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Megaloceros

Description

Megaloceros (from Greek: μεγαλος megalos + κερας keras, literally "Great Horn"; see also Lister [1987]) is an extinct genus of deer whose members lived throughout Eurasia from the early Pleistocene to the beginning of the Holocene and were important herbivores during the Ice Ages. The largest species, Megaloceros giganteus, vernacularly known as the "Irish elk" or "Giant elk", is also the best known. They are thought to be most closely related to the living Dama deer.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)9394758https://www.gbif.org/species/9394758
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)42678https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=42678
Rankgenus
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Megaloceros
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Megaloceros
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-ReptiliomorphaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-AnthracosauriaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-Batrachosauria
-Cotylosauria
-AmniotaHaeckel 1866
-SynapsidaOsborn 1903
-Therapsida
infraorderCynodontia
-EpicynodontiaHopson and Kitching 2001
infraorderEucynodontiaKemp 1982
-ProbainognathiaHopson 1990
-MammaliamorphaRowe 1988
-MammaliaformesRowe 1988
classMammaliaLinnaeus 1758
subclassTribosphenida
infraclassEutheria
orderUngulata
orderArtiodactyla
-RuminantiamorphaSpaulding et al. 2009
-Ruminantia
-Pecora
familyCervidaeGray 1821
subfamilyCervinaeGoldfuss 1820
tribeMegaceriniViret 1961
genusMegalocerosBrookes 1828
Common NameIrish elk
Scientific NameMegaloceros Brookes, 1828
Name Published InA Catalogue of the Anatomical and Zoological Museum of Joshua Brookes, Esq., part 1, p. 61
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Megalocerosgenusbelongs to CervidaeimpliedCarroll, 1988
Megalocerosgenusbelongs to MegaceriniimpliedMcKenna and Bell, 1997
Megalocerosgenusbelongs to Cervinistated without evidenceGrubb, 2000
Megalocerosgenusbelongs to Cervinaestated without evidenceAgnarsson and May-Collado, 2008
Megalocerosgenusbelongs to Megacerinistated without evidenceVislobokova, 2009
Status (PBDB)extinct
Taxon Size (PBDB)6
First Recorded Appearance16.0 - 2.6 Ma
Cenozoic
Last Recorded Appearance0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Environmentterrestrial (based on Artiodactyla)
Motilityactively mobile (based on Osteichthyes)
Dietgrazer, browser (based on Cervidae)
Reproductionviviparous (based on Cervidae)
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution
Common Name(s) Irish Elk
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megaloceros

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Alces (Megaceros) fossilis
species
listed (PBDB)22.59 Ma
Pleistocene
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Megaceros baotouensis
species
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Megaloceros algericus
species
listed (PBDB)
Megaloceros cazioti
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Megaloceros euryceros
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Megaloceros giganteus
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
916.0 Ma
Miocene
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Megaloceros luochuanensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10.78 Ma
Pleistocene
0.78 Ma
Pleistocene

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Megaloceros Pictet, 1853GBIFgenusAnimalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Megaloceros
Megalocerus Brookes, 1828GBIFgenusAnimalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Megalocerus
Megaceros Owen, 1844GBIFgenusAnimalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Megaceros

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1828Megaloceros Brookes
1844Megaceros Owen
1895Alces (Megaceros) Allen p. 191
1988Megaloceros Carroll
1997Megaloceros McKenna and Bell p. 428
2000Megaloceros Grubb p. 302
2008Megaloceros Agnarsson and May-Collado p. 974 figs. Fig. 5
2009Megaloceros Vislobokova p. 398

References

Carroll R. L. (1988) , Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 1-698
Allen J. A. On the names of mammals given by Kerr in his 'Animal kingdom,' published in 1792, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 7 5, 179-192
McKenna M. C., Bell S. K. (1997) , Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level, 1-640
Grubb P. (2000) Valid and invalid nomenclature of living and fossil deer, Cervidae, Acta Theriologica 45 3, 289-307
Agnarsson I., May-Collado L. J. (2008) The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: The importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species-level phylogenies, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48, 964-985
Vislobokova I. (2009) A new species of Megacerini (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) from the Late Miocene of Taralyk-Cher, Tuva (Russia), and remarks on the relationships of the group, Geobios 42, 397-410 doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2008.12.004
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Opinion 1566 Megaloceros Brookes, 1828 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): original spelling emended.Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 46, 219-220 (1989) - via Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology
Nomenclator Zoologicus. A list of the names of genera and subgenera in zoology from the tenth edition of Linnaeus, 1758 to the end of 2004. Digitised by uBio from vols. 1-9 of Neave (ed.), 1939-1996 plus supplementary digital-only volume. http://ubio.org/NomenclatorZoologicus (as at 2006). - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
SN2000/McKenna & Bell, 1997 - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
SN2000: Brands, S. J. (compiler) 1989-2005. Systema Naturae 2000. Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2006 version). Available online at http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
as per family - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Mus. of J. B. (Brookesean Mus.), 4to - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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