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About WoodruffiteHide

x ~ 0.4 and y ~ 0.7
Dark brown to black
Dull, Earthy
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1953 by Clifford Frondel in honor of Samuel Woodruff [1813 New Jersey, USA - 1880+ Sparta, New jersey, USA], an early nineteenth century zinc miner and an indefatigable mineral collector of Sparta (Ogdensburg), New Jersey, USA. Frederack A. Canfield, Jr. suggested that more Franklin minerals were collected by Woodruff than by both miners of the Losey family and by the several miners of the Kemble family. The senior Canfield purchased Samuel Woodruff's mineral collection in 1865. A Samuel Woodruff had a limestone quarry known for its chondrodite in Sparta (Ogdensburg), New Jersey, USA and he apparently received a patent for a seed planting hoe in 1858. A notice read: "July 10, 1878 The studio of Mr. Samuel Woodruff at Sparta is well worth a visit by those who have a love for the charms in nature and art. Mr. Woodruff is best known as a painter of portraits, but excels as a delineator of fish and game. His studio is lined with the products of his skillful brush, many of which are worthy a place beside works of greater pretensions. Mr. W. is also noted as a mineralogist, and is the possessor of the finest collection of minerals, both native and foreign, to be found in the county. His cabinet contains many hundred specimens from all parts of the country, including some rare and curious specimens from Franklin Furnace and Ogdensbur[g]."
At the type locality, found "chiefly as masses and crusts with a botryoidal surface and a concentric, coarsely layered internal structure. The material is very fine-grained and is opaque in crushed grains. Occasionally, corroded crystals of franklinite are found embedded in the masses, and certain of the layers, usually the outermost, may contain disseminated, platy crystals of chalcophanite.

Classification of WoodruffiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra

8 : AB3X7

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg

Physical Properties of WoodruffiteHide

Dull, Earthy
Dark brown to black
Dark brown
4½ on Mohs scale
Aggregates may be soft or powdery
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
4.01 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.983 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of WoodruffiteHide


x ~ 0.4 and y ~ 0.7
IMA Formula:
Zn2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10 · 4H2O

Crystallography of WoodruffiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 24.81 Å, b = 2.85 Å, c = 9.58 Å
α = 93.85°
a:b:c = 8.705 : 1 : 3.361
Unit Cell V:
676 ų
Pseudo-tetragonal (primitive); a ~8.42, c ~9.28 A.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
9.34 Å(50)
4.66 Å(100)
4.08 Å(30)
3.64 Å(30)
3.08 Å(20b)
2.66 Å(60)
2.48 Å(60)
2.39 Å(30)
2.32 Å(20)
2.16 Å(30)
2.12 Å(30)
1.86 Å(40)
1.81 Å(30)
1.69 Å(40)
1.68 Å(20)
1.61 Å(30)
1.57 Å(10)
1.52 Å(20)
1.48 Å(50)
1.42 Å(30)
1.40 Å(30)
1.34 Å(30)
1.30 Å(30)
1.22 Å(10)
1.13 Å(10)
1.10 Å(10)
1.05 Å(10)
ICDD 16-338. X-ray patterns may superficially resemble todorokite or cryptomelane. Above d values for Sandur, India. The d values of type material vary from that of Sandur: 9.51 (50), 6.99 (40), 4.77 (100), 4.40 (30), 3.48 (20), 3.13 (20), 2.63 (20), 2.466 (40), 2.404 (50), 2.225 (50), 2.131 (20), 1.984 (30), 1.985 (20), 1.747 (20), 1.660 (20), 1.423 (50) (Frondel, 1953). See also x-ray data of Meisser and Perseil (1993) showing better data fit with type material.

Type Occurrence of WoodruffiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Botryoidal with fine-grained internal structure may show concentric layers
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Deeply weathered manganese-zinc minerals from a zinc silicate and zinc oxide deposit hosted by marble
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for WoodruffiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Woodruffite associated with ChalcophaniteZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2O
1 photo of Woodruffite associated with HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2O
1 photo of Woodruffite associated with ChapmaniteFe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FL.TrébeurdeniteFe2+2Fe3+4O2(OH)10CO3·3H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05WoodalliteMg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05IowaiteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05JamboriteNi2+1-xCo3+x(OH)2-x(SO4)x · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FL.05FougèriteFe2+4Fe3+2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.10HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
4.FL.15KuzeliteCa4Al2(OH)12[SO4] · 6H2OTrig.
4.FL.20AuroriteMn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20ChalcophaniteZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20ErnienickeliteNiMn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20Jianshuiite(Mg,Mn,Ca)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.30Asbolane(Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2OHex.
4.FL.35BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
4.FL.40Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
4.FL.40Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2OHex.
4.FL.45Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.55CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.60JenseniteCu3[TeO6] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FL.65LeisingiteCu2MgTe6+O6 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
4.FL.70Akdalaite5Al2O3 · H2OHex.
4.FL.75CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.5.1ZinciteZnOHex. 6mm : P63mc
7.5.4WülfingiteZn(OH)2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.5.5GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.5.6HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.5.7HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.5.8ChalcophaniteZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.5.10FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.5.11MonteponiteCdOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.5.12MontroyditeHgOOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn

Fluorescence of WoodruffiteHide

Not fluorescent in ultraviolet

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WoodruffiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Frondel, C. (1953): New manganese oxides: hydrohausmannite and woodruffite. American Mineralogist, 38, 761-769.
Maganna, Bouska (1963) Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 506-507.
Meisser, Nicolas & Perseil, Elena Adriana (1993): Occurrence of woodruffite, (Zn,Mn+2)Mn3+4O7.1-2H2O, hetaerolite, ZnMn2O4, and hydrohetaerolite, HZnMn2-xO4, of supergene origin in a skarn of Mount Chemin (Valais, Switzerland). Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 73, 11-19.
Post, Jeffrey E., Heaney, P. J., Cahill, C. L. and Finger, Lawrence W. (2003): Woodruffite: A new Mn oxide structure with 3 x 4 tunnels. American Mineralogist, 88, 1697-1702.

Internet Links for WoodruffiteHide

Localities for WoodruffiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Carinthia
    • Villach
      • Heiligengeist
  • Vorarlberg
    • Montafon
      • Verwall Alps (Verwall Group)
        • Rinder valley (Gafluna valley)
Kolitsch, U. & Brandstätter, F. (2012): 1739) Andradit, Kassiterit, Epidot, Ferro-Aktinolith, Hedenbergit und Woodruffit von der Putzkammeralpe im Rindertal (Gaflunatal), Montafon, Vorarlberg. Pp. 143-147 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2012): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXI. Carinthia II, 202./122., 123-180.
  • British Columbia
    • Revelstoke Mining Division
      • Lardeau
Sabina, Ann P., Some new mineral occurrences in Canada; Current Research, Part A, Geol. Surv. Can., Paper 78-1A, p. 253-258, 1978.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER HORVÁTH, E., GAULT, R.A., and TARASSOFF, P. (1998) Mineralogy of the Saint Amable sill, Varennes and Saint Amable, Québec, Canada. Mineralogical Record, 29, 83 118.
Horváth, L., Pfenninger-Horváth, E., Gault, R. A., & Tarassoff, P. (1998): Mineralogy of the Saint-Amable Sill, Varennes and Saint-Amable, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 29: 83-118.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
            • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
              • Hilarion area
Möckel, S. (2001): Wallkilldellit und weitere acht Neubestimmungen aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis 26 (11), 43.
  • Karnataka
    • Bellary District
      • Bellary-Hospet iron belt
        • Sandur
Rao, J. S. R. K., Naidu, B. V. & Rao, K. V. (1979): Ore microscopic, x-ray and trace elemental data on manganese ores from Sandur, Karnataka, India. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica 24, 91-97.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Baselga di Pinè
        • "Le Trote" ("La Trota")
Ferretti, P., Fassina, B. and Rocchetti, I. (2018) Il giacimento manganesifero della miniera Erla (Baselga di Pinè, TN). I minerali e il sito estrattivo. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 42, 4 (4-2018), 246-261.
      • Frassilongo
        • Roveda
Ferretti, P., Camin, C., Fassina, B., Gentile, P., Rocchetti, I., Vecchi, F. (2018) Miniera Tingherla (Frassilongo, Valle del Fersina). Aggiornamento di una località classica della mineralogia trentina. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 42, 2 (2-2018), 108-141.
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Torrebelvicino
        • Monte Naro
          • Monte Naro - Mercanti Valley side
Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. "I minerali nel Vicentino", Museo "G. Zannato", Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza) 2011
Strohel E. (1971, June). The Mineralogy of Jamaican Bauxite. In The Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica, Proceedings of bauxite/alumina symposium p63.
  • Yamagata
Nambu & Yoshida (1993) Sanko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 53.
  • Chihuahua
    • Aquiles Serdán Municipality
      • Santa Eulalia Mining District
        • East Camp
Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
  • Durango
    • Mapimí Municipality
Min Rec 34:5 p85
Post, et al., American Mineralogist 2003
  • Michoacan
    • Coalcomám Municipality
Ref.: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, volumen 17, número 2, p.143-153 (2000)
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mts
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
  • Asturias
    • Salas
      • Carlés
- Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp.
  • Valais
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Meisser, N. & Perseil, E. A. (1993): Occurrence of woodruffite, (Zn,Mn+2)Mn3+4O7.1-2H2O, hetaerolite, ZnMn2O4, and hydrohetaerolite, HZnMn2-xO4, of supergene origin in a skarn of Mount Chemin (Valais, Switzerland). Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 73, 11-19.; Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 213.
  • California
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Santa Cruz
Mineralogical Record: 17:315
  • Nevada
Excalibur Mineral Corporation
      • Clan Alpine Mts
        • Chalk Mountain Mining District
Robert E. Walstrom Collection
    • Eureka Co.
      • Gibellini Mining District
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Frondel, C.: Am. Min.:38:761-769 (1953); Dunn(1995):Pt4:606.
Frondel, C.: Am. Min.:38:761-769 (1953); Baum, J.L.: The Sterling Hill mud zone: The Picking Table:3(2):8-10; Dunn(1995):Pt4:606.
Frondel, C.: Am.Min.:38:761-769 (1953); MinRec 19:274; Dunn(1995):Pt4:606.
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