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Carnotite

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Marie-Adolphe Carnot
Formula:
K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Colour:
Bright yellow, yellow, greenish yellow
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Silky, Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
4.70
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1899 by Charles Friedel and Édouard Cumenge in honor of Marie-Adolphe Carnot [January 27, 1839 Paris, France - June 20, 1920], French mining engineer and chemist, professor at École des Mines and, later Chief Engineer of Mines and Inspector General of Mines, becoming Dean of the Ecole Nationale des Mines in 1901-1907, when he retired.
Carnotite Group.

A secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of Uraninite, Montroseite, or Davidite. Occurs in sandstones, especially in paleochannels, near fossil carbonaceous matter, in calcretes and near playas.


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Classification of CarnotiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.HB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
H : V[5,6] Vanadates
B : Uranyl Sorovanodates
40.2a.28.1

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
2a : AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
21.4.4

21 : Vanadates (and vanadates with arsenate or phosphate)
4 : Vanadates of U, Mn, Fe or Ni

Physical Properties of CarnotiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Silky, Dull, Earthy
Transparency:
Translucent
Comment:
Silky to waxy when crystalline
Colour:
Bright yellow, yellow, greenish yellow
Comment:
Easily stained when fine-grained
Streak:
Strontian-yellow
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Fragile
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001}, perfect, micaceous
Fracture:
Micaceous
Density:
4.70 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.91 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Earthy material lower in compactness

Optical Data of CarnotiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.750 nβ = 1.925 nγ = 1.950
2V:
Measured: 43° to 60°, Calculated: 26° to 36°
Birefringence:
0.200
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.200
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v
Optical Extinction:
Z^a ~14°; X=c, Y=b
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X = Nearly colourless to pale grayish yellow
Y = Z = Canary yellow, lemon-yellow
Comments:
Indices of refraction increase as water content decreases.

Chemical Properties of CarnotiteHide

Formula:
K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O

Crystallography of CarnotiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Setting:
P21/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.47 Å, b = 8.41 Å, c = 6.91 Å
β = 103.83°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.245 : 1 : 0.822
Unit Cell V:
590.80 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals rare, diamond-shaped, flattened {001} and rhomboidal {110}, also lath-like [010] with {100} and {110} or {120}; (110) ^ (110) ~78°; commonly as fine aggregates or pulverulent; disseminated, compact massive.
Twinning:
On {001} as both the composition and twin plane.
Comment:
Space group determined based on synthetic, anhydrous material.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.56 (100)
4.25 (30)
3.53 (50)
3.25 (30)
3.12 (70)
2.571 (20)
2.156 (30)
(

Type Occurrence of CarnotiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado: #2218. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: #106253.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Colorado Plateau sedimentary vanadium-uranium deposits

Synonyms of CarnotiteHide

Other Language Names for CarnotiteHide

German:Carnotit
Simplified Chinese:钒钾铀矿
钒酸钾铀矿
Spanish:Carnotita
Traditional Chinese:釩鉀鈾礦
釩酸鉀鈾礦

Varieties of CarnotiteHide

Thallian CarnotiteThallium bearing variety of Carnotite.

Relationship of Carnotite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Margaritasite(Cs,K,H3O)2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
MetatyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3-5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
MetavanuraliteAl(UO2)2(VO4)2(OH) · 8H2OTric.
SengieriteCu2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
StrelkiniteNa2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 6H2OOrth.
TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
VanuraliteAl(UO2)2(VO4)2(OH) · 11H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

