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Ulexite

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Formula:
NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Colour:
Colourless, white, grey with included clays.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Silky
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
1.955
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
Named after George Ludwig Ulex (1811-1883), German chemist, who first correctly analyzed the species.
Most specimens of Ulexite are fibrous in nature. Most of the times the fibers are intergrown into felt like aggregates. The first commercial production of borates here in the US in dry/moist lake beds like Teals Marsh in Nevada and later in Death Valley, California where Ulexite was skimmed from the surface of the ground, much of it in the form of "cotton balls" which were then processed into borax and other borate products. These felt like aggregates are not of much interest to collectors because their common admixture with mud makes them unattractive. Sometimes, Ulexite takes other forms that are of more interest to collectors and those are show below in pictures of specimens from Boron, California. Most familiar to collectors is the kind of Ulexite that is popularly called TV rock because of its natural fiber optic character. Less well known forms are the acicular variety that can make for spectacular specimens and the form that is called "clam shell" Ulexite. To the best of my knowledge these forms of Ulexite are not found at other borate deposits. Ulexite was the main ore along with Colemanite for years until the discovery of crystallized borax at Boron, California and after that it was forced into a secondary role as a sometime ore for borates.

Collectors find the acicular form of Ulexite to be the most attractive, but most are not even aware that it exists. The very thin radiating needles of Ulexite are very delicate and great care must be taken to protect them from damage. They are found growing in cavities in the ore, sometimes growing on sparkling white or tan Colemanite crystals. They can make stunning specimens, but great care must be taken in collecting and storing them. See pictures 3 & 4 above. Most of the good specimens that have been collected have gotten dirty, damaged and ultimately thrown away. The mining process also weighs in strongly against the recovery of these delicate specimen. The Ulexite is found in the top most layer of the borate deposit just above the Borax which is the main ore of interest. To mine the deposit shafts were dug down through the Ulexite and Colemanite layer to access the Borax. At one time the underground mine at Boron was the largest underground operation in California with more than 200 miles of tunnels and stopes. A few specimens of Ulexite were found during the shaft digging process or whenever the underground workings intersected the Colemanite/Ulexite ore above the Borax. Eventually economics dictated that the deposit be open pitted. The sandy overburden was removed and below that the borates in the distinctive bluish tan mud of the deposit was encountered and this top layer was particularly rich in Ulexite and Colemanite. This material was dug and removed to long term borate storage dumps separate from those containing the sandy overburden. There it sits waiting for the day when borax runs short and it will be profitable to process the borates in these dumps into borate products. When this top most layer of borates was encountered, thousands of tons of Ulexite and Colemanite specimens were exposed and some of the miners spent as much time collecting them as they could. Some of the operators of the big bull dozers told stories about sinking their big ripper blades into the ore and listen to the sounds of the brittle pocket riddled rock crackled and popped as chunks of crystal lined specimens were exposed behind the machines they were driving. This was in the late 1950's and work rules and safety procedures were often only given lip service. Some of the miners would collect what they could in their spare time and sometimes after work. The drilling and blasting foreman Howard Pomptier developed an interest in minerals and it was his job to check the benches after each blast to see if there might be any problems from un-detonated explosives. For a mineral collector, this was the best job in the world. In the early days some collectors were even able to collect in the open pit mine, but soon they were kept out of that, and were relegated to working the dumps, which were still pretty good. When I worked there in the early 60s I could still collect on the dumps, but had to be very careful that one of the big mine haul trucks didn't dump 150 tons of rocks on me as I was collecting on the slope of the dump below. But collecting on the dumps was not very productive compared to the specimens you could collect in the open pit after a blast. I soon found out that I could buy much better specimens from the miners than I could dig on the dump. Today, even the dumps are off limits to collectors.

In addition to the damage delicate Ulexite specimens suffer from the bench blasting, modern safety regulations do not allow anyone to get within 30 feet of a bench wall. If a bench is 30 feet high you must stay 30 feet from the wall. The blast pile is scooped up by big diesel electric shovels, placed in huge 200+ ton mine haul trucks and taken out to the dump and added to the growing mountain of the borate dumps at Boron. From time to time specimens are encountered, but in effect, no one is allowed to get near them and collect specimens. There are occasional exceptions but in reality the specimen production at Boron is pretty well shut down, because of the restricted access to the specimens during the mining process.

