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Cetacea

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Description

Cetaceans (from Latin: cetus, lit. 'whale', from Ancient Greek: κῆτος, romanized: kētos, lit. 'huge fish') are aquatic mammals constituting the infraorder Cetacea. There are around 89 living species, which are divided into two parvorders. The first is the Odontoceti, the toothed whales, which consist of around 70 species, including the dolphin (which includes killer whales), porpoise, beluga whale, narwhal, sperm whale, and beaked whale. The second is the Mysticeti, the baleen (from Latin: balæna, lit. 'whale') whales, which have a filter-feeder system, and consist of fifteen species divided into three families, and include the blue whale, right whale, bowhead whale, rorqual, and gray whale.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)733https://www.gbif.org/species/733
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)36652https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=36652
Rankorder
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-ReptiliomorphaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-AnthracosauriaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-Batrachosauria
-Cotylosauria
-AmniotaHaeckel 1866
-SynapsidaOsborn 1903
-Therapsida
infraorderCynodontia
-EpicynodontiaHopson and Kitching 2001
infraorderEucynodontiaKemp 1982
-ProbainognathiaHopson 1990
-MammaliamorphaRowe 1988
-MammaliaformesRowe 1988
classMammaliaLinnaeus 1758
orderCetaceaBrisson 1762
Common Namewhale
Scientific NameCetacea
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Cetaceaclassbelongs to Vertebrosastated without evidenceGray, 1821
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceBronn, 1853
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Monodelphiastated without evidencePictet, 1853
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated with evidenceLeidy, 1873
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceCope, 1875
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Eutheriastated without evidenceFlower, 1883
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mutilatastated without evidenceCope, 1889
Cetaceaunranked cladebelongs to Homalodontastated without evidenceAmeghino, 1889
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Eutheriastated without evidenceFlower and Lydekker, 1891
Cetaceaordersubjective synonym of Cetestated without evidenceHay, 1902
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceCase, 1904
Cetaceasuperorderbelongs to Eutheriastated without evidenceGregory, 1910
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Holotheriastated without evidenceJaekel, 1911
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceAbel, 1919
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Muticastated without evidenceSimpson, 1945
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceHershkovitz, 1966
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Muticastated without evidenceHarland et al., 1967
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetestated without evidenceMcKenna, 1975
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceBarnes, 1978
Cetaceaorderbelongs to EutheriaimpliedCarroll, 1988
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceMontgelard et al., 1997
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceBianucci, 1997
Cetaceasuborderbelongs to CeteimpliedMcKenna and Bell, 1997
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetestated without evidenceArchibald, 1998
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceThewissen and Hussain, 1998
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Whippomorphastated without evidenceWaddell et al., 1999
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetruminantiastated without evidenceUrsing et al., 2000
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceThewissen et al., 2001
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Cetaceaunranked cladebelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceGeisler and Sanders, 2003
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetancodontastated without evidenceArnason et al., 2004
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceUhen, 2004
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceCahuzac et al., 2005
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Whippomorphastated without evidenceBoisserie et al., 2005
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetestated without evidenceHampe, 2006
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceBisconti and Varola, 2006
Cetaceasuborderbelongs to Cetestated without evidenceHulbert and Whitmore, 2006
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceBisconti, 2007
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceBisconti, 2008
Cetaceaunranked cladebelongs to Cetancodontastated without evidenceAgnarsson and May-Collado, 2008
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceGingerich et al., 2009
Cetaceaunranked cladebelongs to Cetaceamorphastated without evidenceSpaulding et al., 2009
Cetaceasuborderbelongs to Cetestated without evidenceCanto et al., 2010
Cetaceaunranked cladebelongs to Whippomorphastated without evidenceAsher and Helgen, 2010
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetancodontastated without evidenceBoisserie et al., 2011
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Whippomorphastated without evidenceUhen et al., 2011
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceJefferson and Rosenbaum, 2014
Cetaceaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceBoessenecker and Fordyce, 2015
Cetaceaclassbelongs to Artiodactylastated without evidenceGodfrey et al., 2017
Cetaceaunranked cladebelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceBerta, 2017
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)1,259
Extant Size (PBDB)259 (21%)
First Recorded Appearance56.0 - 47.8 Ma
