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Testudinidae

Description

Tortoises are reptile species of the family Testudinidae of the order Testudines (the turtles). They are particularly distinguished from other turtles by being land-dwelling, while many (though not all) other turtle species are at least partly aquatic. Like other turtles, tortoises have a shell to protect from predation and other threats. The shell in tortoises is generally hard, and like other members of the suborder Cryptodira, they retract their necks and heads directly backwards into the shell to protect them.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)9618https://www.gbif.org/species/9618
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)37739https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=37739
Rankfamily
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-ReptiliomorphaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-AnthracosauriaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-Batrachosauria
-Cotylosauria
-AmniotaHaeckel 1866
-SauropsidaHuxley 1864
classReptiliaLaurenti 1768
-Testudinata
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788
suborderCryptodiraCope 1868
-PantestudinoideaJoyce et al. 2004
superfamilyTestudinoideaGray 1825
-PantestudinidaeJoyce et al. 2004
familyTestudinidaeBatsch 1788
Scientific NameTestudinidae
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cheloniastated without evidenceOwen, 1842
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinatastated without evidenceGray, 1869
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated with evidenceCope, 1871
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cheloniastated with evidenceLeidy, 1873
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated with evidenceCope, 1875
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceLydekker, 1889
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated without evidenceBaur, 1893
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated with evidenceGadow, 1898
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceHay, 1902
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated with evidenceKuhn, 1946
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cheloniastated without evidenceStirton, 1953
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Trionychoideastated with evidenceEstes, 1964
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated with evidenceKuhn, 1966
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinatastated without evidenceEstes and Berberian, 1970
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated without evidenceGaffney, 1975
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceThurmond and Jones, 1981
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated with evidenceMeylan and Auffenberg, 1986
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to TestudinoideaimpliedCarroll, 1988
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinesstated without evidenceFrank and Ramus, 1996
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceMeylan and Sterrer, 2000
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated with evidenceHervet, 2003
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceHutchison et al., 2004
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Pantestudinidaestated with evidenceJoyce et al., 2004
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceStaesche et al., 2007
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated without evidenceKarl, 2007
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to TestudinesimpliedBöhme, 2008
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinesstated without evidenceManzano et al., 2009
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated without evidencePérez-García et al., 2013
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated with evidenceVlachos and Tsoukala, 2014
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceVlachos et al., 2014
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated without evidencevan Dijk et al., 2014
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated with evidenceVlachos et al., 2015
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceVlachos and Delfino, 2016
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated without evidenceGarcia et al., 2016
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Cryptodirastated without evidenceTurvey et al., 2017
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated without evidencePérez-García et al., 2017
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Pantestudinidaestated with evidenceVlachos, 2018
Testudinidaefamilybelongs to Testudinoideastated with evidencede la Fuente et al., 2018
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)281
Extant Size (PBDB)116 (41%)
First Recorded Appearance66.0 - 61.7 Ma
Paleocene
Environmentterrestrial
Motilityactively mobile (based on Osteichthyes)
Dietherbivore, herbivore
Reproductionoviparous
Ecospace Commentslife habit and diet based on Ernst and Barbour 1989 and matches Uetz 2005
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)R. A. Stirton. 1953. Vertebrate paleontology and continental stratigraphy in Colombia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 64:603-622
Common Name(s) Tortoises
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testudinidae

