SUPPORT US. We rely on your donations to survive.
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice SettingsThe Mineral Quiz
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesSearch by ColorNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography
BETA TEST - Fossil data and pages are very much experimental and under development. Please report any problems

Elaphe

Description

Elaphe is a genus of snakes in the family Colubridae. Elaphe is one of the main genera of the rat snakes, which are found in many regions of the northern hemisphere. Elaphe species are medium to large constrictors by nature. Although all of the species in Elaphe are nonvenomous, bites from rat snakes are still irritably painful and can potentially cause bacterial infections due to the saliva.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)8870734https://www.gbif.org/species/8870734
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)38134https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=38134
Rankgenus
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Colubridae : Elaphe
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-ReptiliomorphaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-AnthracosauriaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-Batrachosauria
-Cotylosauria
-AmniotaHaeckel 1866
-SauropsidaHuxley 1864
classReptiliaLaurenti 1768
subclassEureptilia
-RomeriidaGauthier et al. 1988
-Diapsida
-Eosuchia
-NeodiapsidaBenton 1985
-SauriaGauthier 1984
-Lepidosauromorpha
superorderLepidosauria
orderSquamataOppel 1811
suborderOphidia
-Serpentes
infraorderAlethinophidiaNopcsa 1923
-MacrostomataRitgen 1828
superfamilyBooideaGray 1825
-CaenophidiaHoffstetter 1939
superfamilyColubroideaOppel 1811
familyColubridaeOppel 1811
subfamilyColubrinaeOppel 1811
genusElapheFitzinger 1833
Scientific NameElaphe Fitzinger, 1833
Name Published Inin Wagler, Descr. Icon. Amph. (3): expl. pl. 27
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Elaphegenusbelongs to Colubridaestated without evidenceLydekker, 1888
Elaphegenusbelongs to ColubridaeimpliedBachmayer and Szyndlar, 1985
Elaphegenusbelongs to Colubridaestated without evidenceSzyndlar, 1985
Elaphegenusbelongs to Colubrinaestated without evidenceHolman, 1985
Elaphegenusbelongs to ColubridaeimpliedBachmayer and Szyndlar, 1987
Elaphegenusbelongs to Colubrinaestated without evidenceParmley and Holman, 1995
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)14
Extant Size (PBDB)5 (36%)
First Recorded Appearance23.0 - 16.0 Ma
Miocene
Environmentterrestrial (based on Booidea)
Motilityactively mobile (based on Osteichthyes)
Dietcarnivore
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution
Common Name(s) Corn Snakes, Fox Snakes, Rat Snakes, Ratsnakes
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaphe

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Coluber kormosi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe algorensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
18.70 Ma
Miocene
8.70 Ma
Miocene
Elaphe anomala
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe bimaculata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe carinata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe climacophora
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe davidi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe dione
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe flaviolineata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe guttata
species
listed (PBDB)Corn Snake1310.3 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Elaphe kansensis
species
listed (PBDB)213.6 Ma
Miocene
10.3 Ma
Miocene
Elaphe kohfidischi
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
316.0 Ma
Miocene
7.75 Ma
Miocene
Elaphe kormosi
species
listed (PBDB)37.75 Ma
Miocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Elaphe longissima
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
304.90 Ma
Pliocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Elaphe nebraskensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1223.0 Ma
Miocene
10.3 Ma
Miocene
Elaphe obseleta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe obsoleta
species
listed (PBDB)Black Rat Snake1710.3 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Elaphe paralongissima
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
14.20 Ma
Pliocene
4.20 Ma
Pliocene
Elaphe praelongissima
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
68.70 Ma
Miocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Elaphe quadrivirgata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe quadrivittata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe quattrolineata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe quatuorlineata
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Four-lined Snake55.33 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Elaphe sauromates
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe schrenckii
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe sclerotica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Elaphe szyndlari
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
28.70 Ma
Miocene
8.70 Ma
Miocene
Elaphe vulpina
species
listed (PBDB)Fox Snake124.90 Ma
Pliocene
0 Ma
Extant
Elaphe zoigeensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Palaeoelaphe kansensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Elaphis boulei De Stefano, 1905GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Colubridae : Elaphe : Elaphis boulei
Elaphis Wagler, 1833GBIFgenusAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Colubridae : Elaphis
Composoma GBIFgenusAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Colubridae : Composoma
Compsosoma Duméril, 1853GBIFgenusAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Colubridae : Compsosoma

