2003): Canadian Mineralogist 41, 727-748.
      • Longnan Co.
Zhiwei Bao and Zhenhua Zhao (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 519-535.; Yunhuai Lin and Shiyang Chen (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(3), 23-31
Deqian Chen, Daoling Yin, Jianxiong Zhou, Xingyuan Lin, Hanqing Zhang and Nicheng Shi (1994): Geological Review 59(1), 82-86
      • Xunwu Co.
Zhiwei Bao and Zhenhua Zhao (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 519-535.
Czech Republic
  • Liberec Region
Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
  • Kymenlaakso
    • Kotka
Lahti Seppo I. 2011. Kotkan topaasilouhoksesta ja sen mineraaleista. Kivi-lehti 4.
  • Pirkanmaa
    • Valkeakoski
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data 2014. Jyrki Autio collection.;
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Bad Grund
        • Wiemannsbucht
Haack, U., Schnorrer-Koehler, G. & Lueders, V. (1987): Seltenerd-Minerale aus hydrothermalen Gängen des Harzes. Chemie der Erde 47, 41-45 (in German).
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge District
      • Schwarzenberg mining district
        • Raschau-Markersbach
Förster, H.-J. (2001). Synchysite-(Y)-synchysite-(Ce) solid solutions from Markersbach, Erzgebirge, Germany: REE and Th mobility during high-T alteration of highly fractionated aluminous A-type granites. Mineralogy and Petrology 72, 259-280.
  • Lombardy
    • Varese Province
      • Ceresio Valley
          • Cavagnano
Enrico Bonacina
see http://imgdb.amiminerals.it/picture.php?/1265/category/112
see http://imgdb.amiminerals.it/picture.php?/1268/category/112
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Montecrestese
'Apatite' - Monazite-(Ce) - Synchysite-(Y) - Kainosite-(Y)) sono analizzate
  • Sardinia
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Fluminimaggiore
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., and Tanca, G.A. [with contributions of Vinci, A., and Astolfi, M.] (1996) Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Associazione Mineralogica Sarda, Associazione Mineralogica Domusnovas, Gruppo Mineralogico Arburese, Gruppo Mineralogico Paleontologico Piacentino, Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo et al. Ed., Siena, Vol. 2, 192 pp.
      • Gonnosfanadiga
Stara P., Rizzo R. and Tanca G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e minerali. Vol. II (pagg. 192). EMSa 1996.
  • Fukushima
    • Kawamata
      • Iizaka Village (Iisaka)
Kato, A. (1973) Sakurai Koubutsu Hyohon, 38. (Sakurai collection); Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Talas Region
    • Ak-Tyuz ore Field
no reference
  • Diana
    • Ambanja
      • Antsirabe
        • Betaimboay
          • Unnamed caldera
Wolfgang Hampel (2011), fieldwork/studies
  • Southern Region
    • Balaka
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
  • Kidal Region
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
  • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
    • Altai Mts
P.M. Kartashov analytical data; Kovalenko, V. I., Yarmolyuk, V. V., Sal nikova, E. B., Kartashov, P. M., Kovach, V. P., Kozakov, I. K., ... & Yakovleva, S. Z. (2004). The Khaldzan-Buregtei Massif of peralkaline rare-metal igneous rocks: structure, geochronology, and geodynamic setting in the Caledonides of Western Mongolia. Petrology c/c of Petrologiia, 12(5), 412-436.
  • Karas Region
    • Karasburg West
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
  • Nordland
    • Tysfjord
XRD,EDS ref. Knut Eldjarn; Husdal, T. (2011): Tysfjordgranittens pegmatitter. Stein. 38 (4): 4-35
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
  • Telemark
    • Drangedal
      • Tørdal
Kristiansen, R. (1998): Høydalen Litium-pegmatitt-Tørdal i Telemark. STEIN 25 (4), 21-30
South Africa
  • North West
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
VERWOERD, W.J. (1993) Update on carbonatites of South Africa and Namibia. South African Journal of Geology, 96(3), 75-95.
South Korea
  • North Chungcheong Province
    • Chungju (Chung Won Kum; Chung-ju)
      • Joongwon-gun
        • Mt. Eorae
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Grisons
    • Vorderrhein Valley
      • Tujetsch (Tavetsch)
        • Nalps Valley
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 288.
  • Valais
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 394.
  • Zhytomyr Oblast
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Lyckberg, P., Chornousenko, V. & Wilson, W. E. (2009): Volodarsk-Volynski, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine. Mineralogical Record, 40, 473-506.
  • Colorado
    • Fremont Co.
      • Cotopaxi District
        • Cotopaxi
          • Cotopaxi Pegmatite area
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", pp. 14-15, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
    • Jefferson Co.
      • South Platte Pegmatite District
Rare-Earth Pegmatites of the South Platte District, Colorado CGS Res Ser 11
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Rare-Earth Pegmatites of the South Platte District, Colorado CGS Res Ser 11
Rare-Earth Pegmatites of the South Platte District, Colorado CGS Res Ser 11
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Rare-Earth Pegmatites of the South Platte District, Colorado CGS Res Ser 11
    • Teller Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Rare-Earth Pegmatites of the South Platte District, Colorado CGS Res Ser 11
  • Connecticut
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Harwinton
Robert Wilken collection
  • Idaho
    • Lemhi Co.
USGS PP1049-A(Staatz,1979)
  • Michigan
    • Marquette Co.
      • Republic
Buchholz, T.W., Falster, A.U. and Simmons, W.B. (2013) Accessory mineralogy of the Black River pegmatite and Humboldt granite, Marquette County, Michigan. The 40th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy, 9-10.
  • Montana
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 288.
  • New Jersey
    • Morris Co.
      • Mine Hill Borough
Am. Min.: 51:152, Levinson (1966).; Klemic, Harry; Heyl, A. V., Jr.; Taylor, A. R.; Stone, Jerome (1959) Radioactive rare-earth deposit at Scrub Oaks mine, Morris County, New Jersey. USGS Bull 1082B
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Pierrepont
        • Power's Farm (Bower Powers farm; Ryland Crary farm)
Steven C. Chamberlain and David G. Bailey (2012) Rare earth minerals in fracture mineralization in northern New York. Mineral News, 28, #7, 1-5.
      • Rossie
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.; George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
  • Texas
    • Llano Co.
      • Llano
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Golden Horn Batholith
Kongsberg Mineral Symposium 2008, Washington Pass—pa mineraljakt i de Nord-Amerikanske Alper, Stein Rorvik.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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