BaryteBaSO4
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
HewettiteCaV6O16 · 9H2O
MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
MetatyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3-5H2O
PintadoiteCa2(V2O7) · 9H2O
RauviteCa(UO2)2(V10O28) · 16H2O
RossiteCa(VO3)2•4H2O
TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2O
UvaniteU6+2V5+6O21 · 15H2O (?)
VanoxiteV4+4V5+2O13 · 8H2O
VolborthiteCu3(V2O7)(OH)2 · 2H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Weeksite10 photos of Carnotite associated with Weeksite on mindat.org.
Tyuyamunite10 photos of Carnotite associated with Tyuyamunite on mindat.org.
Uraninite7 photos of Carnotite associated with Uraninite on mindat.org.
Chrysocolla6 photos of Carnotite associated with Chrysocolla on mindat.org.
Malachite6 photos of Carnotite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Uranophane4 photos of Carnotite associated with Uranophane on mindat.org.
Hummerite4 photos of Carnotite associated with Hummerite on mindat.org.
Ilmenite4 photos of Carnotite associated with Ilmenite on mindat.org.
Pitchblende4 photos of Carnotite associated with Pitchblende on mindat.org.
Metatyuyamunite4 photos of Carnotite associated with Metatyuyamunite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.HB.05Margaritasite(Cs,K,H3O)2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
4.HB.10SengieriteCu2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
4.HB.15CurienitePb(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2OOrth.
4.HB.15FrancevilliteBa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2OOrth.
4.HB.15FritzscheiteMn(UO2)2(PO4,VO4)2 · 10H2O (?)Tet.
4.HB.20MetavanuraliteAl(UO2)2(VO4)2(OH) · 8H2OTric.
4.HB.20VanuraliteAl(UO2)2(VO4)2(OH) · 11H2OMon.
4.HB.25MetatyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3-5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.HB.25TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
4.HB.30StrelkiniteNa2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 6H2OOrth.
4.HB.35UvaniteU6+2V5+6O21 · 15H2O (?)Orth.
4.HB.40RauviteCa(UO2)2(V10O28) · 16H2O

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

40.2a.28.2Margaritasite(Cs,K,H3O)2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

21.4.1UvaniteU6+2V5+6O21 · 15H2O (?)Orth.
21.4.2Vanuranylite(H3O)2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 4H2O
21.4.3StrelkiniteNa2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 6H2OOrth.
21.4.5Margaritasite(Cs,K,H3O)2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
21.4.6SengieriteCu2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
21.4.7MetatyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3-5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
21.4.8TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
21.4.9RauviteCa(UO2)2(V10O28) · 16H2O
21.4.10FrancevilliteBa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2OOrth.
21.4.11MetavanuraliteAl(UO2)2(VO4)2(OH) · 8H2OTric.
21.4.12VanuraliteAl(UO2)2(VO4)2(OH) · 11H2OMon.
21.4.13CurienitePb(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5H2OOrth.
21.4.14FritzscheiteMn(UO2)2(PO4,VO4)2 · 10H2O (?)Tet.
21.4.15Palenzonaite(Ca,Na)3CaMn2+2(VO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
21.4.16Santafeite(Na,Ca,Sr)12(Mn2+,Fe3+,Al,Mg)8Mn4+8(VO4)16(OH,O)20 · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
21.4.17PyrobelonitePbMn2+(VO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
21.4.18BrackebuschitePb2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
21.4.19ČechitePbFe2+(VO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
21.4.20HeyitePb5Fe2+2(VO4)2O4Mon.
21.4.21MounanaitePbFe3+2(VO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
21.4.22SchubneliteFe3+VO4 · H2OTric.
21.4.23FervaniteFe3+4V5+4O16 · 5H2OMon.
21.4.24KazakhstaniteFe3+5V4+3V5+12O39(OH)9 · 9H2OMon.
21.4.25Bokite(Al,Fe3+)1.3(V5+,V4+,Fe3+)8O20 · 7.4H2OMon.
21.4.26Rusakovite(Fe3+,Al)5(VO4,PO4)2(OH)9 · 3H2O
21.4.27KolovratiteNixZny(VO4)0.67(x+y) · nH2O

Fluorescence of CarnotiteHide

Not Fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Radioactive. Water content is partly zeolitic and varies with humidity at ambient temperatures. Readily soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
Contains uranium - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest. Avoid prolonged exposure in proximity of the body. Store away from inhabited areas.
Industrial Uses:
Uranium ore

References for CarnotiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Friedel and Cumenge (1899) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 128: 532.
Friedel and Cumenge (1899) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 22: 26.
Acta Crystallographica: 10: 765.
Doelter, C. (1918) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3 [I]: 844.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 52.
Crook and Blake (1924) Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 271.
Hillebrand (1924)American Journal of Science: 8: 201.
Hess and Foshag (1927) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 72, Art. 12.
Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 1002.
Sundberg and Sillén (1949) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 1, no. 42: 337.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1043-1045.
Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 1064, 243–247.
Appleman, D.E. and H.T. Evans, Jr. (1965) The crystal structures of synthetic anhydrous carnotite, K2(UO2) V2O8, and its cesium analogue, Cs2(UO2)2V2O8. American Mineralogist: 50: 825–842.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 96.

Internet Links for CarnotiteHide

Localities for CarnotiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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