In addition to the acicular "bunnies tale" Ulexite, the deposit also produced a form of Ulexite that is know to collectors as optical Ulexite or more commonly TV rock. See pictures 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10 above. When it was formed the thin acicular crystals of Ulexite grew next to each other in a parallel fashion and when chunks of this massive material is cut perpendicular to the long axis of the crystals, the resulting material demonstrates a fiber optic effect. When a piece of cut and polished Ulexite is placed flat on a surface of printed material, the printed material appears to be transmitted to the top of the piece, sort of like an image on a TV screen. It is a fascinating optical effect and any amount of it can be collected, cut and polished and sold to rock shops. Most of Ulexite found at the borate deposit at boron (99%+) of the material is if a fibrous intergrown nature demonstrated by pictures 13, 14 & 15 above, but sometimes veins of Ulexite with parallel growing fibers is encountered. Some times hundreds of pounds of this stuff can be picked up from the blast piles and the dump. But a great deal of good TV rock is off limits to the one individual the mine management allows in to collect it. He must pick up what few pieces he can from areas that are not set as off limits by safety regulations. Small pieces of an inch by an inch are commonly available, but larger pieces are sought after by collectors and schools for demonstration purposes. The old timers would talk about the big foot long pieces of TV rock that they once had or saw, but 50 years of experience have taught me that these were just stories and that there was never such thing as a foot long piece of optical Ulexite. Most of this compact form of Ulexite is found mixed with mud that prevents light being transmitted very far or that although the rough material looks like it might produce fine optical material, when you cut and polish it, you find that the fibers are really not very parallel after all and that also limits the length of optical transmission. I think about the longest piece of TV rock I have ever seen is about 6 inches, though I have seen many large chunks that gave promise that they might produce the legendary foot long piece. They have never panned out. Because of optical Ulexite's nature with all the crystals growing parallel to each other, fine high domed cabochons can be cut from it which show a fine "cats eye" effect. The problem is that this form of Ulexite is extremely heat sensitive and often full of cracks from the bench blasting in the mine. Because of this extreme heat sensitivity the material must be worked under a continual spray of water to keep it cool. The material is "butter" soft, and when making cabochons, you need to use a worn out 600 grit sanding paper to do the final shaping on the stones. A fresh 600 grit sanding paper will remove material so quickly from the stone that you can't round it properly and develop too many flat spots. You also have to finish it on a rag buff with tin or cerium oxide but also with a continuous spray of water. Even then, you will sometimes thermally crack the stone. These stones show a wonderful cats eye, but in time, the Ulexite will react with the atmosphere and the surface of the stone will become clouded and you must polish it again.

Another interesting form of Ulexite is the clam shell variety. See picture 11 above. This type of Ulexite if sometimes found at the top of the borax ore body in the blue/green/tan shale. Most of these specimens were collected from the roof of the big mine tunnel that opened into the old underground mine from the bottom of the open pit. You don't often see them offered for sale, not that there is any great demand for them. You can see that they would not compete very well for a collectors interest compared to a nice gemmy bi colored tourmaline.

Some times in the mud of the deposit you can find Ulexite pseudomorphs after Borax. See picture twelve above. Only a mother can love a specimen like this. Note however the "dirt" on the specimen. This is the typical blue/tan/green mud that is so distinctive of many matrix specimens from Boron. Often when you see this "mud" you know the specimen is from Boron, because the other borate deposits in the US do not have this color "mud". It may also be distinctive in separating it from specimens from the deposits in Turkey and South America. There is a surprising amount of arsenic in the deposit and it is most commonly manifested by the appearance of red Realgar that is commonly found mixed with Ulexite. It never occurs in big crystals, but sometimes very nice micro crystals of Realgar are found. Left for any length of time exposed to sun light, the Realgar quickly alters to yellow/orange Pararealgar. Sometimes sharp shiny Tunellite crystals are found growing with acicular Ulexite, but in these cases, the Ulexite is brushed aside to expose the Tunellite crystals. These are quite rare. See Best Minerals/Ulexite on Mindat for more pictures.
Rock Currier 2015

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Ulexite.


