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Carnallite

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About CarnalliteHide

03238950015807829725066.jpg
Rudolf von Carnall
Formula:
KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Colour:
Yellow to white, reddish, seldom white, colourless or blue.
Lustre:
Greasy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
1.602
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in honor of Rudolf von Carnall (9 February 1804, Glatz, German Empire - 17 November 1874, Wroclaw, German Empire (now Poland)), mining engineer and geologist.
Chemically and structurally related to novograblenovite.


Classification of CarnalliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.BA.10

3 : HALIDES
B : Simple halides, with H2O
A : M:X = 1:1 and 2:3
11.1.2.1

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
1 : AmBX3
8.4.5

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
4 : Halides of the alkaline earths and Mg

Physical Properties of CarnalliteHide

Greasy
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Yellow to white, reddish, seldom white, colourless or blue.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
1.602 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.598 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of CarnalliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.465 - 1.466 nβ = 1.474 - 1.475 nγ = 1.494 - 1.496
2V:
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 66°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.029 - 0.030
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v

Chemical Properties of CarnalliteHide

Formula:
KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Common Impurities:
Br,Rb,Cs,Tl,Fe

Crystallography of CarnalliteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnna
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.119(3) Å, b = 22.472(4) Å, c = 9.551(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.717 : 1 : 0.425
Unit Cell V:
3,459.62 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
12
Morphology:
Crystals pseudo-hexagonal, pyramidal in habit, due to the substantially equant development of pyramids and brachydomes. Thick tabular with large {0001} at times. Massive, granular.
Twinning:
Secondary twinning lamellae. May exhibit polysynthetic twinning.

Epitaxial Relationships of CarnalliteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxy Comments:
Hematite scales oriented with {0001} parallel to carnallite {001}, also parallel {110} or {100}.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Saline marine deposits by action of high potash fluids.

Type Occurrence of CarnalliteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Upper layers of saline deposits of the marine type.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for CarnalliteHide

Simplified Chinese:光卤石
Spanish:Carnalita
Traditional Chinese:光鹵石

Varieties of CarnalliteHide

BromcarnalliteA bromian Carnallite
IodcarnalliteArtificial Iodine analogue of Carnallite

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Carnallite associated with HaliteNaCl
6 photos of Carnallite associated with SylviteKCl
4 photos of Carnallite associated with RokühniteFeCl2 · 2H2O
2 photos of Carnallite associated with TachyhydriteCaMg2Cl6 · 12H2O
1 photo of Carnallite associated with RinneiteK3Na[FeCl6]

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.BA.05HydrohaliteNaCl · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.4.1SellaiteMgF2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
8.4.2NeighboriteNaMgF3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.4.3BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.4.4KorshunovskiteMg2Cl(OH)3 · 4H2OTric.
8.4.6TachyhydriteCaMg2Cl6 · 12H2OTrig.
8.4.7FluoriteCaF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
8.4.8SinjariteCaCl2 · 2H2OTet.
8.4.9AntarcticiteCaCl2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
8.4.10ChlorocalciteKCaCl3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.4.11RorisiteCaFClTet.
8.4.12JarliteNa(Sr,Na)7MgAl6F32(OH,H2O)2Mon. 2/m
8.4.13CalcjarliteNa(Ca,Sr)3Al3(OH)2F14Mon.
8.4.14TikhonenkoviteSr[AlF4(OH)(H2O)]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.4.15AcuminiteSr[AlF4(OH)(H2O)]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
8.4.16FrankdicksoniteBaF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
8.4.17UsoviteBa2CaMgAl2F14Mon.
8.4.18BøgvaditeNa2SrBa2Al4F20Mon. 2/m

Fluorescence of CarnalliteHide

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Deliquescent. Soluble in water. The evaporated solution yields sylvite and bischofite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Carnallite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for CarnalliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rose (1856) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 98: 161.
Erdmann (1862) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 86: 377.
Hammerbacher (1875) Ann. Chem. Pharm.: 172: 82.
Kleinfeldt analysis in: Bücking (1901) Ak. Berlin, Sitzber.: 539.
Przibylla (1904) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 236.
Busz (1907) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Festband: 126.
Johnsen (1907) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Beil. Bd., 23: 252.
Boeke (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 369, 384.
Ruff (1908) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 9.
Biltz and Marcus (1909) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 62: 184.
Johnsen (1909) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 169.
Boeke (1911) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 52.
Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen: 2: 105.
Doelter, C. (1928) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie: 4(2): 1187, 1191.
Leonhardt (1928) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 66: 506.
Jander and Busch (1930) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 194: 38.
Schaller and Henderson (1932), USGS Bull. 833: 22.
Andress and Saffe (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 101: 451.
King (1946) Journal of Sedimentary Petrology: 16: 14.
Lindberg (1946) American Mineralogist: 31: 486.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 92-94.
American Mineralogist (1985): 70: 1309-1313.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 102.

