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About BaumhaueriteHide

Heinrich A. Baumhauer
Simplified Pb3As4S9.
Lead-grey, steel-grey; iridescent at times
Specific Gravity:
5.33 - 5.44
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in 1902 by Richard Harrison Solly in honor of Heinrich Adolf Baumhauer [October 26, 1848 Bonn, Germany - August 1, 1926 Fribourg, Switzerland], Professor of Mineralogy, University of Fribourg, Switzerland.
Compare argentobaumhauerite (formerly 'baumhauerite-2a') and bernarlottiite; also 'UM1966-04-S:AsPb'.

The structure contains isolated and interconnected AsS3 pyramids, as, e.g., in case of dufrénoysite, gratonite, sartorite, and seligmannite.

Classification of BaumhaueriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
H : Sulfosalts of SnS archetype
C : With only Pb

6 : 2 < ø < 2.49

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
6 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb alone

Physical Properties of BaumhaueriteHide

Lead-grey, steel-grey; iridescent at times
VHN100=179 - Vickers
On {100} perfect.
5.33 - 5.44 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.42 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BaumhaueriteHide

Strong, in dark brown, pale brown, pale brownish grey, green, violet, blue-green or yellow
400nmR1=38.0%R2= 42.1%
420nmR1=37.6%R2= 41.9%
440nmR1=37.2%R2= 41.6%
460nmR1=36.8%R2= 41.2%
480nmR1=36.4%R2= 40.7%
500nmR1=36.0%R2= 40.4%
520nmR1=35.5%R2= 39.8%
540nmR1=35.1%R2= 39.2%
560nmR1=34.6%R2= 38.6%
580nmR1=34.2%R2= 37.9%
600nmR1=33.7%R2= 37.2%
620nmR1=33.2%R2= 36.5%
640nmR1=32.5%R2= 35.7%
660nmR1=31.8%R2= 34.9%
680nmR1=31.1%R2= 34.2%
700nmR1=30.5%R2= 33.5%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 42.1%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
Internal Reflections:
Deep red

Chemical Properties of BaumhaueriteHide


Simplified Pb3As4S9.
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of BaumhaueriteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 22.74 Å, b = 8.33 Å, c = 7.89 Å
α = 90.35°, β = 97°, γ = 90.42°
a:b:c = 2.73 : 1 : 0.947
Unit Cell V:
1,483.34 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Short prismatic [010]; tabular {100}; striated on {100} parallel to [010] and on {010} parallel to [001]. Some crystals considerably rounded, as by etching.
On {100}, polysynthetic, with visible twin lamellae.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
4.11 (80)
3.56 (80)
3.43 (80)
3.25 (80)
3.00 (100)
2.94 (100)
2.76 (100)
Binntal, Switzerland (close to baumhauerite-2a).

Type Occurrence of BaumhaueriteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
British Museum of Natural History
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BaumhaueriteHide

Other Language Names for BaumhaueriteHide

Simplified Chinese:褐硫砷铅矿
Traditional Chinese:褐硫砷鉛礦

Relationship of Baumhauerite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72Tric. 1 : P1
ArgentodufrénoysiteAg3Pb26As35S80Tric. 1 : P1
ArgentoliveingiteAgxPb40-2xAs48+xS112Tric. 1 : P1
BarikaiteAg3Pb10(Sb8As11)S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
BernarlottiitePb6(As5Sb3)S18Tric. 1 : P1
BoscardiniteTlPb4(Sb7As2)S18Tric. 1 : P1
Carducciite(Ag2Sb2)Pb12(As,Sb)16S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
DekatriasartoriteTlPb58As97S204Mon. 2/m : P21/b
DufrénoysitePb2As2S5Mon. 2 : P21
ÉcrinsiteAgTl3Pb4As11Sb9S36Tric. 1 : P1
EnneasartoriteTl6Pb32As70S140Mon. 2/m : P21/b
GuettarditePbAsSbS4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
HendekasartoriteTl2Pb48As82S172Mon. 2/m : P21/b
HeptasartoriteTl7Pb22As55S108Mon. 2/m : P21/b
HyršlitePb8As10Sb6S32Mon. 2 : P21
IncomsartoriteTl6Pb144As246S516Mon. 2/m
ParapierrotiteTlSb5S8Mon. m
PhilrothiteTlAs3S5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
PierrotiteTl2(Sb,As)10S16Orth. mm2 : Pna21
PolloneiteAgPb46As26Sb23S120Mon. 2 : P21
RathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
SartoritePbAs2S4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
Twinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4Mon. 2/m
VeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5Mon. 2 : P21