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Classification of UlexiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
6.EA.25

6 : BORATES
E : Pentaborates
A : Neso-pentaborates
26.5.11.1

26 : HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
5 : Pentaborates
9.3.21

9 : Borates
3 : Borates of Ca and Sr

Pronounciation of UlexiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of UlexiteHide

Vitreous, Silky
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white, grey with included clays.
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}; on {110} good; on {110} poor.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Comment:
Fracture uneven across fibers.
Density:
1.955 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.955 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of UlexiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.491 - 1.496 nβ = 1.504 - 1.506 nγ = 1.519 - 1.520
2V:
Measured: 73° to 78°, Calculated: 68°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.028
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of UlexiteHide

Formula:
NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
IMA Formula:
NaCaB5O6(OH)6 · 5H2O

Crystallography of UlexiteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.816(3) Å, b = 12.87 Å, c = 6.678(1) Å
α = 90.25°, β = 109.12°, γ = 105.1°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.685 : 1 : 0.519
Unit Cell V:
687.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Small nodular, rounded, or lens-like masses; loose at times (termed "cotton balls"), comprised of acicular crystals. Fibers may be radially arranged or randomly oriented towards the centers of the masses and arranged in parallel position at the periphery. Botryoidal crusts or randomly oriented fibers. Compact veins with a parallel fibrous structure. Distinct crystals rare, greatly elongated [001] (Palache et al (1951) Dana's System of Min.: 345).
Twinning:
Polysynthetic, common in massive aggregates and crushed fragments. Several twin laws apply: 1. Polysynthetic on {010} and {100}; 2. {340} or {230} less certain, and others of a more complex nature.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of UlexiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Playas in a desert region.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of UlexiteHide

Other Language Names for UlexiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Kurnakovite37 photos of Ulexite associated with Kurnakovite on mindat.org.
Colemanite23 photos of Ulexite associated with Colemanite on mindat.org.
Calcite19 photos of Ulexite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Tunellite14 photos of Ulexite associated with Tunellite on mindat.org.
Inderite10 photos of Ulexite associated with Inderite on mindat.org.
Realgar8 photos of Ulexite associated with Realgar on mindat.org.
Orpiment4 photos of Ulexite associated with Orpiment on mindat.org.
Anhydrite4 photos of Ulexite associated with Anhydrite on mindat.org.
Pararealgar3 photos of Ulexite associated with Pararealgar on mindat.org.
Inyoite3 photos of Ulexite associated with Inyoite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

6.EA.05SborgiteNa[B5O6(OH)4] · 3H2OMon.
6.EA.05LeucostauritePb2[B5O9]Cl · 0.5H2OOrth. mm2 : Pnn2
6.EA.10SantiteK[B5O6(OH)4] · 2H2OOrth.
6.EA.10Ramanite-(Rb)Rb[B5O6(OH)4] · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Aba2
6.EA.10Ramanite-(Cs)Cs[B5O6(OH)4] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
6.EA.15Ammonioborite(NH4)2[B5O6(OH)4]2 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

9.3.1CalciboriteCa(B2O4)Orth.
9.3.2SibirskiteCa2(HB2O5)(OH)Mon.
9.3.3FabianiteCaB3O5OHMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.3.4UralboriteCa2[B3O3(OH)5 · OB(OH)3]Mon.
9.3.5VimsiteCaB2O2(OH)4Mon.
9.3.6OlshanskyiteCa2[B3O3(OH)6](OH) · 3H2O
9.3.7FroloviteCa[B(OH)4]2Tric.
9.3.8KorzhinskiteCa(B2O4) · H2O
9.3.9TyretskiteCa2B5O9OH · H2OTric.
9.3.10NifontoviteCa3B6O6(OH)12(H2O)2Mon.
9.3.12InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m
9.3.13GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2OMon.
9.3.14ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.3.15PentahydroboriteCaB2O(OH)6 · 2H2OTric.
9.3.16HexahydroboriteCa[B(OH)4]2 · 2H2O or CaB2O4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.3.17MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.3.18PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.3.19GinoriteCa2B14O20(OH)6 · 5H2OMon.
9.3.20ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
9.3.22HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2OMon.
9.3.23InderboriteCaMg(H3B3O7)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.3.24WardsmithiteCa5Mg[B4O7]6 · 30H2OHex.
9.3.25HenmiliteCa2Cu[B(OH)4]2(OH)4Tric.
9.3.26StrontioboriteSrB8O11(OH)4Mon.
9.3.27VeatchiteSr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2OMon. m : Bb
9.3.28Veatchite-ASr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2OTric.
9.3.29 P-VeatchiteSr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2O
9.3.30 BalavinskiteSr2B6O11 · 4H2O
9.3.31TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.3.32StrontioginoriteCaSrB14O20(OH)6 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Fluorescence of UlexiteHide

Yellow, greenish yellow, cream, white.

