SUPPORT US. Covid-19 has significantly affected our fundraising. Please help!
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice SettingsThe Mineral Quiz
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesSearch by ColorNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography
BETA TEST - Fossil data and pages are very much experimental and under development. Please report any problems

Amphibia

Description

Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this. The young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs. Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely on their skin. They are superficially similar to lizards but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes and do not require water bodies in which to breed. With their complex reproductive needs and permeable skins, amphibians are often ecological indicators; in recent decades there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations for many species around the globe.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)131https://www.gbif.org/species/131
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)36319https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=36319
Rankclass (GBIF)
unranked clade (PBDB)
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Amphibia
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Osteichthyes : Amphibia
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
classAmphibia
Scientific NameAmphibia
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Amphibiaclassbelongs to Vertebratastated with evidenceHuxley, 1880
Amphibiaclassbelongs to Gnathostomatastated with evidenceGadow, 1898
Amphibiaclassbelongs to Tetrapodastated without evidenceJaekel, 1911
Amphibiaclassbelongs to Vertebratastated without evidenceThurmond and Jones, 1981
Amphibiaunranked cladebelongs to Tetrapodastated with evidenceGardiner, 1982
Amphibiaclassbelongs to Tetrapodastated without evidenceBenton, 1985
Amphibiaclassbelongs to Vertebratastated without evidenceShoshani et al., 1989
Amphibiaunranked cladebelongs to Tetrapodastated with evidenceLaurin et al., 2000
Amphibiaclassbelongs to Chordatasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Amphibiaclassbelongs to Tetrapodastated without evidenceMeyer and Zardoya, 2003
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)288
Extant Size (PBDB)10 (3.5%)
First Recorded Appearance343 - 336 Ma
Carboniferous
Environmentbrackish,freshwater,terrestrial (based on Tetrapoda)
Motilityactively mobile (based on Osteichthyes)
Reproductiondispersal=water
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)C. Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1:1-824
Common Name(s) Amphibians, Groddjur, Amphibiens, Anfíbio, Amfibieën
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphibia

