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Zircon

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About ZirconHide

Formula:
Zr(SiO4)
May contain minor U, Th, Pb, Hf, Y/REE, P, and others.
As a Commodity:
Colour:
Colourless, yellow, grey, reddish-brown, green, brown, black
Lustre:
Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
4.6 - 4.7
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Renamed in 1783 by Abraham Gottlob Werner from the Arabic (and, in turn, from the Persian "azargun") "zar", gold, plus "gun", coloured, referring to one of the many colours that the mineral may display. Originally named λυγκύριον "lyncurion" in ~300 BCE by Theophrastus. A mineral that may have been today's zircon was called chrysolithos by Pliny in 37. Called jacinth by Georgius Agricola in 1555. Mentioned as jargon by Axel Cronstedt in 1758. Called hyacinte by Barthelemy Faujas de Saint-Fond in 1772. Numerous later synonyms have been advanced.
Dimorph of:
Zircon Group. The zirconium analogue of Thorite and Hafnon. Zircon-Hafnon Series. The low-pressure dimorph of Reidite.

Zircon, zirconium orthosilicate, is found in most igneous rocks and some metamorphic rocks as small crystals or grains, mostly widely distributed and rarely more than 1% of the total mass of the rock. It is also found as alluvial grains in some sedimentary rocks due to its high hardness. Zircon has a high refraction index and, when the crystals are large enough, is often used as a gemstone.
In geology, zircon is used for radiometric dating of zircon-bearing rocks (using isotopes of U which is often present as an impurity element, as is Th, radiogenic Pb, Hf, Y, P, and others).

Compare 'UM1984-36-SiO:CaNaZr'.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Zircon.


Classification of ZirconHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AD.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.5.2.1

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
5 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
14.10.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
10 : Silicates of Zr or Hf

Pronounciation of ZirconHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of ZirconHide

Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Comment:
Greasy when metamict
Colour:
Colourless, yellow, grey, reddish-brown, green, brown, black
Streak:
White
Hardness:
7½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Indistinct on {110}{111}
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
4.6 - 4.7 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.714 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ZirconHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.925 - 1.961 nε = 1.980 - 2.015
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.055
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
Very strong
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of ZirconHide

Formula:
Zr(SiO4)

May contain minor U, Th, Pb, Hf, Y/REE, P, and others.
Common Impurities:
Hf,Th,U,REE,O,H,H2O,Fe,Al,P

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Basin Groups to Quaternary : 4348 ± 3 Ma to 0.0003 Ma - based on 2,089 recorded ages.

Crystallography of ZirconHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/amd
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.607(1) Å, c = 5.982(1) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.905
Unit Cell V:
261.13 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Tabular to square prismatic or tetragonal-dipyramidal crystals.
Twinning:
On {101}
Comment:
May be partly or fully metamict, especially U-/Th-rich crystals. Metamictisation leads to an enlarged unit cell.

Crystallographic forms of ZirconHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Zircon no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zircon no.24 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zircon no.66 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zircon no.81 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zircon no.97 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zircon no.133 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zircon no.137 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Zircon - {100}, {301}, {101}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000237ZirconRobinson K, Gibbs G V, Ribbe P H (1971) The structure of zircon: A comparison with garnet American Mineralogist 56 782-79019710293
0000697ZirconHazen R M, Finger L W (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure crystal No. 1, 1 atm - before P American Mineralogist 64 196-20119790293
0000698ZirconHazen R M, Finger L W (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure American Mineralogist 64 196-20119790.98293
0000699ZirconHazen R M, Finger L W (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure American Mineralogist 64 196-20119791.74293
0000700ZirconHazen R M, Finger L W (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure American Mineralogist 64 196-20119792.32293
0000701ZirconHazen R M, Finger L W (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure American Mineralogist 64 196-20119792.89293
0000702ZirconHazen R M, Finger L W (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure American Mineralogist 64 196-20119793.71293
0000703ZirconHazen R M, Finger L W (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure American Mineralogist 64 196-20119794.2293
0000704ZirconHazen R M, Finger L W (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure American Mineralogist 64 196-20119794.81293
0002643ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0002644ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0002645ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0002646ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0002647ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0002648ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0002649ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0002650ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0002651ZirconFinch R J, Hanchar J M, Hoskin P W O, Burns P C (2001) Rare-earth elements in synthetic zircon: Part 2. A single-crystal X-ray study of xenotime substitution American Mineralogist 86 681-68920010293
0006906ZirconKolesov B A, Geiger C A, Armbruster T (2001) The dynamic properties of zircon studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy European Journal of Mineralogy 13 939-94820010293
0018123ZirconWyckoff W, Hendricks S (1927) Die Kristallstruktur von Zirkon und die Kriterien fur spezielle Lagen in tetragonalen Raumgruppen. _cod_database_code 1011263 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 66 73-10219270293
0011201ZirconWyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York Hexagonal closest packed, hcp, structure Crystal Structures 1 7-8319630293
0011237ZirconWyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York Sample at 1123 K Body centered cubic, bcc, structure Crystal Structures 1 7-8319630293
0018125ZirconBinks W (1926) The crystalline structure of zircon. _cod_database_code 1011265 Mineralogical Magazine 21 176-18719260293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.434 Å(45)
3.302 Å(100)
2.518 Å(45)
2.066 Å(20)
1.908 Å(14)
1.712 Å(40)
1.651 Å(14)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
An accessory mineral in igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Synonyms of ZirconHide