Other InformationHide

IR Spectrum:
Bulganak volcano material [cm-1]: 3600, 3520, 3420, 3305, 3220, 3125, 1667, 1631, 1470sh, 1413, 1395sh, 1355, 1319, 1211, 1190sh, 1099s, 1058s, 1001s, 980sh, 960sh, 921, 860s, 837, 747, 716, 643, 611, 538, 505sh, 471w, 445
Notes:
Slightly decomposed in cold water and more so in hot water, with the loss of Na to the solution.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Ulexite in petrologyHide

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)

References for UlexiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hayes (1844) American Journal of Science: 46: 377 (as Hydrous borate of lime).
Hayes (1844) American Journal of Science: 47: 215.
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1429 (as Hydroborocalcite)
Ulex (1849) Ann. Chem. Pharm.: 70: 49 (as Boronatro-calcite).
Dana, J.D. (1850) System of Mineralogy, 3rd. Edition, New York: 217 (as Hayesine), 695.
Kletzinsky (1859) Polyt. Centr.: 1384 (as Tinkalzit).
How (1861) American Journal of Science: 32: 9 (as Cryptomorphite).
Des Cloizeaux, A. (1874) Manuel de minéralogie. 2 volumes and Atlas, Paris, volume 2, 1 Fasc., 208pp.: 10.
How (1877) Mineralogical Magazine: 1: 257.
Reynolds (1877) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 3: 284 (as Franklandite).
Buttgenbach (1900-1901) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales, 28, Mem. 99.
de Schulten (1901) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 132: 1576.
van't Hoff (1907) Preuss. Ak. Wiss., Sitzber.: 303.
Foshag (1918) American Mineralogist: 3: 35.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 148.
Walker (1921) University of Toronto Stud., Geology series, no. 12: 54.
Mellor, J.W. (1924) A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. 16 volumes, London: 5: 94.
Hintze, Carl (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1, [4A]: 156.
Boky (1937) Bulletin de l'Académie des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes, Cl. sc. mat. nat., Ser. chim.: 871.
Godlevsky (1937) Mineralogicheskoe Obshchestvo, Leningrad, Zapiski: 66(2): 315 (Min. Abs. (1938): 7: 122).
Murdoch, Joseph (1940), The crystallography of ulexite: Am. Min.: 25: 754-762 (abstract): American Mineralogist: 25: 210-211.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 345-348.
Clark, J.R. & C.L. Christ (1959), Studies of borate minerals, V: Reinvestigation of the X-ray crystallography of ulexite and probertite: American Mineralogist: 44: 712-719.
Weichel-Moore, E.J. and Potter, R.J. (1963) Fibre optical properties of ulexite. Nature: 200: 1163-1165.
Papezik, V.S. and Fong, C.C.K. (1975) Howlite and ulexite from the Carboniferous gypsum and anhydrite beds in western Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 370-376.
Ghose, S., C. Wan & J.R. Clark (1978), Ulexite, NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5H2O: structure refinement, polyanion configuration, hydrogen bonding and fiber optics: American Mineralogist: 63: 160-171.
Canadian Mineralogist (1981): 19: 291.
Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 722.
Chukanov, N.V. (2014): Infrared spectra of mineral species: Extended library. Springer (Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy), vol. 1, Dordrecht, 1726 pp.

Internet Links for UlexiteHide

Localities for UlexiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca
    • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
  • Jujuy
    • Rinconada Department
Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    • Susques department
Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
      • Coranzuli
Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
        • El Porvenir
Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    • Tumbaya Department
Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
No reference listed
Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
  • Salta
    • Los Andes department
VINANTE, D. y ALONSO, R.N.. Evapofacies del Salar Hombre Muerto, Puna argentina: distribucion y genesis. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2006, vol.61, n.2, pp. 286-297
Am Min 58:308-313; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
Ovejero Toledo, A., Alonso, R. N., Ruiz, T. D. V., & Quiroga, A. G. (2009). Evapofacieshalítica en el Salar del Rincón, departamento Los Andes, Salta. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64(3), 493-500.
      • Sijes
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
Alfredo Petrov specimen
Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates - Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties and Use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 475 pp.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
Galliski, M.A., Cooper, M.A., Márquez-Zavalía, M.F., and Hawthorne, F.C. (2010) Alfredstelznerite: a new calcium borate hydrate from Santa Rosa mine, Salta, northwestern Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 123-128; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Nor Lípez Province
Federico Ahlfeld y Jorge Munoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
    • Sud Lípez Province
USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 254 (1992)
Canada
 
