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Anura

Description

Anura may refer to:


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)952https://www.gbif.org/species/952
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)37422https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=37422
Rankorder
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Amphibia : Anura
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Osteichthyes : Anura
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-Temnospondyli
-Lissamphibia
-Batrachia
orderSalientiaLaurenti 1768
orderAnura
Common Namefrog
Scientific NameAnura
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Anuraorderbelongs to Batrachiastated with evidenceCope, 1875
Anuraorderbelongs to Lissamphibiastated with evidenceGadow, 1898
Anuraordersubjective synonym of Salientiastated without evidenceHay, 1902
Anuraorderbelongs to Amphibiastated without evidenceJaekel, 1911
Anuraorderbelongs to Batrachomorphastated without evidenceSäve-Söderbergh, 1934
Anuraorderbelongs to Euamphibiastated with evidenceKuhn, 1946
Anuraorderbelongs to Batrachomorphoideastated without evidenceHuene, 1954
Anurasuborderbelongs to Amphibiastated without evidenceMcGrew et al., 1959
Anuraorderbelongs to Paratoideastated with evidenceGardiner, 1982
Anuraorderbelongs to LepospondyliimpliedCarroll, 1988
Anuraorderbelongs to Amphibiastated without evidenceShoshani et al., 1989
Anurasuborderbelongs to Lissamphibiastated without evidenceGauthier et al., 1989
Anurasuborderbelongs to Amphibiastated without evidenceHolman et al., 1990
Anuraorderbelongs to Salientiastated with evidenceEvans and Borsuk-Bialynicka, 1998
Anuraorderbelongs to Salientiastated without evidenceSanchiz, 1998
Anuraorderbelongs to Amphibiastated without evidencePeng et al., 2001
Anuraorderbelongs to Batrachiastated with evidenceZardoya and Meyer, 2001
Anuraorderbelongs to Salientiastated with evidenceGao and Wang, 2001
Anurasuborderbelongs to Batrachiastated without evidenceMeyer and Zardoya, 2003
Anuraorderbelongs to Salientiastated without evidenceGao and Chen, 2004
Anuraorderbelongs to AmphibiaimpliedAugé and Rage, 2006
Anuraorderbelongs to Amphibiastated without evidenceBöhme, 2008
Anuraorderbelongs to Salientiastated with evidenceAnderson et al., 2008
Anuraorderbelongs to AmphibiaimpliedBöhme, 2010
Anuraorderbelongs to Amphibiastated without evidenceFernicola and Albino, 2012
Anuraorderbelongs to Batrachiastated without evidenceMaddin et al., 2012
Anuraorderbelongs to LissamphibiaimpliedVianey-Liaud et al., 2014
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)483
Extant Size (PBDB)253 (52%)
First Recorded Appearance201 - 174 Ma
Jurassic
Environmentbrackish,freshwater,terrestrial (based on Tetrapoda)
Motilityactively mobile (based on Temnospondyli)
Dietcarnivore (based on Temnospondyli)
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)G. Fischer von Waldheim. 1813. Zoognosia Tabulis Synopticis. Edition Tertia, Classium, Ordinum, Generum Illustratione Perpetua Aucta. Volumen Primum, Tabulas Synopticas Generales et Comparativas, nec non Characterum Quorundam Explicationem Iconographicam Continens. Nicolai Sergeidis Vsevolozsky, Moscow
Common Name(s) Frog, Frogs, Kikkers, Stjärtlösa Groddjur, Toads, Crapauds, Grenouilles, Perereca, Rã, Sapo
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anura

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Bufoniformia
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Discoglossoidea
suborder
listed (PBDB)370.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Gastrechmia
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Odontaglossa
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Opisthocoela
suborder
listed (PBDB)
Palaeobatrachoidea
suborder
listed (PBDB)
Phaneroglossa
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Proanura
suborder
listed (PBDB)
Raniformia
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Pelobatoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)240157 Ma
Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Pipoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)47157 Ma
Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Allophyrnidae
family
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Alsodidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Alytidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Midwife Toads15152 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Aromobatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Arthroleptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Astylosternidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Batrachylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bombinatoridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Brachycephalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Brevicipitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bufonidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Toad39783.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Calyptocephalellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Centrolenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Ceratobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ceratophryidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ceuthomantidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Conrauidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Craugastoridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cycloramphidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dendrobatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dicroglossidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Discoglossidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Painted Frog131168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Eleutherodactylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Epicria
family
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Gobiatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
30125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Heleophrynidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hemiphractidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hemisidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hemisotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Hylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hylodidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hyperoliidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Leiopelmatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
