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About AuroriteHide

Mn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2O
Black, pale brown in transmitted light at the edges of very thin, platy grains
2 - 3
Specific Gravity:
3.81 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Named in 1967 by Arthur S. Radtke, Charles M. Taylor, and Donnel Foster Hewett for the type locality.
This page provides mineralogical data about Aurorite.

Classification of AuroriteHide


4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th ed.:

8 : AB3X7

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Physical Properties of AuroriteHide

Black, pale brown in transmitted light at the edges of very thin, platy grains
2 - 3 on Mohs scale
3.81 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AuroriteHide

Yellow-grey to brownish grey
Strong, cream-white to medium black
400 nmR1=10.4%R2= 36.5%
420 nmR1=10.3%R2= 35.3%
440 nmR1=10.2%R2= 34.0%
460 nmR1=9.99%R2= 32.4%
480 nmR1=9.67%R2= 30.6%
500 nmR1=9.49%R2= 29.2%
520 nmR1=9.31%R2= 27.8%
540 nmR1=9.16%R2= 26.6%
560 nmR1=9.11%R2= 25.6%
580 nmR1=8.93%R2= 24.9%
600 nmR1=8.88%R2= 24.5%
620 nmR1=8.87%R2= 24.0%
640 nmR1=8.85%R2= 23.7%
660 nmR1=8.84%R2= 23.4%
680 nmR1=8.82%R2= 22.9%
700 nmR1=8.80%R2= 22.7%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 36.5%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red

Chemical Properties of AuroriteHide

Mn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2O
IMA Formula:
(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn4+3O7 · 3H2O

Crystallography of AuroriteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.514 Å, c = 20.734 Å
a:c = 1 : 2.759
Unit Cell V:
1,013.81 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Could be R-3.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
6.94 Å(100)
6.20 Å(20)
4.06 Å(50)
3.46 Å(70)
3.29 Å(20)
3.20 Å(10)
2.76 Å(30)
2.70 Å(5)
2.54 Å(50)
2.45 Å(40)
2.40 Å(40)
2.23 Å(50)
2.13 Å(30)
1.98 Å(5)
1.899 Å(40)
1.841 Å(20)
1.795 Å(30)
1.748 Å(5)
1.712 Å(10)
1.668 Å(5)
1.563 Å(5)
1.560 Å(50)
1.508 Å(20)
1.429 Å(50)
1.398 Å(5)
1.321 Å(10)
1.277 Å(10)
1.234 Å(5)
1.204 Å(10)
1.144 Å(10)
1.119 Å(5)
1.064 Å(20)
1.036 Å(10)
ICDD 19-88 (note subsequent change in crystal system). The pattern is nearly indistinguishable from those of Chalcophanite and Jianshuiite. Recorded on type material (Aurora Mine, Hamilton, Nevada).

Type Occurrence of AuroriteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Small, irregular masses and platy or scaly grains, to 8 µm
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In veinlets filling microfractures in manganoan calcite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for AuroriteHide

Simplified Chinese:黑银锰矿

Relationship of Aurorite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ChalcophaniteZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
ErnienickeliteNiMn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
Jianshuiite(Mg,Mn,Ca)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite2 photos of Aurorite associated with Calcite on
Chalcophanite1 photo of Aurorite associated with Chalcophanite on
Goethite1 photo of Aurorite associated with Goethite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FL.TrébeurdeniteFe2+2Fe3+4O2(OH)10CO3·3H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05WoodalliteMg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig.
4.FL.05IowaiteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05JamboriteNi2+1-xCo3+x(OH)2-x(SO4)x · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FL.05FougèriteFe2+4Fe3+2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.10HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
4.FL.15KuzeliteCa4Al2(OH)12[SO4] · 6H2OTrig.
4.FL.20ChalcophaniteZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20ErnienickeliteNiMn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20Jianshuiite(Mg,Mn,Ca)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.25WoodruffiteZn2+x/2(Mn4+1-xMn3+x)O2·yH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.30Asbolane(Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2OHex.
4.FL.35BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
4.FL.40Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
4.FL.40Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2OHex.
4.FL.45Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.55CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.60JenseniteCu3[TeO6] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FL.65LeisingiteCuMg2Te6+O6 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
4.FL.70Akdalaite5Al2O3 · H2OHex.
4.FL.75CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3,Mn,Ca)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.18.1ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.18.3PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AuroriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Radtke, A. S., Taylor, C. M. and Hewett, D. F. (1967): Aurorite, argentian todorokite, and hydrous silver-bearing lead manganese oxide. Econ. Geol. 62, 186-206. - American Mineralogist (1967) 52, 1581 (abstract).
Grice, J. D., Gartrell, B., Gault, R. A. and Van Velthuizen, J. (1994): Ernienickelite, NiMn3O7 . 3H2O, a new mineral species from the Siberia complex, Western Australia: comments on the chalcophanite group. Canadian Mineralogist 32, 333-337.
Criddle, A. J. and Stanley, C. J., Eds. (1993): Quantitative data file for ore minerals, 3rd. ed., Chapman & Hall (London), 29.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 30.

Internet Links for AuroriteHide

Localities for AuroriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Barossa Valley
          • Angaston
Peter Elliott
        • Kapunda
V. Peisley & P. Elliott in prep
        • Robertstown
Francis, G.L., Peisley, V., 2012. Minerals from Fairview and St John's phosphate deposits, South Australia. (self published).
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • Spital am Semmering
        • Steinhaus am Semmering
          • Fröschnitz valley (Fröschnitz)
Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1818) Aurorit und Chalkophanit vom Bergbau am Arzberg bei Steinhaus am Semmering, Steiermark. Pp. 129-130 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Linxi Co.
        • Guandi
Baisheng Zhang (1998): Mineral Resources and Geology 12(5), 318-323
  • Liaoning
    • Huludao
      • Lianshan District
Yongwei Li, Xinguo Liu, and Changxi Guo (2010): Gold Science and Technology 18(2), 45-50
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
No reference listed
  • Shizuoka
    • Shimoda City
      • Rendaiji
Matsubara & Kato (1981) Memoirs of the National Science Museum (Japan), 14, 5-18; The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed)
South Africa
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Dragoon Mts
        • Turquoise Mining District (Courtland-Gleeson Mining District)
          • Gleeson
            • Costello Mine group (Costello claims)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 123.
    • Greenlee Co.
      • Ash Peak Mining District (Twin Peaks Mining District)
        • Duncan
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 124.
      • Shannon Mts
        • Copper Mountain Mining District (Clifton-Morenci Mining District)
          • Morenci
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 124.
    • Yuma Co.
      • Kofa Mts (S.H. Mts)
        • Kofa Mining District
          • Kofa Game Range
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 124, 165, 240, 343, 398.
      • Little Horn Mts
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 124; Cousins, N.B. (1972), Relationship of black calcite to gold and silver mineralization in the Sheep Tanks mining district, Yuma Co., AZ, AZ State Univ. M.S. thesis.
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Storey Co.
      • Comstock Mining District
        • Virginia City
          • Comstock Lode
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • White Pine Mining District
        • Silver Belt
          • Treasure Hill
            • Summit area
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
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