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Cardwell Parish
        • Penobsquis
Canadian Mineralogist (1981): 19: 291-301.
      • Hammond Parish
        • Salt Springs evaporite deposit
BURNS, P.C., HAWTHORNE, F.C. & STIRLING, J.A.R. (1992): Trembathite, (Mg,Fe)3B7O13Cl, a new borate mineral from the Salt Springs potash deposit, Sussex, New Brunswick. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 445-448.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 13, pp. 370-376 (1975)
  • Nova Scotia
    • Halifax Co.
      • East Milford
Papezik, V.S., and Fong, C.C.K. (1975) "Howlite and Ulexite from Carboniferous Gypsum and Anhydrite Beds in Western Newfoundland", Canadian Mineralogist, 13, 370-376.
    • Hants Co.
Papezik, V. S., and Fong, C. C. K., "Howlite and Ulexite from Carboniferous Gypsum and Anhydrite Beds in Western Newfoundland", Canadian Mineralogist, 13, 370-376, 1975.
      • Windsor
No reference listed
Henry How, "On the Occurrence of Natro-Boro-Calcite with Glauber Salt in the Gypsum of Nova Scotia", The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Vol 6, pg. 54-60, Jul-Oct 1857.
    • Victoria Co.
      • Dingwall
Sabina (1965)
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
Rodgers, K. A., Greatrex, R., Hyland, M., Simmons, S. F., & Browne, P. R. L. (2002). A modern, evaporitic occurrence of teruggite, Ca4MgB12As2O28. 18H2O, and nobleite, CaB6O10. 4H2O, from the El Tatio geothermal field, Antofagasta Province, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine, 66(2), 253-259.
      • Ollagüe
Am Min 63:814-823
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Oficina Maria Elena
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 646.
  • Arica and Parinacota Region
    • Arica Province
      • Surire
Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
  • Coquimbo Region
USGS Bulletin 491
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
American Mineralogist: 79: 1003-1008.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347; American Mineralogist (1959): 44: 712.
China
 
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.; Qingzhong Wang, Yingkai Xiao, Chonggeng Zhang, Haizhen Wei, and Zhiqi Zhao (2001): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 20(4), 344-366; Zheng, M. P., Qi, W., & Yuan, H. R. (2005). Characteristics of salt lake boron deposits and magnesium borate deposits of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1123-1125). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Dapeng Sun (1991): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 12(4), 57-65; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.; Qingzhong Wang, Yingkai Xiao, Chonggeng Zhang, Haizhen Wei, and Zhiqi Zhao (2001): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 20(4), 344-366
      • Delhi Co. (Delingha Co.)
        • Yashatu
National Geological Archives of China database, record no. X00022726
National Geological Archives of China database, record no. X00022726
      • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Ngari Prefecture
      • Gar Co. (Ga'er Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Mianping Zheng and Wengao Liu (1982): Geological Review 28(3), 263-266; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Qingzhong Wang, Yingkai Xiao, Chonggeng Zhang, Haizhen Wei, and Zhiqi Zhao (2001): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 20(4), 344-366
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Wenzhi Li, Mianping Zheng, and Yuanyi Zhao (2004): Resources & Industries 6(5), 33-37; Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Gêrzê Co. (Gaize Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
      • Zhongba Co.
Wen Qi and Mianping Zheng (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(2), 133-140
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Hetian Prefecture (Khotan Prefecture; Hotan Prefecture; Hoten Prefecture)
      • Minfeng Co. (Niye Co.; Niya Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Alheim
Natural History Museum Vienna collection
  • Saarland
    • Saarlouis
      • Rammelfangen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Thuringia
    • Harz
      • Ellrich
        • Appenrode
http://www.mffb.de/MFFB_Exkursionsberichte/Harz/Harz.htm
      • Nordhausen
        • Niedersachswerfen
Siemroth, J. (2008): Das Vorkommen von Boratmineralien im Werra-Anhydrit des Steinbruchs Kohnstein bei Niedersachswerfen am Südharz, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 59, 353-366
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Sámos Prefecture
      • Sámos Island
Helvaci, C., Stamatakis, M. G., Zagouroglou, C., & Kanaris, J. (1993). Borate minerals and related authigenic silicates in northeastern Mediterranean Late Miocene continental basins. Exploration and Mining Geology, 2(2), 171-178.
Iran
 