Other Language Names for ZirconHide

Varieties of ZirconHide

AlviteA metamict, often Hf-rich variety of Zircon from granite pegmatites.
Original analysis (1855) of material from several localities in Aust-Agder, Norway, shows major Si, Y, Th, Al, Fe, Zr and H2O. Later analysis cited by Clark (1993) shows Zr, Be and/or F...
ArshinoviteA micro-granular, earthy, usually light-colored (white) Zircon of sedimentary origin. Usually mentioned in sodic lakes sediments and caperocks of salt domes. Often Arshinovites are extremely depleted in Hf, and by this reason able to be used for productio...
AuerbachiteMorphological variety of Zircon.
Originally described by Morozevich from Mariupol' Massif (Oktyabr'skii), Azov Sea Region, Donetsk Oblast', Ukraine.
BeccariteA variety of Zircon containing optical anomalies.

Originally reported from Sri Lanka.
CalyptoliteShown to be an altered zircon by Shepard (1857).
ChernobyliteAn anthropogenic (technogenic) variety, formed due to the meltdown of the Chernobyl reactor no. 4, found within the "corium" ("lava"-like material) of the so-called elephant foot structure. Zr and U are from fuel elements. Contains anomalously much uraniu...
CyrtoliteCyrtolite is a hydrous Th+U bearing zircon (up to 27 mas.% of sum). It sometimes occurs with curved, rounded crystals.

Dana's Textbook of Mineralogy by W.E. Ford (pg 611, 4th ed., 1947) treats cyrtolite as a chemical variety of zircon that "contains ura...
Hafnian ZirconA hafnium-bearing variety of zircon with insufficient hafnium to constitute hafnon.
HagataliteVariety of zircon containing Nb, Ta, Th and rare earths. Contains more rare earths and less zirconium than Naegite q.v.
HyacinthYellow-red to red-brown gem variety of zircon.
JargoonUsual nontransparent (not gem quality) Zircon. Obsolete term.
MalaconMalacon is an altered hydrated Zircon with curved, rounded crystals. An alternative spelling is "Malakon"
Matura DiamondA misnomer for colourless zircon.
NaegiteGreenish grey to greenish brown anhedral grains, crude crystals or spheroidal aggregates. Originally mis-described as a new U-Th-silicate, without having analyzed for Zr, but within a year it was found to really be a Y-Th-U-rich variety of zircon (or "cyr...
OerstediteSpelling variant of Œrstedtite.
Varietal name used by Forchhammer (1835) for a metamict/altered zircon from Arendal, Aust-Agder, Norway (see also Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index").
OerstedtiteVarietal name used by Forchhammer (1835) for a metamict zircon from Arendal, Aust-Agder, Norway.
OrvilliteAn altered zircon.
Originally reported from Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Southeast Region, Brazil.
OyamaliteREE- and P-rich variety of zircon.
RibeiriteAn yttrian hydrous Zircon.
Originally reported from Macarani, Bahia, Northeast Region, Brazil.
StarliteBlue variety of zircon.
Uraniferous ZirconAn U-bearing zircon (may or may not correspond to Cyrtolite, which does not necessarily contain U).
YamaguchiliteA REE- & P-rich variety of Zircon.

Originally described from Yamaguchi, Kiso, Nagano prefecture, Chubu region, Honshu Island, Japan.

Relationship of Zircon to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2OTet.
HafnonHfSiO4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
ReiditeZrSiO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
ThoriteTh(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
Thorogummite(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet.
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
107 photos of Zircon associated with QuartzSiO2
106 photos of Zircon associated with AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
88 photos of Zircon associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
47 photos of Zircon associated with TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
46 photos of Zircon associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
42 photos of Zircon associated with OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
40 photos of Zircon associated with Feldspar Group
38 photos of Zircon associated with DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
37 photos of Zircon associated with UraniniteUO2
32 photos of Zircon associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AD.AdrianiteCa12(Al4Mg3Si7)O32Cl6Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4Mon. 2/m
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4Orth.
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25CalderiteMn2+3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2[◻(OH)4]3Iso.
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(AlO4)2Iso.
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(MgSi)(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(TiFe2+)(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3Ti2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25MomoiiteMn2+3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25EringaiteCa3Sc2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe3+10Si4O32Cl6Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiO4)(AlO4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.30CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2OTet.
9.AD.30HafnonHfSiO4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.30ThoriteTh(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.30Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4Mon.
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2xMon.
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