719.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Leiuperidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lepidodactylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leptodactylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Limnodynastidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mantellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10.01 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Megophryidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Micrixalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Microhylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Myobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nasikabatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Notobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nyctibatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Odontophrynidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10.78 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Palaeobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pelobatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pelodryadidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pelodytidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Petropedetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phrynobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phrynomeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phyllomedusidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pipidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Prosaliridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Ptychadenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pyxicephalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ranidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
42889.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Ranixalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhacophoridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhinodermatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Rhinophrynidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Scaphiopodidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sooglossidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Strabomantidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Telmatobiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tregobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
213.6 Ma
Miocene
13.6 Ma
Miocene
Triadobatrachidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Scaphiophryninae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Avitabatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Aygroua
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1145 Ma
Late Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Beelzebufo
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bissektia
genus
listed (PBDB)2101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Comobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cordicephalus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cratia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Czatkobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Electrorana
genus
listed (PBDB)199.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Estesiella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eurycephalella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Genibatrachus
genus
listed (PBDB)1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Gracilibatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hatzegobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hensonbatrachus
genus
listed (PBDB)1083.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Hungarobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Iberobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Latonia
genus
listed (PBDB)5823.0 Ma
Miocene
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Liaobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Neusibatrachus
genus
listed (PBDB)1129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Nezpercius
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Opisthocoelellus
genus
listed (PBDB)
Paradiscoglossus
genus
listed (PBDB)370.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Prosalirus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Scotiophryne
genus
listed (PBDB)24125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Sunnybatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3145 Ma
Late Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Thaumastosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1356.0 Ma
Paleocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Theatonius
genus
listed (PBDB)883.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Thoraciliacus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tyrrellbatrachus
genus
listed (PBDB)683.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Varibatrachus
genus
listed (PBDB)113.6 Ma
Miocene
13.6 Ma
Miocene
Vieraella
genus
listed (PBDB)1201 Ma
Early Jurassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Vulcanobatrachus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Wealdenbatrachus
genus
listed (PBDB)1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Acosmanura
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)113.6 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Costata
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Eoanura
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)255.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Neobatrachia
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)1,100130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Xenoanura
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)58145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1777Ecaudata Scopoli
1873Diacium unipedalis Cope p. 18
1874Cremastosaurus unipedalis Cope p. 516
1875Anura Cope p. 7
1887Eobatrachus Marsh p. 328
1887Eobatrachus agilis Marsh p. 328
1898Anura Gadow p. 14
1902Eobatrachus Hay p. 425
1902Eobatrachus agilis Hay p. 425
1902Platyrhachis unipedalis Hay p. 477
1911Anura Jaekel p. 130
1912Eobatrachus Moodie p. 286
1912Eobatrachus agilis Moodie p. 288
1934Anura Swinton p. 76
1934Anura Säve-Söderbergh p. 17
1940Jeholobatrachus Endo
1940Jeholobatrachus intermedius Endo
1946Anura Kuhn p. 53
1954Anura Huene p. 12
1958Archaeobatrachia Reig
1959Anura McGrew et al. p. 130
1960Eobatrachus Hecht and Estes p. 2
1960Eobatrachus agilis Hecht and Estes p. 2
1960Comobatrachus Hecht and Estes p. 6
1960Comobatrachus aenigmatis Hecht and Estes pp. 6-7 figs. Pl. 1:2,4,6
1961Vieraellidae Reig
1979Mesobatrachia Laurent
1982Anura Gardiner p. 228
1983Pipoidei Dubois
1988Anura Carroll
1989Anura Gauthier et al. p. 349
1989Anura Shoshani et al. p. 436
1990Anura Holman et al. p. 523
1996Anura Frank and Ramus
YearName and Author
1998Anura Evans and Borsuk-Bialynicka p. 578
1998Liaobatrachus Ji and Ji
1998Anura Sanchiz
1998Mesobatrachia Sanchiz
1999Callobatrachus Wang and Gao
2001Anura Gao and Wang p. 461
2001Mesophryne Gao and Wang p. 461
2001Callobatrachus Gao and Wang p. 464
2001Liaobatrachus Gao and Wang p. 468
2001Archaeobatrachia Gao and Wang p. 469
2001Anura Gardner p. 334 fig. 8
2001Anura Peng et al. p. 22
2001Anura Zardoya and Meyer p. 7380
2003Anura Meyer and Zardoya
2004Anura Gao and Chen p. 762
2004Yizhoubatrachus Gao and Chen pp. 762-766 figs. 2-3
2004Dalianbatrachus Gao and Liu
2004Callobatrachus Wang p. 1170
2004Liaobatrachus Wang p. 1170
2004Mesophryne Wang p. 1170
2006Anura Augé and Rage p. 237
2008Anura Anderson et al. p. 517
2008Anura Böhme p. 167
2008Anura Venczel and Stiuca p. 741
2010Anura Böhme p. 13
2010Liaobatrachus Zhou and Wang
2010Mesophryne Zhou and Wang
2010Yizhoubatrachus Zhou and Wang
2010Callobatrachus Zhou and Wang pp. 639-641 fig. 1
2012Anura Fernicola and Albino
2012Anura Maddin et al.