  • Zanjan Province
    • Dandy District
Vachik Hairapetian collection
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
World of Stones #1; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mexico
 
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Magdalena
Miranda-Gasca, M. A., Gomez-Caballero, J. A., & Eastoe, C. J. (1998). Borate deposits of northern Sonora, Mexico; stratigraphy, tectonics, stable isotopes, and fluid inclusions. Economic Geology, 93(4), 510-523.
Peru
 
  • Arequipa Department
    • Arequipa Province
      • Arequipa
Hyrsl & Rosales (2003), Min. Record 34:251
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lena-Angara salt Basin
Dimitri Belakovski
Serbia
 
  • Raška District
    • Raška
      • Jarandol Basin
        • Baljevac na Ibru
S. V. Malinko et al.: New Data on Minerals 39:26-31 (2004)
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Kütahya Province
      • Emet
        • Doğanlar village
J. García-Veigas, L. Rosell, X. Alcobé, I. Subias, F. Ortí, I. Gündogan and C. Helvaci (2010) Fontarnauite, a New Sulphate-Borate Mineral from the Emet Borate District (Turkey). Macla 13, 97-98.
        • Emet Borate deposit
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; American Mineralogist; April 1979; v. 64; no. 3-4; p. 362-366
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. V (2003); American Mineralogist; April 1979; v. 64; no. 3-4; p. 362-366
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Eskişehir Province
      • Kirka
García-Veigas, J., & Helvacı, C. (2013). Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 290, 85-96.
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/T%FCrkei/Eskisehir/Kirka/Sarikaya; Baysal, O. (1972) : A mineralogical study and genesis of Sarıkaya (Kırka) borate deposits. Hacettepe University, Ankara.
  • Marmara Region
    • Balikesir Province
      • Bigadiç
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
        • Faraşköy (Faraş)
Erik Vercammen collection and field observations
        • Iskeleköy (Iskele)
Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.
Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
    • Bursa Province
      • Mustafa Kemalpafla
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Lebap Province
    • Chardzhou
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
        • Bondarenkovo Village area
Chukanov, N.V. (2014): Infrared spectra of mineral species: Extended library. Springer (Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy), vol. 1, Dordrecht, 1726 pp.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Range
        • Black Mts
          • Monte Blanco
Foshag, William Frederick (1924), The world’s biggest borax deposits (California and Nevada): Engineering & Mining Journal: 118: 420; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 376.
      • Death Valley
Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp. (includes catalog of minerals of California pp. 63-410), and miscellaneous observations on mineral products): 394; Bodewig, C. & G. vom Rath (1885), Colmanit aus Californien: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 10: 181; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 45; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 376.
Econ Geol (1996) 91:622-635
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp.: 394; Bodewig, C. & G. vom Rath (1885), Colmanit aus Californien: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 10: 181; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 45, 46; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 376.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 256.
      • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
        • Ryan
Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 376.
Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Anonymous (1963), California Division of Mines and Geology, Mineral Information Service: California Mineral Production 1962: 16(1): 9; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154, 377.
www.mineralsocal.org; American Mineralogist (1961): 46: 560-571.
www.mineralsocal.org; Am Min (1959) 44:911-919; Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
          • Mouth of Corkscrew Canyon area
Foshag, William Frederick (1939), New Mineral names – priceite: American Mineralogist: 24: 728; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295.
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 256.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Twenty Mule Team Canyon
American Mineralogist (1979): 64(3-4): 369-375.; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & H. Almond (1959), Gowerite, a new hydrous calcium borate from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 44: 911-919.
Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
      • Greenwater Range
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10188167.
      • Mesquite Valley
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
      • Resting Spring Range
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926b), Note on a colemanite deposit near Shoshone, California, with a sketch of the geology of a part of Amargosa Valley: USGS Bulletin 785: 63, 72; Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: 11; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 249, 256.
Hardie, L.A. (1968) The origin of the Recent nonmarine evaporate deposit of Saline Valley, Inyo County, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 32: 1287; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 256; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347.
      • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
        • Dublin Hills
          • Shoshone
