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K Feldspar

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Potassium-dominant feldspars with unknown crystal symmetry and Al-Si ordering state.


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Age informationHide

Age range:
Phanerozoic : 538 Ma to 55.3 ± 3.5 Ma - based on data given below.
Sample ages:
Sample IDRecorded ageGeologic TimeDating method
155.3 ± 3.5 MaEoceneK-Ar
260.2 ± 2.4 MaPaleoceneK-Ar
368.7 ± 1.6 MaLate CretaceousK-Ar
4156.7 ± 0.9 MaJurassicAr-Ar
5177.4 ± 5 MaEarly JurassicAr-Ar
6212 ± 4 MaLate TriassicK-Ar
7231 ± 3 MaLate TriassicK-Ar
8241 MaMiddle TriassicAr-Ar
9255 ± 10 MaLopingianAr–Ar
10289.1 ± 0.3 MaCisuralianAr-Ar
11515 ± 36 MaCambrian Series 2Rb-Sr
12538 to 532 MaTerreneuvianAr-Ar
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Manhattan District, Toquima Range, Nye Co., Nevada, USAShawe, D. R., Marvin, R. F., Andriessen, P. A. M., Mehnert, H. H., Merritt, V. M. (1986) Ages of Igneous and Hydrothermal Events in the Round Mountain and Manhattan Gold Districts, Nye County, Nevada. Economic Geology 81. 388-407.
2Hirase mine, Shirakawamura, Gifu Prefecture, Chubu Region, Honshu Island, JapanShibata K, Ishihara S (1974): K-Ar ages of the major tungsten and molybdenum deposits in Japan. Economic Geology 69(8) 1207-1214.
3Manhattan District, Toquima Range, Nye Co., Nevada, USAShawe, D. R., Marvin, R. F., Andriessen, P. A. M., Mehnert, H. H., Merritt, V. M. (1986) Ages of Igneous and Hydrothermal Events in the Round Mountain and Manhattan Gold Districts, Nye County, Nevada. Economic Geology 81. 388-407.
4Dongping Au-Te ore field, Chongli Co., Zhangjiakou Prefecture, Hebei Province, ChinaBao, Z., Sun, W., Li, C., Zhao, Z. (2014): U-Pb dating of hydrothermal zircon from the Dongping gold deposit in North China: Constraints on the mineralization processes. Ore Geology Reviews 61 107-119.
5  "  "  "  "
6Levant Mine, Trewellard, St Just, St Just District, Cornwall, England, UKHalliday, A. N. (1980). The timing of early and main stage ore mineralization in Southwest Cornwall. Economic Geology, 75(5), 752-759.
7Wheal Cock, Botallack Mine sett, Botallack, St Just, St Just District, Cornwall, England, UK  "  "
8Zhongshangou Mine, Dongping Au-Te ore field, Chongli Co., Zhangjiakou Prefecture, Hebei Province, ChinaBao, Z., Sun, W., Li, C., Zhao, Z. (2014): U-Pb dating of hydrothermal zircon from the Dongping gold deposit in North China: Constraints on the mineralization processes. Ore Geology Reviews 61 107-119.
9Sayak Cu ore field, Sayak, Balkhash Region, Karagandy Province, KazakhstanChen, X., Seitmuratova, E., Wang, Z., Chen, Z., Han, S., Li, Y., ... & Shi, W. (2014). SHRIMP U–Pb and Ar–Ar geochronology of major porphyry and skarn Cu deposits in the Balkhash Metallogenic Belt, Central Asia, and geological implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 79, 723-740.
10Dongping Au-Te ore field, Chongli Co., Zhangjiakou Prefecture, Hebei Province, ChinaBao, Z., Sun, W., Li, C., Zhao, Z. (2014): U-Pb dating of hydrothermal zircon from the Dongping gold deposit in North China: Constraints on the mineralization processes. Ore Geology Reviews 61 107-119.
11Rubikon Mine, Okongava Ost Farm 72, Karibib District, Erongo Region, NamibiaHaack, U., & Gohn, E. (1988). Rb-Sr data on some pegmatites in the Damara Orogen, Namibia. Communications of the Geological Survey of South West Africa/Namibia, 4, 15-19.
12Silver Miller Mine, Coleman Township, Cobalt area, Cobalt-Gowganda region, Timiskaming District, Ontario, CanadaAndrews, A. J., Masliwec, A., Morris, W. A., Owsiacki, L., & York, D. (1986) The silver deposits at Cobalt and Gowganda, Ontario. II: An experiment in age determinations employing radiometric and paleomagnetic measurements.Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 23(10), 1507-1518.