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Realgar7 photos of Baumhauerite associated with Realgar on mindat.org.
Tennantite7 photos of Baumhauerite associated with Tennantite on mindat.org.
Pyrite6 photos of Baumhauerite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Dolomite6 photos of Baumhauerite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite5 photos of Baumhauerite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Pararealgar2 photos of Baumhauerite associated with Pararealgar on mindat.org.
Dufrénoysite1 photo of Baumhauerite associated with Dufrénoysite on mindat.org.
Lengenbachite1 photo of Baumhauerite associated with Lengenbachite on mindat.org.
Trechmannite1 photo of Baumhauerite associated with Trechmannite on mindat.org.
Sartorite Group1 photo of Baumhauerite associated with Sartorite Group on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.HC.05bArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72Tric. 1 : P1
2.HC.05eChabournéiteTl4Pb2(Sb,As)20S34Tric. 1 : P1
2.HC.05dDufrénoysitePb2As2S5Mon. 2 : P21
2.HC.05aGuettarditePbAsSbS4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HC.05fParapierrotiteTlSb5S8Mon. m
2.HC.05fPierrotiteTl2(Sb,As)10S16Orth. mm2 : Pna21
2.HC.05dRathiteAg2Pb12-xTlx/2As18+x/2S40Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HC.05aSartoritePbAs2S4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HC.05aTwinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4Mon. 2/m
2.HC.05dVeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5Mon. 2 : P21
2.HC.05gMarumoitePb32As40S92Mon. 2 : P21
2.HC.05eDalnegroite(Tl4Pb2)(As12Sb8)S34Tric. 1 : P1
2.HC.10aFülöppitePb3Sb8S15Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.HC.10cHeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.HC.10bPlagionitePb5Sb8S17Mon. 2/m
2.HC.10dSemseyitePb9Sb8S21Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.HC.15BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HC.20RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.HC.25MoëloitePb6Sb6S14(S3)Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
2.HC.30DadsonitePb23Sb25S60ClTric. 1 : P1
2.HC.35OwyheeiteAg3+xPb10-2xSb11+xS28, -0.13 < x > +0.20Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.HC.40ParasterryiteAg4Pb20Sb14As10S58Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.6.1SartoritePbAs2S4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.2DufrénoysitePb2As2S5Mon. 2 : P21
5.6.5GratonitePb9As4S15Trig. 3m : R3m
5.6.6JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.7FülöppitePb3Sb8S15Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.8ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42Hex. 6 : P63
5.6.9PlagionitePb5Sb8S17Mon. 2/m
5.6.10HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.13SemseyitePb9Sb8S21Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.15BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.6.17RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.18GuettarditePbAsSbS4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.6.19Twinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4Mon. 2/m
5.6.20VeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5Mon. 2 : P21
5.6.21SorbyiteCuPb9(Sb,As)11S26Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.6.22GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.23GalenobismutitePbBi2S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.24CosalitePb2Bi2S5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.25CannizzaritePb48Bi56S132Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.26LillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.27GiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57Mon. 2/m
5.6.32KirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.33UstarasitePb(Bi,Sb)6S10 (?)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BaumhaueriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Solly, R.H. (1902) Sulpharsenites of lead from the Binnenthal. Part III. Baumhauerite, a new mineral; and dufrenoysite. Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 151-171.
Solly R.H. (1903), Zs. Kr.: 37: 321.
Palache, C. (1938) Crystallographic studies of the sulphosalts: baumhauerite, meneghinite, jordanite, diaphorite, freieslebenite with x-ray studies by W. E. Richmond and Horace Winchell. American Mineralogist: 23: 821-836.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 460-462.
Rösch, H., Hellner, E. (1959) Hydrothermale untersuchungen am system PbS - As2S3. Naturwissenschaften: 46: 72-72.
Le Bihan, M.T. (1961) Contribution à l'étude structurale des sulfures d'arsenic et de plomb. Structure de la baumhauerite. Acta Crystallographica: 14: 1210-1211.
Le Bihan, M. Th. (1962): Structural study of some natural sulfides of lead and arsenic from the deposit of Binn. Bull. Soc. Franc. Minéral. Cristallogr. 85, 15-47 (in French).
Engel, P., Nowacki, W. (1969) Die Kristallstruktur von Baumhauerit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 129: 178–202.
Graeser, S., Paar, W.H., Chen, T.T. (1986): Baumhauerit, ein zweites Vorkommen (Salzburg / A). Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 66, 259-266 (in German).
Pring, A., Birch, W. D., Sewell, D., Graeser, S., Edenharter, A., Criddle, A. (1990) Baumhauerite-2a: A silver-bearing mineral with baumhauerite-like supercell from Lengenbach, Switzerland. American Mineralogist: 75: 915-922.
Pring, A., Graeser, S. (1994) Polytypism in baumhauerite. American Mineralogist: 79: 302-307.
Pring, A. (2001) The crystal chemistry of the sartorite group minerals from Lengenbach, Binntal, Switzerland – a HRTEM study. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrogaphische Mitteilungen: 81: 69–87.
Roth, P. (2007) Baumhauerite. in Minerals first discovered in Switzerland and minerals named after Swiss individuals, Kristallografik Verlag (Achberg Germany): 38-39.
Kharbish, S. (2016) Micro‐Raman spectroscopic investigations of extremely scarce Pb–As sulfosalt minerals: baumhauerite, dufrénoysite, gratonite, sartorite, and seligmannite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 47: 1360-1366.
Topa, D., Makovicky, E. (2016) Argentobaumhauerite: name, chemistry, crystal structure, comparison with baumhauerite, and position in the Lengenbach mineralization sequence. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 819-840.