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Apsidospondyli
subclass
listed (PBDB)8296 Ma
Permian
105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Euamphibia
subclass
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Phractamphibia
subclass
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Anthracosauromorpha
order
listed (PBDB)2268 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Anura
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Frog2,114201 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Caudata
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Salamander1,194311 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Gymnophiona
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Caecilian9199 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Acanthostegidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1372 Ma
Late Devonian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Acherontiscidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1326 Ma
Carboniferous
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Adelogyrinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6359 Ma
Late Devonian
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Almasauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3237 Ma
Middle Triassic
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Amphibamidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
35311 Ma
Carboniferous
252 Ma
Permian
Anthracosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Archegosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Archeriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Baphetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Batrachiderpetontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Benthosuchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Brachyopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Brachystelechidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Branchiosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bystrowianidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Caerorhachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Capitosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chigutisauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chroniosuchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cochleosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cocytinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Colosteidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Crassigyrinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cricotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cystignathidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dendrerpetontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Diadectidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Diplocaulidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Discosauriscidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dissorophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dvinosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Edopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Enosuchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eobrachyopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eogyrinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eoherpetontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eryopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eugyrinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gephyrostegidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gymnarthridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hapsidopareiontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Heylerosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hylonomidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hyloplesiontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ichthyostegidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Indobrachyopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Intasuchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Keraterpetontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kotlassiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kourerpetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Laidleriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lasalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Latiscopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leptorophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lethiscidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Limnoscelididae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lydekkerinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lysorophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mastodonsauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Melosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Metoposauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Microbrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Micromelerpetontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Micropholidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Molgophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nycteroleteridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Odonterpetontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Oestocephalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ophiderpetontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ostodolepidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Otocratiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pantylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Parioxyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Peltobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phlegethontiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pholidogasteridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Plagiosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Proanura
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Proterogyrinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Protobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudophlegethontiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ptyoniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhinesuchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhynchonkidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhytidosteidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sauropleuridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Scincosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sclerothoracidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Seymouriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Solenodonsauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Thoosuchidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tokosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trematopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trematopsidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trematosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trihecatontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trimerorhachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tseajaiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tuditanidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tulerpetontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tupilakosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Uranocentrodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Urocordylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Urodela
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Waggoneriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Wetlugasauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Whatcheeriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Yarengiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Zatrachydidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Abiadisaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1237 Ma
Middle Triassic
237 Ma
Middle Triassic
Acerastea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Acutipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Adenoderma
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Agostopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Allopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Altenglanerpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ammobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Amphibiopodiscus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1201 Ma
Early Jurassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Amphibiopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Amphisauropus
genus
listed (PBDB)7290 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Anomoeichnus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Antarctosuchus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Arachana
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Arizonerpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Asperipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Barillopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Baropezia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Barypodus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bathysiredon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Batrachichnus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6359 Ma
Late Devonian
Batrachopodiscus
genus
listed (PBDB)3199 Ma
Early Jurassic
199 Ma
Early Jurassic
Biarmica
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bissektia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bradymedusa
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Calmasuchus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Capetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ceratophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Collettosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Crenipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Crucipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cursipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Datheosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1301 Ma
Carboniferous
301 Ma
Carboniferous
Devipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Diplopelma
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Discodactylus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dromillopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dromopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Edingerella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eldeceeon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eolydekkerina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Eoserpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Erierpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Erpetobrachium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Erpetosuchus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ferganobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Foliipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Glanochthon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Glossoliga
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gnorhimosuchus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gomphobates
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Goniocephalus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Huskerpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hylella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hyloidichnus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hylopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hynerpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Iberospondylus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ichnium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Iliodiscus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Itemirella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kirktonecta
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lapillopsis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lehahichnus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1199 Ma
Early Jurassic
199 Ma
Early Jurassic
Limnodytes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Limnopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3307 Ma
Carboniferous
252 Ma
Permian
Liurana
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Luzocephalus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lysipterygium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Manubrantlia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Marpurgichnium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Matthewichnus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Megapezia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mesichnium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Metaeus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Moenkopisaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nanipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nanopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nectes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Notalacerta
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Notamphibia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nototrema
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Novascoticus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Octopodichnus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Palaeoherpeton
genus
listed (PBDB)2318 Ma
Carboniferous
314 Ma
Carboniferous
Palaeosauropus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Palaeotriton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Palatinerpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Paleohelcura
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Paramicrobrachis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pariostegus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Plectropterna
genus
listed (PBDB)23201 Ma
Early Jurassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pomatops
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Proxilodon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudobradypus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Puertollanopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Quasicyclotosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2247 Ma
Early Triassic
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Ranula
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rileymillerus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rotaurisaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1252 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Ruecklinichnium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Saharastega
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Silvanerpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spathicephalus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stanocephalosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6252 Ma
Permian
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Strictipes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Syphonodon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tarsopterus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Temnocorpichnus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thenaropus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thinopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Timanosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1280 Ma
Permian
280 Ma
Permian
Triassurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tridentichnus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Utaherpeton
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Warrenisuchus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Westlothiana
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Barbouroula busnangensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chiroterotriton magnipes
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Herpelea ochrocephala
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Occydozyga semipalmata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phrynops lucida
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Prostheraspis shrevei
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ptychahyla euthysanota
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sperlerpes leprosus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trachycephslus oratus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Campsichrotes
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Lepospondyli
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)286343 Ma
Carboniferous
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Sterrichrotes
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Strepsichrotes
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1758Amphibia Linnaeus p. 12
1880Amphibia Huxley p. 661
1898Amphibia Gadow p. 12
1911Amphibia Jaekel p. 126
1981Amphibia Thurmond and Jones p. 109
1982Amphibia Gardiner p. 228
1985Amphibia Benton p. 153
YearName and Author
1988Amphibia Gauthier et al. p. 139 fig. 4.3
1989Amphibia Gauthier et al. p. 339
1989Amphibia Shoshani et al. p. 436
2000Amphibia Laurin et al. p. 119 fig. 2b
2002Amphibia Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Amphibia Meyer and Zardoya

References

Linnaeus C. , Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1, 1-824 doi:10.5962/bhl.title.542
Huxley T. H. On the application of the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the Vertebrata, and more particularly of the Mammalia, Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London 43, 649-662
Gadow H. , A Classification of Vertebrata Recent and Extinct, xvii-82
Jaekel O. (1911) , Die Wirbeltiere. Eine Übersicht über die Fossilen und Lebenden Formen [The Vertebrates. An Overview of the Fossil and Living Forms], viii-252
Thurmond J. T., Jones D. E. (1981) , Fossil Vertebrates of Alabama, 1-244
Benton M. J. (1985) Classification and phylogeny of the diapsid reptiles, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 84 2, 97-164
Gauthier J. A., Kluge A. G., et al (1988) The early evolution of the Amniota, In M. J. Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds. Systematics Association Special Volume, Clarendon Press 35A, 103-155
Gauthier J. A., Cannatella D., et al (1989) Tetrapod phylogeny, In B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, & H. Jörnvall (eds.), The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, 337-353
Shoshani J., Fisher D. C., et al (1989) The Shelton Mastodon Site: Multidisciplinary study of a late Pleistocene (Twocreekan) locality in Southeastern Michigan, Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 27 14, 393-436
Laurin M., Girondot M., et al (2000) Early tetrapod evolution, Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15 3, 118-123
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Meyer A., Zardoya R. (2003) Recent advances in the (molecular) phylogeny of vertebrates, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34, 311-338
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1982). Five Kingdoms : an illustrated guide to the phyla of life on earth. Second edition. Freeman. - via World Register of Marine Species
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. - via World Register of Marine Species
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed., 1993: Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes, 2004: null. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004). - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner, 1987: Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat Discussions Facebook Logo Instagram Logo Discord Logo
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2020, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: November 30, 2020 20:59:22 Page generated: May 5, 2020 20:01:43
Go to top of page