Internet Links for CarnalliteHide

Localities for CarnalliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Wiluna Shire
Wilson, S.A., Harrison, A.L., Dipple, G.M., Power, I.M., Barker, S.L.L., Ulrich, M.K., Fallon, S.J., Raudsepp, M., Southam, G. (2014) Offsetting of CO2 emissions by air capture in mine tailings at the Mount Keith Nickel Mine, Western Australia: Rates, controls and prospects for carbon neutral mining. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 25 121-140
Belarus
 
  • Gomel Region
Russian Journal of Earth Sciences Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2004
  • Minsk Region
    • Pripyat Depression
Russian Journal of Earth Sciences Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2004 ; USGS MRDS database potash: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/potash/show-potash.php?rec_no=55
Bolivia
 
  • Tarija
    • O'Connor Province
      • Entre Rios
Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Brazil
 
da Silva, M. A., Schreiber, B. C., & dos Santos, C. L. (2000). Evaporitos Como Recursos Minerais. Brazilian Journal of Geophysics, 18, 3.
    • Rosário do Catete
http://www.cetem.gov.br/publicacao/CTs/CT2002-158-00.pdf
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Elice RM
B.B. Bannatyne (1983) Devonian Potash Deposits in Manitoba. Manitoba Geological Survey Open File Report 83-3
B.B. Bannatyne (1983) Devonian Potash Deposits in Manitoba. Manitoba Geological Survey Open File Report 83-3
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Studholm Parish
Grice, J.D., Gault, R.A., Van Velthuizen, J. (2005) Borate minerals of the Penobsquis and Millstream deposits, southern New Brunswick, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1469-1487.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
      • Pugwash
Boehner, R.C. (1986) Salt and Potash Resources in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy, Bulletin 5.
  • Québec
    • Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine
      • Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine TE
        • Grosse Île
Sabina, A.P. (2003) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Îles de la Madeleine, Québec, the Island of Newfoundland, and Labrador. GSC Misc. Report 58, 19-21p.
  • Saskatchewan
Joel Grice (1989) Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Markham Ontario 190pp
Holter, M.E. (1969) The middle Devonian prairie evaporite of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Department of Mineral Resources, Geological Sciences Branch, Industrial Minerals Division, Report 123.; Grice, Joel D. (1989) Esterhazy, Saskatchewan: A Mineral Source to Save the World. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 52-57; 152.; Kiihn, R. (1968). Geochemistry of the German potash deposits. Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Pap, 88, 427-504.
Shang, Y. (2000). Mineralogy, lithostratigraphy and geochemistry of North Ingebright Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. PhD thesis University of Manitoba.
    • Rocanville
G. W. Robinson, V. King (1993) Whats New in Minerals. Mineralogical Record 24:381-395
China
 
  • Qinghai
    • Hainan
Sun Da-peng, Li Bing-xiao, Ma Yua-hua, and Lin Qun-zhu (2002): Journal of Salt Lake Research 10(4), 1-12; Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam (Dachaidan Co.)
Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Tan Hongbing, Ma Haizhou, Xiao Yingkai, Wei Haizhen, and Zhang Xiying (2005): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 48(11), 1913-1920
      • Dulan County
John K. Warren, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, Pages 217-268,
      • Golmud City (Ge'ermu Co.)
Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Dongsheng Hu (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(4), 327-333
Botao Li, Yuanyi Zhao, Zuohua Qian, Pengcheng Jiao, Chenglin Liu, and Shijun Wang (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 669-683; Yuanyi Zhao, Botao Li, Pengcheng Jiao, Zuohua Qian, and Weishi Chen (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 684-696
Jianqi Yuan and Zhenhao Duan (1989): Earth Science, Journal of China University of Geosciences 14(5), 553-562; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Jianqi Yuan and Zhenhao Duan (1989): Earth Science, Journal of China University of Geosciences 14(5), 553-562
      • Mangnai City (Mangya Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Mili Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1); Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
        • Lenghu Co.
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275
Xiying Zhang, Haizhou Ma, Donglin Gao, Minggang Zhang, and Tao Wang (2007): Journal of Salt Lake Research 15(2), 12-20.
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Yuhua Chen, Heran Yuan, and Zhiyue Du (1998): Geological Review 44(1), 100-105
  • Xinjiang
    • Akesu Prefecture (Aksu Prefecture; Aqsu Prefecture)
      • Kuqa Co. (Kuche Co.; Kuchar Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Lichun Ma, Baoguo Li, Pingan Jiang, Junping Zhong, Jiandong Sheng, Honglie Qiu, and Hongqi Wu (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 616-624
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Gaochang District
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
  • Yunnan
    • Pu'er
      • Jiangcheng County
Xiaosong Xu and Jialing Wu (1983): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 5(1); Weihao Yue, Jianguo Gao, Yuncan Li, Yinghui Liu, and Xinkai Liu (2011): Geology and Exploration 47(5), 809-822; Li, M., Yan, M., Wang, Z., Liu, X., Fang, X., & Li, J. (2015). The origins of the Mengye potash deposit in the Lanping–Simao Basin, Yunnan Province, Western China. Ore Geology Reviews, 69, 174-186.; 高翔, 方勤方, 姚薇, 彭强, 董娟, 秦红, & 邸迎伟. (2013). 云南兰坪-思茅盆地勐野井钾盐矿床物质组分对成因的指示. 地球学报, 34(5), 529-536.
Ethiopia
 