2013Callobatrachus Baez
2013Liaobatrachus Dong et al.
2014Anura Vianey-Liaud et al. p. 569

References

Fischer von Waldheim G. , Zoognosia Tabulis Synopticis. Edition Tertia, Classium, Ordinum, Generum Illustratione Perpetua Aucta. Volumen Primum, Tabulas Synopticas Generales et Comparativas, nec non Characterum Quorundam Explicationem Iconographicam Continens. Nicolai Sergeidis Vsevolozsky, Moscow, xiii-465
Cope E. D. Synopsis of new Vertebrata from the Tertiary of Colorado obtained during the summer of 1873, Seventh Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories (extract)
Cope E. D. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia; with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution. Based on the specimens contained in the U. S. National Museum, Bulletin of the United States National Museum 1, 1-109
Marsh O. C. American Jurassic mammals, The American Journal of Science, series 3 33 196, 327-348
Gadow H. , A Classification of Vertebrata Recent and Extinct, xvii-82
Hay O. P. (1902) , Bibliography and Catalogue of the Fossil Vertebrata of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 179, 1-868
Jaekel O. (1911) , Die Wirbeltiere. Eine Übersicht über die Fossilen und Lebenden Formen [The Vertebrates. An Overview of the Fossil and Living Forms], viii-252
Swinton W. E. (1934) , A Guide to the Fossil Birds, Reptiles, and Amphibians in the Department of Geology and Paleontology in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 7, xii-87
Säve-Söderbergh G. (1934) Some points of view concerning the evolution of the Vertebrates and the classification of this group, Arkiv för Zoologi 26A 17, 1-20
Kuhn O. (1946) Das System der fossilen und rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien [The system of fossil and recent amphibians and reptiles], Bericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bamberg 29, 49-67
Huene F. v. (1954) , Die Saurierwelt und ihre Geschichtlichen Zusammenhänge [The World of Reptiles and the History of Their Interrelationships]. 2nd, revised edition, 1-66
McGrew P. O., Berman J. E., et al (1959) The geology and paleontology of the Elk Mountain and Tabernacle Butte area, Wyoming, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 117 3, 117-176
Hecht M. K., Estes R. (1960) Fossil amphibians from Quarry Nine, Postilla 46, 1-19
Carroll R. L. (1988) , Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 1-698
Gauthier J. A., Cannatella D., et al (1989) Tetrapod phylogeny, In B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, & H. Jörnvall (eds.), The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, 337-353
Shoshani J., Fisher D. C., et al (1989) The Shelton Mastodon Site: Multidisciplinary study of a late Pleistocene (Twocreekan) locality in Southeastern Michigan, Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 27 14, 393-436
Holman J. A., Bell G. L., et al (1990) A late Pleistocene herpetofauna from Bell Cave, Alabama, The Herpetological Journal 1 11, 521-529
Frank N., Ramus E. (1996) A Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Reptiles and Amphibians of the World, 1-377
Evans S. E., Borsuk-Bialynicka M. (1998) A stem-group frog from the Early Triassic of Poland, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 43 4, 573-580
Ji S., Ji Q. (1998) The first Mesozoic frog from China (Amphibia: Anura), Liaobatrachus grabaui gen. et sp. nov., Chinese Geology 250, 39-42
Sanchiz B. (1998) Salientia, Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie 4
Wang Y., Gao K.Q. (1999) Earliest Asian discoglossid frog from western Liaoning, Chinese Science Bulletin 44 7, 636-642
Gao K.-Q., Wang Y. (2001) Mesozoic anurans from Liaoning Province, China, and phylogenetic relationships of archaeobatrachian anuran clades, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 3, 460-476
Gardner J. D. (2001) Monophyly and affinities of albanerpetontid amphibians (Temnospondyli; Lissamphibia), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 131, 309-352