Eocene
Environmentmarine
Motilityactively mobile
Dietcarnivore
Reproductionviviparous
Ontogenymodification of parts
Taphonomyhydroxylapatite
Primary Reference (PBDB)M. J. Brisson. 1762. Regnum Animale in classes IX distributum, sive synopsis methodica, Ed. 2
Common Name(s) Walvisachtigen, Cetaceans, Whale, Whales, Whales, Dolphins, And Porpoises, Dolphins, Marine Mammals, Porpoises, Baleines, Cétacés, Dauphins, Mammfères Marins, Marsouins, Baleia, Cetáceo, Golfinho
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cetacea

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Balaenoidorum
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Mystacoceta
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Mystacoceti
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Proteroceta
suborder
listed (PBDB)
Protocetoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)
Remingtonocetoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)
Acrodelphidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Acrodelphinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1328.1 Ma
Oligocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Aetiocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3433.9 Ma
Oligocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Agorophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
533.9 Ma
Oligocene
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Albireonidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
67.25 Ma
Miocene
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Allodelphinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1028.1 Ma
Oligocene
13.8 Ma
Miocene
Ambulocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
447.8 Ma
Eocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Ashleycetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.9 Ma
Oligocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Balaenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Right Whale23523.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Balaenodontae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Balaenopteridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Rorqual39728.4 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Balanadae
family
listed (PBDB)Right Whale0 Ma
Extant
Basilosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
27656.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Cetotheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
22728.1 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Cetotheriopsidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Dalpiazinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
428.4 Ma
Oligocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Delphinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Dolphin54423.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Eomysticetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1734.3 Ma
Eocene
27.3 Ma
Oligocene
Eoplatanistidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
823.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Eschrichtiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Gray Whale4011.6 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Eurhinodelphidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eurhinodelphinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
17228.4 Ma
Oligocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Hapalodectidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Condylarth2561.7 Ma
Paleocene
48.6 Ma
Eocene
Hemisyntrachelidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hyperoodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hypognathodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Iniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3820.4 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Inticetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
220.4 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Janjucetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kentriodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12928.1 Ma
Oligocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Kogiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pygmy Sperm Whale6023.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Lipotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
911.6 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Llanocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
338.0 Ma
Eocene
38.0 Ma
Eocene
Mammalodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1328.4 Ma
Oligocene
25.2 Ma
Oligocene
Mesonychidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Condylarth25466.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Mirocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.9 Ma
Oligocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Monodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8620.4 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Mystacodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
138.0 Ma
Eocene
38.0 Ma
Eocene
Neobalaenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Neoballaenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pygmy Right Whale0 Ma
Extant
Odobenocetopsidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
411.6 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Pakicetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1556.0 Ma
Paleocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Patriocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
728.1 Ma
Oligocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Phocoenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Porpoise9316.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Physeteridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Sperm Whale19028.1 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Platanistidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7923.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Pontoporiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4923.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Prosqualodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