Synonyms of K FeldsparHide

Other Language Names for K FeldsparHide

Simplified Chinese:钾长石

Varieties of K FeldsparHide

AdulariaA more ordered low-temperature variety of Orthoclase or partially disordered Microcline. Individual localities should be verified because the adularia structural state is nearly equally represented by microcline and orthoclase specimens. Generally found i...
Barian Feldspar
Barium-AdulariaFeldspar group.
ValencianiteA variety of Adularia.
Originally described from Valenciana Mine, Guanajuato, Mun. de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz149 photos of K Feldspar associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Smoky Quartz69 photos of K Feldspar associated with Smoky Quartz on mindat.org.
Albite53 photos of K Feldspar associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Beryl46 photos of K Feldspar associated with Beryl on mindat.org.
Epidote44 photos of K Feldspar associated with Epidote on mindat.org.
Opal-AN24 photos of K Feldspar associated with Opal-AN on mindat.org.
Muscovite17 photos of K Feldspar associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Schorl15 photos of K Feldspar associated with Schorl on mindat.org.
Vesuvianite15 photos of K Feldspar associated with Vesuvianite on mindat.org.
Biotite10 photos of K Feldspar associated with Biotite on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

K Feldspar in petrologyHide

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for K FeldsparHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Gay, P. & N.N. Roy (1965), The mineralogy of the potassium-barium feldspar series: III. Subsolid relationships: Min. Magazine: 36: 914-932.
Dickson, F.W. (1968), Growth of K-feldspars and plagioclase by replacement processes in rock of the Papoose Flat pluton and in country rocks, Inyo Mountains, California: Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Papers 101, Abstract for 1966: 53-54.
Foland, K.A. (1974) 40Ar diffusion in homogeneous orthoclase and an interpretation of Ar diffusion in K-feldspar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 38: 151-166.
MacKenzie, W.S. and J. Zussman, Eds., The Feldspars (1974). Manchester University Press, U.K.
Willaime, C., Christie, J.M., and Kovacs, M.-P. (1979) Experimental deformation of K-feldspar single crystals. Bulletin de Mineralogie: 102: 167-177.
Eggleton, R.A. and Buseck, P.R. (1980) The orthoclase-microcline inversion: A high-resolution transmission electron microscope study and strain analysis. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 74: 123-133.
Kovacs, M.P. and Gandais, M. (1980) Transmission electron microscope study of experimentally deformed K-feldspar single crystals. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 6: 61-76.
Brown, W.L. and Parsons, I. (1984) The nature of potassium feldspar, exsolution microtextures and development of dislocations as a function of composition in perthitic alkali feldspars. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 86: 335-341.
McLaren, A.C. and Fitz Gerald, J.D. (1987) CED and ALCHEMI investigation of local symmetry and Al, Si ordering in K-feldspars. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 14: 281-292.
Goldsmith, J. (1988) Enhanced Al/Si diffusion in KAlSi3O8 at high pressures: the effect of hydrogen. Journal of Geology: 96: 109-124.
Martin, R.F. (1988) The K-feldspar mineralogy of granites and rhyolites: a generalized case of pseudomorphism of the magmatic phase. Rendi. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol.: 43: 343-354.
Smith J.V. and Brown, W.L. (1988), Feldspar Minerals. Crystal structures, physical, chemical, and microstructural properties, vol. 1. Springer-Verlag. New York.
Zheng, Y., Gandais, M., and Heggie, M. (1988) Study of (010)[101] and (001)[110]/2 dislocations in K-feldspars by HRTEM and modelling. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 15: 349-354.
Harris, M.J., Salje, E.K.H., Güttler, B.K., and Carpenter, M.A. (1989) Structural states of natural potassium feldspar. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 16: 649-658.
Worden, R.H. and Rushton, J.C. (1992) Diagenetic K-feldspar textures: a TEM study and model for diagenetic feldspar growth. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology: 62: 779-789.
FitzGerald, J.D. and Harrison, T.M. (1993) Argon diffusion domains in K-feldspar I: microstructures in MH-10. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 113: 367-380.
Carpenter, M.A. and Salje, E.K.H. (1994), Thermodynamics of nonconvergent cation ordering in minerals: III. Order parameter coupling in potassium feldspar. American Mineralogist: 79: 1084-1098.
Kronenberg, A.K., Yund, R.A., and Rossman, G.R. (1996) Stationary and mobile hydrogen defects in potassium feldspar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 60: 4075-4094.
Doremus, R.H. (1998) Comment on "Stationary and mobile hydrogen defects in potassium feldspar" by A.K. Kronenberg, R.A. Yund, and G.R. Rossman. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 62: 377-378.
Kronenberg, A.K., Yund, R.A., and Rossman, G.R. (1998) Reply to the comment by Robert H. Doremus on "Stationary and mobile hydrogen defects in potassium feldspar". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 62: 379-382.
Nyfeler, D., Armbruster, T., and Villa, I.M. (1998) Si, Al, Fe order-disorder in Fe-bearing K-feldspar from Madagascar and its implications to Ar diffusion. Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 78: 11-21.
Wartho, J.-A., Kelley, S.P., Brooker, R.A., Carroll, M.R., Villa, I.M., and Lee, M.R. (1999) Direct measurement of Ar diffusion profiles in a gem-quality Madagascar K-feldspar using the ultra-violet laser ablation microprobe (UVLAMP). Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 170: 141-153.
Fitz Gerald, J.D., Parsons, I., and Cayzer, N. (2006) nanotunnels and pull-aparts: defects of exsolution lamellae in alkali feldspars. American Mineralogist: 91.