Peng J., Russell A. P., et al (2001) Vertebrate microsite assemblages (exclusive of mammals) from the Foremost and Oldman Formations of the Judith River Group (Campanian) of southeastern Alberta: an illustrated guide, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Natural History Occasional Paper 25, 1-54
Meyer A., Zardoya R. (2003) Recent advances in the (molecular) phylogeny of vertebrates, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34, 311-338
Gao K. -Q., Chen S. (2004) A new frog (Amphibia: Anura) from the Lower Cretaceous of western Liaoning, China, Cretaceous Research 25, 761-769
Wang Y. (2004) Taxonomy and stratigraphy of Late Mesozoic anurans and urodeles from China, Acta Geologica Sinica 78 6, 1169-1178
Augé M., Rage J.-C. (2006) Herpetofaunas from the Upper Paleocene and Lower Eocene of Morocco, Annales de Paléontologie 92 3, 235-253 doi:10.1016/j.annpal.2005.09.001
Anderson J. S., Reisz R. R., et al (2008) A stem batrachian from the Early Permian of Texas and the origin of frogs and salamanders, Nature 453, 515-518 doi:10.1038/nature06865
Böhme M. (2008) Ectothermic vertebrates (Teleostei, Allocaudata, Urodela, Anura, Testudines, Choristodera, Crocodylia, Squamata) from the Upper Oligocene of Oberleichtersbach (Northern Bavaria, Germany), Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 260, 161-183
Venczel M., Stiuca E. (2008) Late middle Miocene amphibians and squamate reptiles from Taut, Romania, Geodiversitas 30 4, 731-763
Böhme M. (2010) Ectothermic vertebrates (Actinopterygii, Allocaudata, Urodela, Anura, Crocodylia, Squamata) from the Miocene of Sandelzhausen (Germany, Bavaria) and their implications for environment reconstruction and palaeoclimate, Paläontologische Zeitschrift 84 1, 3-41 doi:10.1007/s12542-010-0050-4
Zhou Z. -H., Wang Y. (2010) Vertebrate diversity of the Jehol Biota as compared with other Lagerstätten, Science China, Earth Sciences 53 12, 1895-1907 doi:10.1007/s11430-010-4094-9
Fernicola J. C., Albino A. (2012) Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina: paleoenvironmental and paleobiological considerations, Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation, 129-137
Maddin H. C., Jenkins Jr F. A., et al (2012) The Braincase of Eocaecilia micropodia (Lissamphibia, Gymnophiona) and the Origin of Caecilians, PLoS One 7 12, e50743 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050743
Baez A. M. (2013) Anurans from the Early Cretaceous Lagerstätte of Las Hoyas, Spain: New evidence on the Mesozoic diversification of crown-clade Anura, Cretaceous Research 41, 90-106 doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2012.11.002
Dong L., Roček Z., et al (2013) Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of Western Liaoning, China, PLoS One 8 7, e69723 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069723
Vianey-Liaud M., Comte B., et al (2014) A new early late Oligocene (MP 26) continental vertebrate fauna from Saint-Privat-des-Vieux (Alès Basin, Gard, Southern France), Geodiversitas 36 4, 565-622 doi:10.5252/g2014n4a4
Duméril, A.M.C. (1805). Zoologie analytique, ou méthode naturelle de classification des animaux, rendue plus facile à l'aide de tableaux synoptiques. Paris, Allais. pp. i-xxxiii + 1-344 [imprint date 1806]. - via World Register of Marine Species
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed., 1993: Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes, 2004: null. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004). - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
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International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Opinion 435 Suppression under the Plenary Powers of the generic name Achorutes Templeton, 1835, and designation under the same Powers of type species in harmony with current usage for the genera Hypogastrura Bourlet, 1839, and Neanura Macgillivray, 1893 (class Insecta, order Collembola).Opinions and declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 14(21), 425-458 (1956) - via Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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