  • Afar Region
Holwerda, J. G., & Hutchinson, R. W. (1968). Potash-bearing evaporites in the Danakil area, Ethiopia. Economic Geology, 63(2), 124-150.
Hovland, Martin & Rueslatten, Hakon & Johnsen, Hans. (2019) Salt Formation, Accumulation, and Expulsion Processes During Ocean Rifting—New Insight Gained from the Red Sea. 10.1007/978-3-319-99408-6_11.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94.
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Kassel Region
      • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
        • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
No reference listed
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9; Krupp, R. E. (2005). Formation and chemical evolution of magnesium chloride brines by evaporite dissolution processes—Implications for evaporite geochemistry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69(17), 4283-4299.
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Goslar
      • Goslar
        • Vienenburg
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Göttingen
      • Reyershausen
Niemann, H. (1960): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 7, 137-165.
    • Hanover
      • Lehrte
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Hildesheim
      • Giesen
Aufschluss 1987(4), 114
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Solling
      • Volpriehausen
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 87.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Börde
      • Morsleben
http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen-Anhalt/B%C3%B6rde/Morsleben/Schacht%20Bartensleben
http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen-Anhalt/B%C3%B6rde/Morsleben/Schacht%20Marie
    • Querfurt
No reference listed
    • Stassfurt Potash Deposit
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 434.
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94, 388.
Palache, Berman & Frondel (1951) Dana's System of Mineralogy, 7th ed., vol. II: 94; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94, 380.
  • Thuringia
    • Kyffhäuserkreis
      • Sondershausen
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaliwerk_Gl%C3%BCckauf_Sondershausen
    • Nordhausen
Effmert, G.; Wurth, L. (2007): Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen, Mineralien-Welt 6/2007, p.42-47.
Horst, U. (1989): Der Aufschluss 40, 115-120
Effmert, G. & Wurth, L. (2007). Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen. Mineralien-Welt, Jg.18, Nr.6, S.42-47.
http://www.harzergruben.de/Kali/Bernterode/bernterode_neu.htm
BOEKE, H.E. (1909): Rinneit, ein neugefundenes eisenchlorürhaltiges Salzmineral.- Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 72-75
Leon Hupperichs Collection
    • Wartburgkreis
      • Krayenberggemeinde
Iceland
 