Internet Links for K FeldsparHide

Significant localities for K FeldsparHide

Showing 42 significant localities out of 14,289 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
[Orthoclase] RWMW Collection
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Saualpe
      • Bad Weißenbach
[Orthoclase] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Waldhausen
[Microcline] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Osoyoos Mining Division
      • Penticton
[Sanidine] Dave Joyce personal collection
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
[Orthoclase] Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec Hudon, Pierre; Friedman, Richard M.; Gauthier, Gilles; Martignole, Jacques Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43, issue 9, pp. 1237-1249 Olivier Langelier Collection; Hudon, P., Friedman, R.M., Gauthier, G. & Martignole, J. (2006) Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43(9), 1237-1249.
Ethiopia
 
  • Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Region
[Microcline var: Amazonite] Kaiser, H. (2006): Amazonit aus Äthiopien-Kristalle injutesäcken. ExtraLapis 30: 72-73
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • Montbrison
        • Essertines-en-Châtelneuf
[Microcline] F. Gonnard (1906) - Minéralogie des départements du Rhône et de la Loire, pp: 6 & 36
    • Rhône
      • Beaujeu
        • Les Ardillats
[Orthoclase] Favreau G., Legris J-R., Dardillac M. (1996), La Verrière (Rhône): Histoire et Minéralogie, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, pp:3-28
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Saint-Jacut-de-la-Mer
[Microcline] Pierrot R., Chauris L., Laforêt C. (1975), Inventaire minéralogique de la France, Ed. BRGM, n°5, Côtes du Nord, pp: 150-153
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Siebengebirge
      • Königswinter
[Sanidine] Nose, K.W., (1808): in Nöggerath, J., Mineralogische Studien über die Gebirge am Niederrhein..., Frankfurt
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
          • San Piero in Campo
[Orthoclase] Barsotti, G., & Nannoni, R. (2006). Rocce, minerali e miniere delle isole dell'Arcipelago Toscano. Pacini editore, 152 pp.
[Orthoclase] Barsotti, G., & Nannoni, R. (2006). Rocce, minerali e miniere delle isole dell'Arcipelago Toscano. Pacini editore, 152 pp.
          • Sant'Ilario in Campo
[Orthoclase]
Madagascar
 
  • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
    • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
      • Betroka District
        • Mahasoa East Commune
[Sanidine] Ackermann, S., Kunz, M., Armruster, T., Schefer, J. & Hanni, H. (2005): Cation distribution in a Fe-bearing K-feldspar from Itrongay, Madagascar. A combined neutron- and x -ray single crystal diffraction study. Lawrence Berkeley National Labroatory- http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/20f968sx http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-219075.html
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Brandberg Area
      • Messum Igneous Complex
[Microcline] Peter Seroka collection. Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern: 270 (in English)
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
[Microcline] Breithaupt, A. (1830): Ueber die Felsite und einige neue Specien ihres Geschlechts. Journal für Chemie und Physik, 60: 316-330
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
[Microcline] Breithaupt, A. (1830): Ueber die Felsite und einige neue Specien ihres Geschlechts. Journal für Chemie und Physik, 60: 316-330; Larsen, K. E. (2015): Mikroklin- et mineral førstegangsbeskrevet fra Norge. Stein 42 (4), 9-11.
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Vorderrhein Valley
      • Tujetsch (Tavetsch)
[var: Adularia] Jahn, S. (2004): Klassische Weltfundstelle: Val Giuv. Mineralien Welt 15 (1), 34-61
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
[Microcline var: Hyalophane] Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 217-218; American Mineralogist 68, 112 (1983)
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Park Co.
      • Tarryall
[Microcline var: Amazonite] Jordi Fabre
    • Teller Co.
      • Crystal Peak area
[Microcline var: Amazonite] Specimen from Joe Dorris collection exhibited at Tucson show 2008; Joseph Dorris (2015) Amazomite and Smoky Quartz Mining on the Smoky Hawk Claim, Teller County, Colorado. 36th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium pp. 11-12.
  • Connecticut
    • Hartford Co.
      • New Britain
[var: Adularia] Miller, F. W. (circa 1986), Hydrothermal Quartz and Barite Veins in the Basalt of New Britain, Connecticut. Harvard University Mineralogical Museum Association.
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Morris
[Microcline] W.C. van Laer: field notes, 1977; Yale Peabody Museum collection
      • Thomaston
[Microcline] Januzzi, Ronald E. and David Seaman. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
[Microcline] Williams, Horace S. (circa 1945): Article for New York Society of Mineralogists. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.; Ryerson, Kathleen. (1972): Rock Hound's Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press.; Webster, Bud. (1978): Mineral Collector’s Field Guide Connecticut.
        • Haddam Neck
[Microcline] Davis, James W. (1901): The Minerals of Haddam, Conn. Mineral Collector, v. 8, no. 4, pp. 50-54, and no. 5, pp. 65-70.; Mineralogical Magazine 1902 13 : 97-121.; Cameron, Eugene N. and others. (1954) PEGMATITE INVESTIGATIONS 1942-45 NEW ENGLAND. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 255; Scovil, Jeffrey A. (1992): Famous Mineral Localities: the Gillette Quarry, Haddam Neck, Connecticut. (Mineralogical Record, 23(1):19-28.); Stugard, Frederick, Jr. (1958) PEGMATITES OF THE MIDDLETOWN AREA, CONNECTICUT. USGS Bulletin 1042-Q.
[Microcline] Harold Moritz collection
[Microcline var: Amazonite] Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 403
[Microcline var: Hyalophane] Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
  • Idaho
    • Boise Co.
[Microcline] Ted Johnson Collection
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Albany
[Microcline] Barry Heath and Frank Perham; King, V. (ed.), 2009, Maine feldspar, Families, and Feuds.
  • Massachusetts
    • Essex Co.
      • Gloucester
[Microcline] P Cristofono collection , 2009
  • Montana
    • Flathead Co.
      • Hog Heaven District (Flathead District)
        • Kofford Ridge
[Sanidine] Ray Lasmanis
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
          • Franklin Mine
[Microcline] Peters, et al: The Minerals of the Buckwheat Dolomite, Franklin, NJ: Mineralogical Record:14:183-194; Dunn(1995):Pt4:510.
[Microcline] Palache(1935):16 & 60; Dunn(1995):Pt1:133.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Delaware Co.
      • Middletown Township
[Microcline] Gordon, Mineralogy of Pennsylvania, 1922 p. 190
  • Texas
    • Llano Co.
      • Kingsland Granite Company Quarry (Petrick Quarry)
[Microcline] Self-collected by Franklin Roberts.; Arthur Smith, Frank Roberts, Denise Bicknell (2008) Mineral News, 24, #1, 6-7.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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