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 63, 72; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153, 376.; Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: 11. Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153.
Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: A-11; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295, 377.
    • Kern Co.
      • Cane Spring
Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1873b), Mineralogical notes on Utah, California, and Nevada, with a description of priceite a new borate of lime: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 6: 130; Phillips, John Arthur (1877), The alkaline and boracic lakes of California: Living AGE: 133: 637; Blake, Wm. P. (1881), Contributions to the geology of California: Mining and Scientific Press: 42: 323; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 50.
      • China Lake [town]
        • China Lake
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 258.
      • El Paso Mts
        • El Paso Mountains District
          • Ricardo
No reference listed
      • Fremont Valley
        • Saltdale
          • Koehn Lake (Kane Springs; Desert Springs)
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10055380.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 258.
      • Kramer District (Kramer Borate District)
www.mineralsocal.org
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 146; Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 51, 213, 256.
Am Min (1958) 43:169-170
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 64, 311.
            • West Baker
Murdoch, Joseph (1940), The crystallography of ulexite: American Mineralogist: 25: 754; Baur, Gretta S. & Leonard B. Sand (1957), X-ray powder data for ulexite and halotrichite: American Mineralogist: 42: 676-678; Baur, Gretta S., Willard N. Larsen & Leonard B. Sand (1957), Image projection by fibrous minerals: American Mineralogist: 42: 697-699; Dietz, Ralph W. (1957), Television ulexite: Gems & Minerals, No. 232: 16-17, Jan. 1957.
    • Lake Co.
      • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
        • Clear Lake
Hanks, Henry Garber (1883), Report on borax deposits: California Mining Bureau. Report 3, part 2, 111 pp.: 38; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
        • Clear Lake Oaks
Korbel & Novak (1999), Mineral Encylopaedia: 133.
    • Los Angeles Co.
Foshag, William Frederick (1918), Ulexite from Lang, California: American Mineralogist: 3: 35; Foshag, William Frederick (1921), The origin of the colemanite deposits of California: Economic Geology: 16: 199-214; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
        • Tick Canyon
          • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
Foshag, William Frederick (1918), Ulexite from Lang, California: American Mineralogist: 3: 35; Foshag, William Frederick (1921), The origin of the colemanite deposits of California: Economic Geology: 16: 199-214; Masimer, G.E. (1966) Tick Canyon revisited. Gems and Minerals: 347: 20-23; Pemberton, H. Earl (1968) The minerals of the Sterling borax mine, Los Angeles County, California. Mineral Explorer 3, No. 1, 10 pp.: 5; Murdoch, Joseph (1945), Probertite from Los Angeles County, California: American Mineralogist: 30: 719; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 258.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Barstow District
        • Barstow
          • Lead Mountain [2]
Field trip information, Bob Housley.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District; Calico-Daggett area)
          • Calico
[Murdoch, J & Webb, R (1966) Minerals of California, California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 189]; Foshag, William Frederick (1922), Calico Hills, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 7: 208-209; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 258.
      • Coyote Holes (Willow Springs Lake)
Hanks, Henry Garber (1883), Report on borax deposits: California Mining Bureau. Report 3, part 2, 111 pp.: 28; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
Korbel & Novak (1999) Min. Encylopaedia, p.133.
      • Sperry Hills
        • Acme (Morrison)
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
J.V. Tingley and J. Quade (1987) Mineral resource inventory - U.S. Navy master land withdrawal area, Churchill County, Nevada:. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology OFR 87-2
USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
    • Clark Co.
      • Muddy Mts
        • Muddy Mountains District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
Stephen B. Castor (1990) Borates in the Muddy Mountains, Clark County NBMG Nevada Geolog
Stephen B. Castor (1990) Borates in the Muddy Mountains, Clark County NBMG Nevada Geolog
Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min.Encylopaedia, p.133.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347; Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999; Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology (1983), "A Mineral Inventory of the Esmeralda-Stateline Resource Area, Las Vegas District, Nevada," NBMG Open File Report 83-11
NBMG Bull 78 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Esmeralda County, Nevada
American Mineralogist 19:268-274
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols, Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 5.
    • Mineral Co.
      • Marietta District
NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 347; Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication 31, Minerals of Nevada.
    • Nye Co.
      • Spalding Marsh District
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Oklahoma
    • Blaine Co.
      • Southard
Rocks & Minerals 72:4 pp 252-264
    • Custer Co.
Rocks & Minerals: 72(4): 252-264.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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