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About BiotiteHide

Jean Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774 Paris, France - February 3, 1862 Paris, France]
Member of:
Named in 1847 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann in honour of the French physicist, mathematician, meteoriticist, astronomer, and mineralogist, Jean-Baptiste Biot [April 21, 1774, Paris, France - February 3, 1862, Paris, France], who studied the optical properties of the micas. Biot and his associate, Félix Savart, discovered that an electric current in a wire produced a magnetic field. Biot received many awards in his lifetime in recognition of the value of his scientific researches.
A series or subgroup of the Mica Group.

The CNMMN Subcommittee on Nomenclature of the Micas (1998, 1999) has recommended that the name biotite be used for a series between the joins Annite-Phlogopite and Siderophyllite-Eastonite, and is therefore no longer to be regarded as a species name. Fluorophlogopite and Fluorotetraferriphlogopite should be included. The name is most commonly used for the micas on the Fe-rich end of the series, including Annite, Fluorannite, Tetra-ferri-annite and Siderophyllite.

The name "biotite" is also used as a generic field term for any incompletely analysed dark mica.

May alter to vermiculite.

Classification of BiotiteHide

Redefined by the IMA

Pronounciation of BiotiteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Paleoarchean to Quaternary : 3366 Ma to 1.34 ± 0.05 Ma - based on 221 recorded ages.

Crystallographic forms of BiotiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Biotite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Synonyms of BiotiteHide

Other Language Names for BiotiteHide

Simplified Chinese:黑云母

Varieties of BiotiteHide

AnomiteMica group. An anomalous (hence the name) variety of "biotite" which has its optic axial plane perpendicular to (010).
Barian-Titanian BiotiteA barium- and titanium-bearing biotite mica.
Chrom-BiotitA Cr-bearing variety of biotite.
Chromian BiotiteA Cr-bearing variety of biotite.
Eastonite (of Winchell)A name for the Biotite end-member.
HeterophylliteDesignation for a uniaxial biotite from Mangualde, Portugal.
ManganophylliteA Mn-rich variety of Biotite.

Originally described from Harstigen Mine, Pajsberg, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden.
Mg(T) MicaAn Aluminium-poor Biotite group mica.
NatronbiotiteA biotite with Na partially replacing K
OxybiotiteAn oxidized biotite (?). Name not mentioned in the mica report.
RubellanOxidized and dehydrogenated Biotite.
TitanbiotiteTi-bearing variety of biotite; occurs in volcanic rocks.
Titanian BiotiteTi variety of Biotite