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1833Elaphe Wagler
1888Elaphis Lydekker p. 251
1905Elaphis boulei De Stefano
1938Palaeoelaphe Gilmore
1979Elaphe Behler and King
1985Elaphe Bachmayer and Szyndlar p. 80
YearName and Author
1985Elaphe Holman
1985Elaphe Szyndlar p. 448
1987Elaphe Bachmayer and Szyndlar p. 26
1988Elaphe Carroll
1995Elaphe Parmley and Holman p. 84
2010Elaphe Parmley and Hunter p. 531

References

Carroll R. L. (1988) , Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 1-698
Lydekker R. , Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History). Part I. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum (Natural History), London, 1-309
Gilmore C. W. (1938) Fossil snakes of North America, Geological Society of America Special Paper 9, 1-96
Behler J. L., King F. W. (1979) , National Audubon Society Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: North America, 1-743
Bachmayer F., Szyndlar Z. (1985) Ophidians (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the Kohfidisch fissures of Burgenland, Austria, Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A: Mineralogie und Petrographie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, Anthropologie Praehistorie 87, 79-100
Holman J. A. (1985) Herpetofauna of Ladds Quarry, National Geographic Research 1 3, 423-436
Szyndlar Z. (1985) Ophidian fauna (Reptilia, Serpentes) from the uppermost Miocene of Algora (Spain)., Estudios Geologicos 41, 447-465
Bachmayer F, Szyndlar Z (1987) A second contribution to the ophidian fauna (Reptilia: Serpentes) of Kohfidisch, Austria, Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A: Mineralogie und Petrographie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, Anthropologie Praehistorie 88, 25-39
Parmley D., Holman J. A. (1995) Hemphillian (late Miocene) snakes from Nebraska, with comments on Arikareean through Blancan snakes of midcontinental North America, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15 1, 79-95
Parmley D., Hunter K. B. (2010) Fossil snakes of the Clarendonian (late Miocene) Pratt Slide local fauna of Nebraska, with the description of a new natricine colubrid, Journal of Herpetology 44 4, 526-543 doi:10.1670/09-248.1
Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed., 1993: Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
CoL2006 - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Nomenclator Zoologicus (authority adjusted) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Nomenclator Zoologicus. A list of the names of genera and subgenera in zoology from the tenth edition of Linnaeus, 1758 to the end of 2004. Digitised by uBio from vols. 1-9 of Neave (ed.), 1939-1996 plus supplementary digital-only volume. http://ubio.org/NomenclatorZoologicus (as at 2006). - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
SN2000: Brands, S. J. (compiler) 1989-2005. Systema Naturae 2000. Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2006 version). Available online at http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
as per family - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
in Wagler, Descr. Icon. Amph., fasc. 3, pl - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner, 1987: Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Aronsson, M. (2016) Exceldokument: Främmande arter grunddata.xls Skapat 2016-10-25 - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Uetz, J. (2017) The Reptile Database, Zoological Museum Hamburg; www.reptile-database.org - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
SN2000, PaleoDB - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Opinion 490 Action under the Plenary Powers to Preserve for use in its accustomed sense the generic name Elaphe Fitzinger, 1833 (class Reptilia).Opinions and declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 17(12), 179-196 (1957) - via Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat Discussions Facebook Logo Instagram Logo Discord Logo
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2020, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: December 2, 2020 12:30:28 Page generated: May 8, 2020 18:42:56
Go to top of page