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Caprimulgidae

Description

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal or crepuscular birds in the subfamily Caprimulginae and in the family Caprimulgidae, characterised by long wings, short legs and very short bills. They are sometimes called goatsuckers, due to the ancient folk tale that they sucked the milk from goats (the Latin for goatsucker is Caprimulgus), or bugeaters, due to their insectivore diet. Some New World species are called nighthawks. The English word 'nightjar' originally referred to the European nightjar.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)5225https://www.gbif.org/species/5225
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)39416https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=39416
Rankfamily
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Aves : Caprimulgiformes : Caprimulgidae
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-ReptiliomorphaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-AnthracosauriaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-Batrachosauria
-Cotylosauria
-AmniotaHaeckel 1866
-SauropsidaHuxley 1864
classReptiliaLaurenti 1768
subclassEureptilia
-RomeriidaGauthier et al. 1988
-Diapsida
-Eosuchia
-NeodiapsidaBenton 1985
-SauriaGauthier 1984
-Archosauromorpha
-CrocopodaEzcurra 2016
-ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
-EucrocopodaEzcurra 2016
-Archosauria
informalAvemetatarsaliaBenton 1999
-OrnithodiraGauthier 1986
-DinosauromorphaBenton 1985
-DinosauriformesNovas 1992
-Dinosauria
-Saurischia
-Theropoda
-NeotheropodaBakker 1986
-AverostraPaul 2002
-TetanuraeGauthier 1986
orderAvetheropodaPaul 1988
suborderCoelurosauriaHuene 1914
-ManiraptoraGauthier 1986
-ParavesSereno 1997
classAvesLinnaeus 1758
-PygostyliaChiappe 2002
-OrnithothoracesChiappe and Calvo 1994
-OrnithuromorphaChiappe et al. 1999
subclassOrnithuraeHaeckel 1866
subclassNeornithesGadow 1893
-Neognathae
-NeoavesSibley et al. 1988
-TerrestrornithesLivezey and Zusi 2007
-Dendrornithes
-AnomalogonatesGarrod 1874
-IncessoresBaird 1858
superorderCypselomorphaeHuxley 1867
orderCaprimulgiformesRidgway 1881
familyCaprimulgidaeVigors 1825
Scientific NameCaprimulgidae
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Caprimulgidaefamilybelongs to Caprimulgistated with evidenceLambrecht, 1933
Caprimulgidaefamilybelongs to CaprimulgiformesimpliedCarroll, 1988
Caprimulgidaefamilybelongs to Cypselomorphaestated without evidenceMayr, 2005
Caprimulgidaefamilybelongs to Caprimulgistated with evidenceLivezey and Zusi, 2007
Caprimulgidaefamilybelongs to Caprimulgiformesstated without evidencedel Hoyo et al., 2014
Caprimulgidaefamilybelongs to Caprimulgiformesstated with evidenceClements et al., 2017
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)19
Extant Size (PBDB)18 (95%)
First Recorded Appearance55.8 - 50.3 Ma
Eocene
Environmentterrestrial
Motilityactively mobile (based on Theropoda)
Dietinsectivore
Reproductionoviparous, dispersal=direct/internal,mobile (based on Theropoda)
Ontogenyaccretion,modification of parts (based on Theropoda)
Taphonomyhydroxylapatite,compact or dense (based on Theropoda)
Primary Reference (PBDB)R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution
Common Name(s) Nightjars, Nattskärror, Ob. Nattskärra, Nachtzwaluwen, Nattramnfamilien, Nattravnfamilien
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caprimulgidae

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Caprimulginae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Antrostomus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Caprimulgus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Nightjar62.59 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Chordeiles
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
50.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Eleothreptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eurostopodus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
30.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Hydropsalis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lurocalis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Macrodipteryx
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Macropsalis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nyctidromus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nyctiphrynus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nyctiprogne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Perhapyrhynchus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phalaenoptilus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
20.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Podager
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Siphonorhis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
40.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Uropsalis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Veles
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ventivorus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Eurostopodidae GBIFfamilyAnimalia : Chordata : Aves : Caprimulgiformes : Eurostopodidae

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1825Caprimulgidae Vigors
1933Caprimulgidae Lambrecht p. 620
1988Caprimulgidae Carroll
2005Caprimulgidae Mayr p. 342
2007Caprimulgidae Livezey and Zusi p. 94
2014Caprimulgidae del Hoyo et al.
2017Caprimulgidae Clements et al.

References

Carroll R. L. (1988) , Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 1-698
Lambrecht K. (1933) Handbuch der Palaeornithologie, 1-1024
Mayr G. (2005) A new cypselomorph bird from the middle Eocene of Germany and the early diversification of avian aerial insectivores, Condor 107 2, 342-352
Livezey B. C., Zusi R. L. (2007) Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149 1, 1-95
del Hoyo J., Collar N. J., et al (2014) HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines, 1-904
Clements J. F., Schulenberg T. S., et al (2017) , The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2017
Benton, M.J. (ed). (1993). The Fossil Record 2. Chapman & Hall, London, 845 pp. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner, 1987: Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
VALIM, MICHEL P.,Kuabara, Kamila M. D. (Jan-01-2015) The feather louse genus Mulcticola Clay et Meinertzhagen, 1938 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from Brazil, with descriptions of five new species and catalogue for species described in the genus - via Phthiraptera.info
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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