  • Southern Region
    • Vestmannaeyjar
      • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
        • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Agrigento Province
      • Racalmuto
        • Racalmuto saliferous deposit
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170.
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170.
          • Racalmuto salt mines
Lugli S., Di Stefano A., Gulfi V., Corallo G., Amenta G., Menegon S., Manzi V. (2006): Halite facies in the Racalmuto mine (Agrigento): further evidence of an exposure surface in the Messinian salt of Sicily. R.C.M.N.S. Interim Colloquium "The Messinian salinity crisis revisited-II", Parma 7th-9th September 2006. Acta Naturalia de "L'Ateneo Parmense", 42, 2, Abstract book, A.30SS2.
    • Caltanissetta Province
      • Bompensiere
Mezzadri, P. (1988) La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 874 pp.
Mezzadri, P. (1988) La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 874 pp.
      • Caltanissetta
Mezzadri, P. (1988) La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 874 pp.
      • Milena (Milocca)
Mezzadri, P. (1988) La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 874 pp.
      • Mussomeli
Mezzadri, P. (1988) La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 874 pp.
Mezzadri, P. (1988) La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 874 pp.
Marella, G., and Dacquino, C. [with contributions of Berry, P., Coletta, G., Compalati, M., et al.] (2006) I siti minerari italiani (1870-2006). Censimento dei Siti Minerari abbandonati. A.P.A.T. [Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente e per i Sevizi Tecnici], 95 pp. + Mappa dei Siti minerari abbandonati; http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/it/progetti/suolo-e-territorio-1/miniere-e-cave/progetto-remi-rete-nazionale-dei-parchi-e-musei-minerari-italiani/banche-dati/censimento-nazionale-siti-minerari-dismessi
Mezzadri, P. (1988) La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 874 pp.
      • San Cataldo (San Cattaldo)
Roda, C. (1970) Salgemma, sali potassici e zolfo in Italia. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania, 10, 5, 364-378; Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., and Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.; Adamo, S., and Ramberti, L. (1979) L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170; Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E., and Vignola, P. (1996) Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work Italiana Editrice, Bresso (Milano), 800 pp.
    • Enna Province
      • Enna (Castrogiovanni)
Roda, C. (1970) Salgemma, sali potassici e zolfo in Italia. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania, 10, 5, 364-378; Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.; Adamo, S., Ramberti, L. (1979) L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170; Mezzadri, P. (1988) Catalogo e descrizione sintetica dei giacimenti salini in Italia. In: La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 259-412; Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E., Vignola, P. (1996) Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work Italiana Editrice, Bresso (Milano), 800 pp.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Aktobe Region
    • Aktobe
ERCOSPAN (2011) Independent Geological Report on the Zhilianskoe and Chelkar Potash Deposits in Kazakhstan EGB 11-012
    • Shalkar
      • Aksai Valley
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; ERCOSPAN (2011) Independent Geological Report on the Zhilianskoe and Chelkar Potash Deposits in Kazakhstan EGB 11-012
  • Atyrau Region
    • Inder
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Laos
 
  • Khammouane Province
    • Thakhek District
Xiying Zhang, Haizhou Ma, Hongbing Tan, Donglin Gao, Binkai Li, Mingxiang Wang, Qiliang Tang, and Xiaolong Yuan (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 713-721; GAO, X., CAI, K. Q., LI, D. R., PENG, Q., FANG, Q. F., & QIN, H. (2012). Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics and genesis of the potassium-magnesium salt deposit in Khammouan Province, Laos [J]. Acta Petrologica Et Mineralogica, 4, 011.
Netherlands
 
  • Gelderland
    • Winterswijk
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
  • Groningen
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
New Zealand
 
  • Manawatu-Wanganui Region
    • Ruapehu District
      • Tongariro National Park
        • Mt Ruapehu
Railton, G.L¹., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages. (¹published as G.L. Railton but his initials should be G.T. not G.L. - Errata sheet inserted in publication).
North Sea
 
Poland
 
  • Greater Poland Voivodeship
    • Koło Co.
Jirásek, J.: Solný důl Kłodawa (Polsko). Minerál, 2004, roč. 12, č. 2, s. 98-102. ISSN 1213-0710 (excerpted from unpublished thesis Hanczke, T.: Mineralogia i petrografia soli czechstyńskich kopalni "Kłodawa". Doktroská práce, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut nauk geologicznych, 1967.); Wachowiak, J., Pieczka, A. (2016): Motukoreaite from the Kłodawa Salt Dome, Central Poland. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 277-289
  • Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
    • Inowrocław Co.
      • Inowrocław
Praszkier, T. (2010): Mineralien aus dem ehemaligen Salzbergwerk "Solno" bei Inowrocław. Mineralien-Welt 21 (6), 32-43.
Portugal
 
  • Faro
    • Loulé
      • São Clemente
11.1.2.1
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
 
  • Kouilou Department
www.uoguelph.ca/~geology/rocks_for_crops/20congo_rep.PDF
Henry Rauche (2009) Updated Reserve and Resource Estimate for MagMinerals Kouilou Potash Project, Republic of Congo
Milesi, J. P., Toteu, S. F., Deschamps, Y., Feybesse, J. L., Lerouge, C., Cocherie, A., ... & Nicol, N. (2006). An overview of the geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa: Explanatory note for the 1: 4,000,000 map “Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa”. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 44(4-5), 571-595.
Russia
 