Relationship of Biotite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
BalestraiteKLi2V5+Si4O12Mon. 2 : B2
BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Glauconite(K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
LepidoliteA Li-rich mica in, or close to, the so-called Polylithionite-Trilithionite series.Mon.
LuanshiweiiteKLiAl1.50.5(Si3.5Al0.5)O10(OH,F)2 Mon. 2/m : B2/b
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
ZinnwalditeMica Group.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz97 photos of Biotite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Almandine75 photos of Biotite associated with Almandine on mindat.org.
Corundum53 photos of Biotite associated with Corundum on mindat.org.
Microcline53 photos of Biotite associated with Microcline on mindat.org.
Calcite50 photos of Biotite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Albite-Anorthite Series31 photos of Biotite associated with Albite-Anorthite Series on mindat.org.
Feldspar Group30 photos of Biotite associated with Feldspar Group on mindat.org.
Muscovite30 photos of Biotite associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Zircon29 photos of Biotite associated with Zircon on mindat.org.
Kyanite28 photos of Biotite associated with Kyanite on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Biotite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for BiotiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Parry, W.T. and Nackowski, M.P. (1963) Copper, lead, and zinc in biotites from Basin and Range quartz monzonites. Economic Geology: 58: 1126-1144.
Wones, D.R. and Eugster, H.P. (1965) Stability of biotite: experiment, theory and application. American Mineralogist: 50: 1228-1272.
Dodge, F.C.W., Smith, V.C., and May, R.E. (1969) Biotites from the granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada batholith. Journal of Petrology: 10: 250-271.
Lovering, T.G., Cooper, J.R., Drewes, H.D., and Cone, G.C. (1970) Copper in biotite from igneous rocks in southern Arizona as an ore indicator. USGS Professional Paper 700-B: 1-8.
Giardini, A.A., Hurst, V.J., Melton, C.E., John, C., and Stormer, J. (1974) Biotite as a primary inclusion in diamond: Its nature and significance. American Mineralogist: 59: 783-789.
Kesler, S.E., Issigonis, M.J., Brownlow, A.H., Damon, P.E., Moore, W.J., Northcote, K.E., and Preto, V.A. (1975) Geochemistry of biotites from mineralized and barren intrusive systems. Economic Geology: 70: 559-567.
Rehrig, W.A. and McKinney, C.N. (1976) The distribution and origin of anomalous copper in biotite. Mining Engineering: 27, 68 pp.
Tulloch, A. (1979) Secondary Ca-Al silicates as low-grade alteration products of granitoid biotite. Contributions to Mineralogy & Petrology: 69: 105-117.
Neiva, A. (1981) Geochemistry of hybrid granitoid rocks and of their biotites from Central Northern Portugal and their petrogenesis. Lithos: 14: 149-163.
Ohta, T., Takeda, H., and Takéuchi, Y. (1982) Mica polytypism: similarities in the crystal structures of coexisting 1M and 2M 1 oxybiotite. American Mineralogist: 67: 298-310.
Dymek, R.F. (1983) Titanium, aluminium and interlayer cation substitution in biotite from high-grade gneisses, West Greenland. American Mineralogist: 68: 880-899.
Banfield, J.F. and Eggleton, R.A. (1988) Transmission electron microscope study of biotite weathering. Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 47-60.
Walmsley, J.C. and Lang, A.R. (1992) Oriented biotite inclusions in diamond coat. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 108-111.
Abdel-Rahman, M.A. (1994) Nature of biotites from alkaline, calc-alkaline and peraluminous magmas. Journal of Petrology: 35: 525-541.
Nijland, T., Verschure, R. and Maijler, C. (1994) Catalytic effect of biotite: formation of hydrogarnet lenses. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (Paris): 318: 501-506.
Rieder, M., Cavazzani, G., D'Yakonov, Y.S., Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Gottardi, G., Guggenheim, S., Koval, P.V., Müller, G., Neiva, A.M.R., Radaslovich, E.W., Robert, J.-L., Sassi, F.P., Takeda, H., Weiss, Z., and Wones, D.R. (1998) Nomenclature of the micas. The Canadian Mineralogist: 36: 905-912. (http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/IMA/ima98(10%29.pdf)
Rieder, M., Cavazzani, G., D'Yakonov, Y.S., Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Gottardi, G., Guggenheim, S., Koval, P.V., Müller, G., Neiva, A.M.R., Radaslovich, E.W., Robert, J.-L., Sassi, F.P., Takeda, H., Weiss, Z., and Wones, D.R.(1999) Nomenclature of the Micas. Mineralogical Magazine: 63: 267-267.
Li, G., Peacor, D.R., and Essene, E.J. (1998) The formation of sulfides during alteration of biotite to chlorite-corrensite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 46: 649-657.
Ibhi, A. and Nachit, H (2000) The substitution mechanism of Ba and Ti into phyllosilicate phases: the example of barium-titanium biotite. Annals of Chim. Sci. Mat. 25, 627-634.
Parry, W.T., Wilson, P.N., Moser, D., and Heizler, M.T. (2001) U-Pb dating of zircon and 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite at Bingham, Utah. Economic Geology: 96: 1671-1683.
Shabani, A. and Lalonde, E. (2003) Composition of biotite from granitic rocks of the Canadian Appalachian orogen: a potential tectonomagmatic indicator? Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 1381-1396.
Machev, P., Klain, L., and Hecht, L. (2004) Mineralogy and chemistry of biotites from the Belogradchik pluton - some petrological implications for granitoid magmatism in north-west Bulgaria. Bulgarian Geological Society conference paper, Annual Scientific Conference “Geology 2004”, pp. 48-50. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255591087_MINERALOGY_AND_CHEMISTRY_OF_BIOTITES_FROM_THE_BELOGRADCHIK_PLUTON_-_SOME_PETROLOGICAL_IMPLICATIONS_FOR_GRANITOID_MAGMATISM_IN_NORTH_WEST_BULGARIA)

Internet Links for BiotiteHide

Localities for BiotiteHide

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