51.5.2.2HafnonHfSiO4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
51.5.2.3ThoriteTh(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
51.5.2.4CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2OTet.
51.5.2.5Thorogummite(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet.
51.5.2.6Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.10.2HafnonHfSiO4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
14.10.3ZektzeriteLiNaZrSi6O15Orth.
14.10.4ParakeldyshiteNa2ZrSi2O7Tric.
14.10.5VlasoviteNa2ZrSi4O11Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.10.6Keldyshite(Na,H)2ZrSi2O7Tric. 1 : P1
14.10.7GaidonnayiteNa2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
14.10.8TerskiteNa4ZrSi6O16 · 2H2OOrth.
14.10.9ElpiditeNa2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2OOrth.
14.10.10HilairiteNa2Zr[SiO3]3 · 3H2OTrig.
14.10.11PetarasiteNa5Zr2(Si6O18)(Cl,OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
14.10.12KhibinskiteK2ZrSi2O7Mon.
14.10.13WadeiteK2Zr(Si3O9)Hex.
14.10.14DalyiteK2ZrSi6O15Tric.
14.10.15KostyleviteK2Zr(Si3O9) · H2OMon.
14.10.16UmbiteK2(Zr,Ti)Si3O9 · H2OOrth.
14.10.17ParaumbiteK3Zr2H(Si3O9)2 · nH2OOrth.
14.10.18GeorgechaoiteNaKZr[Si3O9] · 2H2OOrth. mm2
14.10.19GittinsiteCaZrSi2O7Mon.
14.10.20CalciocatapleiiteCaZr(Si3O9) · 2H2OOrth.
14.10.21CalciohilairiteCaZr[SiO3]3 · 3H2OTrig.
14.10.22ArmstrongiteCaZr[Si6O15] · 3H2OMon.
14.10.23Lemoynite(Na,K)2CaZr2Si10O26 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
14.10.24CatapleiiteNa2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2OMon.
14.10.25BaghdaditeCa6Zr2(Si2O7)2O4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.10.26LovozeriteNa2Ca(Zr,Ti)(Si6O12)[(OH)4O2] · H2OMon.
14.10.27Låvenite(Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.10.28PenkvilksiteNa4Ti2Si8O22 · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
14.10.29DarapiositeKNa2Mn2(Li2ZnSi12)O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
14.10.30BaziriteBaZr(Si3O9)Hex.
14.10.31KomkoviteBaZr[Si3O9] · 3H2OTrig.
14.10.32ZirsinaliteNa6(Ca,Mn2+,Fe2+)Zr(Si6O18)Trig.
14.10.33Tranquillityite(Fe2+,Ca)8(Zr,Y)2Ti3(SiO4)3O12Hex.

Fluorescence of ZirconHide

Many zircons are fluorescent, but some (mainly metamict ones) are not. Fluorescent zircon, from dull to bright in intensity, shows shades of yellow, golden-yellow and yellow-brown (SW UV). This property is often diagnostic in identification.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Thermoluminescent
Notes:
Cathodoluminescent
Health Risks:
U- and Th-bearing zircon is radioactive. Gemstones should be tested for radioactivity before being worn on or near the body.

Zircon in petrologyHide

References for ZirconHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Werner, A.G. (1783) in Romé de l'Isle - Cristallographie, 2nd ed., Paris, 2, 229.
Trofimov, A.K. (1962) The luminescence spectrum of zircon. Geochemistry: 1962: 1102-1108.
Grünenfelder, M., Hofmänner, F., and Grögler, N. (1964) Heterogenität akzessorischer Zirkone und die petrographische Beurteilung ihrer Uran/Blei-Zerfallsalter. II. Präkambrische Zirkonbildung im Gotthardmassiv. Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 44: 543-558.
Nunes, P.D. and Steiger, P.H. (1974) A U-Pb zircon, and Rb-Sr and U-Th-Pb whole-rock study of a polymetamorphic terrane in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 47: 255-280.
Hazen, R.M. and Finger, L.W. (1979) Crystal structure and compressibility of zircon at high pressure. American Mineralogist: 64: 196.
Pupin, J.P. (1980) Zircon and granite petrology. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 73: 207-220.
Bossart, P.J., Meier, M., Oberli, F., and Steiger, R.H. (1986) Morphology versus U-Pb systematics in zircon: a high-resolution isotopic study of a zircon population from a Variscan dike in the Central Alps. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 78: 339-354.
Hinton, R.W.; Upton, B.G.J. (1991): The chemistry of zircon: Variation within and between large crystals from syenite and alkali basalt xenoliths. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55, 3287–3302.
Watson, E.B. and Cherniak, D.J. (1997) Oxygen diffusion in zircon. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 148: 527-544.
Hoskin, P.W.O. (1998): Minor and trace element analysis of natural zircon (ZrSiO4) by SIMS and laser ablation ICPMS: A consideration and comparison of two broadly competitive techniques. J. Trace Microprobe Tech., 16, 301–326.
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Localities for ZirconHide

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