128.1 Ma
Oligocene
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Protocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6248.6 Ma
Eocene
38.0 Ma
Eocene
Pterobalaenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pike Whale0 Ma
Extant
Remingtonocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3047.8 Ma
Eocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Rhabdosteidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhynchoceti
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Simocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Squalodelphidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Squalodelphinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2628.1 Ma
Oligocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Squalodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
13633.9 Ma
Oligocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Tranatocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
211.6 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Triisodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5366.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
61.7 Ma
Paleocene
Waipatiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1428.4 Ma
Oligocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Xenorophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1533.9 Ma
Oligocene
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Zignodelphidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ziphiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Beaked Whale33228.1 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Acrophyseter
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
413.8 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Amphiptera
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Awadelphis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
17.25 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Brujadelphis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
113.8 Ma
Miocene
13.8 Ma
Miocene
Coronodon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.9 Ma
Oligocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Diorocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1120.4 Ma
Miocene
13.8 Ma
Miocene
Eudelphis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
220.4 Ma
Miocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Graamocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
111.6 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Halicetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
216.0 Ma
Miocene
13.8 Ma
Miocene
Herentalia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
111.6 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Herpetocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5023.0 Ma
Miocene
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Imerocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
111.6 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Isocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
416.0 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Isthminia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
17.25 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Kurdalagonus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
413.8 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Livyatan
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
223.0 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Loncodelphis
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Nanisocetus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Neosqualodon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1128.1 Ma
Oligocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Palaeobalaena
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phococetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
223.0 Ma
Miocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Piscocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
17.25 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Sachalinocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
228.1 Ma
Oligocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Saurocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.9 Ma
Oligocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Tiphyocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
316.0 Ma
Miocene
13.8 Ma
Miocene
Titanocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
120.4 Ma
Miocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Tretosphrys
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Zygiocetus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
17.25 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Alpherat bramblei
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pelagiceti
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)4,22656.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Zeugloceta
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Balaena prisca Nilsson, 1847GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea : Balaena prisca
Homocetus villersi (Du Bus, 1867)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea : Homocetus villersi

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1762Cetacea Brisson p. 218
1804Anarnak Lacépède p. 163
1804Anarnak groenlandicus Lacépède p. 164
1806Ananarcus Dumeril
1806Anarcus Froriep
1811Anarnak Illiger p. 142
1814Oxypterus Rafinesque
1814Oxypterus mongitori Rafinesque
1821Carnivorae Gray p. 309
1821Cetaceae Gray p. 309
1821Anarnacus Gray p. 310
1829Delphinus mongitori Fischer p. 509
1840Ziphius priscus Eichwald
1842Cetotherium priscum Brandt p. 146
1842Manatus giganteus De Kay p. 123
1842Manatus giganteus DeKay p. 123
1843Cetotherium priscum Brandt p. 148
1846Anarnacus Gray p. 29
1853Cetacea Bronn p. 754