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Lena-Angara salt Basin
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Lower Tunguska
      • Nepa River basin
Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
    • Zheleznogorsk (Korshunikha)
Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
  • Kamchatka Krai
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
        • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
          • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Lykova, I.S., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G., Britvin, S.N., Pushscharovsky, D.Yu. (2015): New zinc and potassium chlorides from fumaroles of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia: mineral data and crystal chemistry. I. Mellizinkalite, K3Zn2Cl7. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 247-253.
Pekin, A.A. [Пекин, А.А.] (2010) Minerals of Moscow [Минералы Москвы]. Rossiiskii Khimicheskii Zhurnal [Российский Химический Журнал], 54, 2, 115-123 (in Russian); Pekin, A.A. (2011) Minerals of Moscow. Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 81, 6, 1381-1391.
  • Permskaya Oblast
    • Kama river
      • Solikamsk
P.M. Kartashov data; Kalinina, T. A., & Chaikovskii, I. I. (2014). Nature of breccia rocks at the top of a salt body in the Verkhnekamskoe salt deposit at the Ural foredeep. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 49(5), 398-405.
          • Romanovskiy area
Chaikovskiy, I. I., Chaikovskaya, E. V., Korotchenkova, O. V., Chirkova, E. P., & Utkina, T. A. (2019). Authigenic Titanium and Zirconium Minerals at the Verkhnekamskoe Salt Deposit. Geochemistry International, 57(2), 184-196.; Zhitova, E. S., Pekov, I. V., Chaikovskiy, I. I., Chirkova, E. P., Yapaskurt, V. O., Bychkova, Y. V., ... & Bocharov, V. N. (2019). Dritsite, Li2Al4 (OH) 12Cl2· 3H2O, a New Gibbsite-Based Hydrotalcite Supergroup Mineral. Minerals, 9(8), 492.
  • Saratov Oblast
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94.
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Bages
        • Balsareny
Carles Curto Milà.
        • Cardona
Calvo, M. (2006): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. III, Halogenuros. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, 267 pp; Lucha, P., Cardona, F., Gutiérrez, F., & Guerrero, J. (2008). Natural and human-induced dissolution and subsidence processes in the salt outcrop of the Cardona Diapir (NE Spain). Environmental Geology, 53(5), 1023-1035.
- Calvo, M. (2006): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. III, Halogenuros. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, 267 pp
        • Sallent
- Calvo, M. (2006): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. III, Halogenuros. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, 267 pp
        • Suria
- Calvo, M. (2006): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. III, Halogenuros. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Álava, 267 pp
Thailand
 
  • Maha Sarakham Province
Tabakh, M. E., Schreiber, B. C., Utha‐Aroon, C., Coshell, L., & Warren, J. K. (1998). Diagenetic origin of basal anhydrite in the Cretaceous Maha Sarakham salt: Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand. Sedimentology, 45(3), 579-594.
Tunisia
 
  • Tataouine
Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Lebap
    • Chardzhou
      • Gaurdak basin (Gaurdok basin)
Yongsheng Zhang, Mianping Zheng, Wen Qi, Hao Li, and Renjie Xiang (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(6), 692-696
Yongsheng Zhang, Mianping Zheng, Wen Qi, Hao Li, and Renjie Xiang (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(6), 692-696
UK
 
  • England
    • North Yorkshire
      • Redcar and Cleveland
        • Loftus
UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, No. 14 p4-7; Milne, J. K. (1978). The potash deposits and their associates in the area of the Boulby mine, Cleveland. PhD thesis University of Edinburgh
      • Scarborough
        • Eskdaleside cum Ugglebarnby
Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
Ukraine
 
  • Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94, 478.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Apache & Navajo Cos.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 155; Peirce, H.W. (1969), Salines, in Mineral and water resources of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 180: 417-424.
  • Colorado
    • Park Co.
      • South Park
        • Antero Junction
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Michigan
    • Newaygo Co.
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Wayne Co.
      • Detroit
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • New Mexico
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Eddy Co.
      • Carlsbad Potash Mining District
SIMMONS, P.S. (2013)The Carlsbad Potash Basin, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 44 (1), 13-49.
Van King ; U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Jeff Weissman
  • Utah
    • Emery Co.
      • San Rafael Mining District (San Rafael Swell)
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Grand Co.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Crescent Eagle
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Interriver Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Mineral Canyon Area
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Seven Mile Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Thompsons Mining District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Moab Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Paradox Valley
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Tooele Co.
      • Bonneville Salt Flats
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Leppy Range
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Salt Flats
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Silver Island Mountains
        • Silver Island Mining District (Silver Islet Mining District)
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
 
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