Internet Links for BaumhaueriteHide

Localities for BaumhaueriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Puttapa
Elliott, P. (1991): Minerals from the Beltana mine, Puttapa, South Australia. Mineralogical Record 22, 449-456.
  • Salzburg
    • Golling
      • Grubach
        • Moosegg (Mooseck)
Graeser, S., Paar, W.H., Chen, T.T. (1986): Baumhauerit, ein zweites Vorkommen (Salzburg / A). Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 66, 259-266; A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989); Topa, D. & Makovicky, E. (2016): Argentobaumhauerite: name, chemistry, crystal structure, comparison with baumhauerite, and position in the Lengenbach mineralization sequence. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 819-840.
  • Styria
    • Bruck an der Mur
      • Laming valley
        • Oberort-Tragöß
Kolitsch, U. (2009): 1607) Turmalin und ein Baumhauerit-Mineral aus dem Gipsabbau Oberort-Tragöß, Bruck an der Mur, Steiermark. P. 226 in: Niedermayr, G. et al. (2009): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVIII. Carinthia II, 199/119, 189-236.
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Madoc area
        • Huntingdon Township
JAMBOR, J.L. (1967): New lead sulfantimonides from Madoc, Ontario. 2. Mineral descriptions. Canadian Mineralogist 9, 191-213. JAMBOR, J.L., LAFLAMME, J.H.G. & WALKER, D.A. (1982): A re-examination of the Madoc sulfosalts. Mineralogical Record 13, 93-100.
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Bomby Township
Harris, D.C., Roberts, A.C., Laflamme, J.H.G. and Stanley, C.J. (1988): Criddleite, TlAg2Au3Sb10S10, a New Gold-Bearing Mineral from Hemlo, Ontario, Canada. Mineralogical Magazine 52, 691-697.
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
  • West Azerbaijan
    • Takab (Takan Tepe)
Asadi, H.H., Voncken, J.H.L, Kühnel, R.A., and Hale, M. (2000): Petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Zarshuran Carlin-like gold deposit, northwest Iran. Mineralium Deposita 35, 656-671.; Asadi, H. H.; Voncken, J. H. L.; Hale, M. (2001): Sulphosalts at Zarshuran Carlin-like gold deposit, Northwest Iran: Implications for gold mineralization. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Applied Earth Science 110, B24-B32.
  • Tuscany
    • Lucca Province
      • Seravezza
Orlandi P., Del Chiaro L., Pagano R. (1996): Minerals of the Seravezza Marble, Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Record 27, 47-58.; Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp.
  • Aomori
    • Shimokita peninsula
Koubutsu Jouhou, # 131 (15-4-2002)
  • Batken
[Lapis 11:11-24]
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Lima
    • Oyon Province
Vizquerra Benavides, J.A. (2006): Preliminary geochemical, petrological and mineralogical investigation of the high-grade Ag-Pb-Zn Pozo-Rico, Uchucchacua, Peru. Unpublished masters thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada, 205 pp.
  • Valais
    • Binn Valley
      • Binn
Dan Topa, NHM Vienna, September 2018
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Mineralogical Magazine(1902) 13, 151-160(-171)
  • Alaska
    • Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area
      • Kaiyuh District
Van King specimen
  • Colorado
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Mountain District
        • Anvil Mountain
Cobban, R., Collins, D., Foord, E., Kile, D., Modreski, P. and Murphy, J. (1997): Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised, 665 pp.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
J. Cianciulli, Curator, Franklin Mineral Museum
  • Pennsylvania
    • Blair Co.
      • Birmingham
Robert C. Smith, II Ph.D., P.G.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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