1853Cetotherium priscum Bronn p. 756
1853Cetacea Pictet p. 380
1860Choneziphius priscus Eichwald p. 399
1860Cetotherium priscum Nordmann p. 330
1865Palaeocetus Seeley p. 54
1865Palaeocetus sedgwicki Seeley p. 54 figs. Plate 3
1865Palaeocetus Seeley p. 57
1866Palaeocetus Gray p. 106
1866Palaeocetus sedgwickii Gray p. 106
1866Palaeobalaena Seeley p. 228
1866Palaeobalaena sedgwicki Seeley p. 228
1871Palaeocetus Gervais p. 136
1871Palaeocetus sedgwickii Gervais p. 136
1871Anarnacus Gill p. 126
1871Palaeocetus Gill p. 126
1872Cetotherium priscum Brandt p. 261
1872Otaria leclercii Delfortrie
1872Anarnacus Gill p. 96
1873Palaeocetus Brandt p. 25
1873Cetotherium priscum Brandt p. 101
1873Cetotheriomorphus dubius Brandt pp. 161-162
1873Ziphius blasii Brandt p. 225
1873Cetacea Leidy p. 337
1875Cetacea Cope p. 42
1879Cetotolites McCoy p. 13
1879Cetotolites leggei McCoy p. 14
1879Cetotolites nelsoni McCoy p. 14 figs. Plate LIV, Figs. 3-5
1879Cetotolites pricei McCoy p. 14 figs. Plate LIV, Fig. 2
1879Cetotolites nelsoni rugosa McCoy p. 17
1883Cetacea Flower p. 184
1883Cetotolites baileyi McCoy
1883Pachycetus humilis Van Beneden
1883Pachycetus robustus Van Beneden
1883Pachycetus Van Beneden pp. 31-32
1883Pachycetus humilis Van Beneden p. 32
1883Pachycetus robustus Van Beneden p. 32 figs. not figured
1886Berardiopsis Portis p. 326
1886Berardiopsis pliocaenus Portis p. 326 figs. Fig. 95-96
1887Palaeocetus Lydekker p. 30
1887Palaeocetus sedgwickii Lydekker p. 31
1889Cetacea Ameghino p. 653
1889Cetacea Cope p. 874
1890Anarnacus Cope p. 607
1890Palaeocetus Cope p. 612
1891Cetacea Flower and Lydekker p. 89
1897Cetacea Parker and Haswell p. 450
1898Cetacea Gadow p. 44
1898Archaeocetus Sinzow p. 121
1898Mesotaria leclercii Trouessart p. 378
1898Manatus giganteus Trouessart p. 1000
1898Pachycetus Trouessart p. 1054
1898Pachycetus robustus Trouessart p. 1054
1898Mesoplodon blasii Trouessart p. 1066
1898Berardiopsis Trouessart p. 1068
1898Berardiopsis pliocaenus Trouessart p. 1068
1898Cetotherium priscum Trouessart p. 1071
1898Pachycetus humilis Trouessart p. 1084
1898Palaeocetus sedgwicki Trouessart p. 1088
1898Palaeocetus Trouessart p. 1089
1901Globicephalus eocaenus Ameghino p. 80
1904Cetacea Case p. 3
1904Trichechus giganteus Case p. 56
1904Anarnak Palmer p. 100
1904Anarnak groenlandicus Palmer p. 100
1904Archaeocetus Palmer p. 114
1904Berardiopsis Palmer p. 136
1904Pachycetus Palmer p. 494
1904Palaeocetus Palmer p. 499
1904Mesotaria leclerci Trouessart p. 282
1904Trichechus giganteus Trouessart p. 748
1904Berardiopsis Trouessart p. 778
1904Berardiopsis pliocaenus Trouessart p. 778
YearName and Author
1904Mesoplodon blasiusi Trouessart p. 778
1904Cetotherium priscum Trouessart p. 779
1904Archaeocetus Trouessart p. 780
1904Pachycetus Trouessart p. 784
1904Pachycetus humilis Trouessart p. 784
1904Pachycetus robustus Trouessart p. 784
1904Palaeocetus Trouessart p. 786
1904Palaeocetus sedgwicki Trouessart p. 786
1906Cetacea Andrews p. 234
1906Plesiocetus priscus Joleaud p. 380
1910Cetacea Gregory p. 466
1911Cetacei Jaekel p. 230
1912Pachycetus True p. 3
1919Cetacea Abel p. 749
1925Cetacea Zittel p. 80
1928Pachycetus Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Palaeocetus Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1930Trichechus giganteus Hay p. 658
1933Cetotherium priscum Nicolaescu p. 85
1937Cetotherium priscum Pia p. 59
1944Cetotherium priscum Macarovici p. 136
1945Cetacea Simpson p. 100
1945Berardiopsis Simpson p. 101
1945Pachycetus Simpson p. 104
1945Palaeocetus Simpson p. 105
1947Mesotaria leclercii Friant p. 5
1966Cetacea Hershkovitz p. 6
1967Cetacea Harland et al. p. 774
1975Cetacea McKenna p. 43
1975Berardiopsis Mead p. 750 figs. Table 1
1978Cetacea Barnes p. 3
1979Cetacea Baird and Horner p. 19
1980Berardiopsis Pilleri p. 48
1981Cetacea Thurmond and Jones p. 191
1982Pachycetus Russell p. 72
1982Pachycetus humilis Russell p. 72
1982Pachycetus robustus Russell p. 72
1984Cetacea Whitmore p. 230
1985Cetacea Barnes p. 3
1986Palaeocetus Deméré p. 289
1986Palaeocetus sedgwicki Deméré p. 289
1986Pachycetus Rothausen p. 517
1987Berardiopsis Pilleri p. 93
1987Berardiopsis pliocaenus Pilleri p. 93
1988Cetacea Carroll
1988Pachycetus Carroll
1988Palaeocetus Carroll
1991Cetacea Nowak
1997Cetacea Bianucci p. 164
1997Pachycetus Gingerich et al. p. 68
1997Pachycetus robustus Gingerich et al. p. 68
1997Cetacea McKenna and Bell p. 368
1997Palaeocetus McKenna and Bell p. 378
1997Berardiopsis McKenna and Bell p. 382
1997Cetacea Montgelard et al. p. 555
1998Cetacea Archibald
1998Cetacea Thewissen and Hussain p. 221
1999Cetacea Waddell et al. p. 2
2000Cetacea Ursing et al.
2001Cetacea Thewissen et al. p. suppl.
2002Berardiopsis Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Cetacea Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Pachycetus Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Palaeocetus Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Cetacea Geisler and Sanders p. 27
2004Cetacea Arnason et al. p. 33
2004Cetacea Uhen p. 11
2004Pachycetus van Vliet p. 143
2004Pachycetus humilis van Vliet p. 143
2004Pachycetus robustus van Vliet p. 143
2005Cetacea Boisserie et al.
2005Cetacea Cahuzac et al. p. 420
2006Cetacea Bisconti and Varola p. 449
2006Cetacea Hampe p. 64
2006Cetacea Hulbert and Whitmore p. 19
2007Cetacea Bisconti p. 89
2007Cetacea Gingerich p. 366
2008Cetacea Agnarsson and May-Collado p. 981 figs. Fig. 2
2008Cetacea Bisconti p. 162
2009Cetacea Gingerich et al. p. 3
2009Cetacea Spaulding et al.
2010Cetacea Asher and Helgen p. 3 figs. Figure 1
2010Cetacea Canto et al. p. 20
2011Cetacea Boisserie et al. p. 620 figs. Table 1
2011Cetacea Uhen et al. p. 957
2014Cetacea Jefferson and Rosenbaum
2015Cetacea Boessenecker and Fordyce
2017Cetacea Berta p. 158
2017Palaeocetus Berta p. 168
2017Cetacea Godfrey et al.

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Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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