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Platysterninae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)159.2 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Testudininae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)333.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Achilemys
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Agrionemys
genus
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Aldabrachelys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
60.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Anhuichelys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1966.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
61.7 Ma
Paleocene
Astrochelys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Cachuga
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
35.33 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Centrochelys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Spurred Tortoise323.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Cheirogaster
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1438.0 Ma
Eocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Chelonoidis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8929.0 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Chersina
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
811.6 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Chersine
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
275.33 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Cylindraspis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
60.01 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Damonia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
15.33 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Ergilemys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1638.0 Ma
Eocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Floridemys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
233.3 Ma
Oligocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Fontainechelon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
256.0 Ma
Paleocene
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Geochelone
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
16455.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Gigantochersina
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
533.9 Ma
Oligocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Gopherus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Gopher Tortoise8137.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Hadrianus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3356.0 Ma
Paleocene
46.2 Ma
Eocene
Hesperotestudo
genus
listed (PBDB)10133.3 Ma
Oligocene
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Homopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Cape Tortoise556.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Impregnochelys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
120.4 Ma
Miocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Indotestudo
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
437.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Juvemys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
456.0 Ma
Paleocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Kansuchelys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
337.2 Ma
Eocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Kinixys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Hingeback Tortoise420.4 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Malacochersus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Manouria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
85.33 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Megalochelys
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1311.6 Ma
Miocene
2.59 Ma
Pleistocene
Mesochersus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
123.0 Ma
Miocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Miotestudo
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
223.0 Ma
Miocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Namibchersus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1123.0 Ma
Miocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Nicoria
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
211.1 Ma
Miocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Palaeoemys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
556.0 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Paleotestudo
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2223.0 Ma
Miocene
9.70 Ma
Miocene
Pelorochelon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1156.0 Ma
Paleocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Protestudo
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
723.0 Ma
Miocene
7.75 Ma
Miocene
Psammobates
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12.59 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Pyxis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
20.01 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Sinohadrianus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
248.6 Ma
Eocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Stigmochelys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
105.33 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Stylemys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3746.2 Ma
Eocene
13.6 Ma
Miocene
Taraschelon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.9 Ma
Oligocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Testudo
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
27456.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Titanochelon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5723.0 Ma
Miocene
2.59 Ma
Pleistocene
Geochelone (Chelonoidis)
subgenus
listed (PBDB)12.59 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Hesperotestudo alleni
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hesperotestudo mlynarskii
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Testudininei
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)256.0 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Testudo quadratus (Cope, 1884)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo quadratus
Dysmydae GBIFfamilyAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Dysmydae
Testudo laticaudata (Cope, 1893)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo laticaudata
Testudinites sellovii Weiss, 1830GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudinites sellovii
Testudo klettiana (Cope, 1875)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo klettiana
Testudo formosa Moreno, 1889GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo formosa
Testudo ocalana (Hay, 1916)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo ocalana
Testudo atascosae (Hay, 1902)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo atascosae
Testudo exornata (Lambe, 1906)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo exornata
Testudo pertenius (Cope, 1892)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo pertenius
Geochelone quadrata (Cope, 1884)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone quadrata
Testudo francisi (Hay, 1923)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo francisi
Floridemys hurdi Weems & George, 2013GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Floridemys hurdi
Testudo castrensis (Bergounioux, 1935)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo castrensis
Testudo annae (Hay, 1923)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo annae
Testudo peragrans (Hay, 1906)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo peragrans
Chelys patagonica Wieland, 1923GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Chelys patagonica
Testudo luciae (Hay, 1916)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo luciae
Testudo louisekressmani Wark, 1929GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo louisekressmani
Testudo cultratus (Cope, 1873)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo cultratus
Testudo paranensis Scalabrini, 1887GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo paranensis
Testudo undata (Cope, 1875)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo undata
Geochelone cultrata (Cope, 1873)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone cultrata
Geochelone peragrans (Hay, 1906)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone peragrans
Geochelone laticaudata (Cope, 1893)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone laticaudata
Geochelone luciae (Hay, 1916)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone luciae
Geochelone exornata (Lambe, 1906)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone exornata
Gopherus atascosae (Hay, 1902)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Gopherus atascosae
Gopherus laticaudatus (Cope, 1893)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Gopherus laticaudatus
Hadrianus castrensis (Bergounioux, 1935)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Hadrianus castrensis
Geochelone annae (Hay, 1923)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone annae
Testudo pertenuis (Cope, 1892)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo pertenuis
Gopherus pertenius (Cope, 1892)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Gopherus pertenius
Chelonoidis sellowi Weiss, 1830GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Chelonoidis sellowi
Geochelone francisi (Hay, 1923)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone francisi
Geochelone ocalana (Hay, 1916)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone ocalana
Gopherus ocalana (Hay, 1916)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Gopherus ocalana
Geochelone undata (Cope, 1875)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone undata
Xerobates undata (Cope, 1875)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Xerobates undata
Geochelone klettiana (Cope, 1875)GBIFspeciesAnimalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Geochelone klettiana

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1788Testudinidae Batsch
1830Testudinites sellovii Weiss p. 293
1842Testudinidae Owen p. 160
1868Emys sombrerensis Leidy p. 180
1869Testudinidae Gray p. 166
1871Testudinidae Cope p. 236
1873Testudinidae Leidy p. 339
1875Testudinidae Cope p. 16
1875Testudo undata Cope p. 994
1875Testudo klettiana Cope p. 995
1875Testudo undata Cope p. 995
1884Testudo quadratus Cope
1886Caryoderma Cope
1887Testudo paranensis Scalabrini
1889Caryoderma Cope p. 662
1889Testudinidae Lydekker p. 71
1889Testudo formosa Moreno
1892Testudo pertenius Cope
1893Testudinidae Baur p. 675
1893Testudo laticaudata Cope
1893Testudo pertenuis Cope
1898Testudinidae Gadow p. 20
1898Xerobates undata Gilbert
1902Gopherus atascosae Hay
1902Testudo atascosae Hay
1902Testudinidae Hay p. 449
1902Testudo klettiana Hay p. 451
1902Testudo laticaudata Hay p. 451
1902Testudo pertenuis Hay p. 451
1902Testudo quadrata Hay p. 451
1902Testudo undata Hay p. 452
1903Stylemys calaverensis Sinclair
1906Testudinidae Andrews p. 277
1906Testudo peragrans Hay p. 15
1906Testudo exornata Lambe p. 187 figs. Pl. 3:1-3
1908Testudinidae Lambe
1908Testudo exornata Lambe
1911Testudinidae Jaekel p. 186
1916Gopherus praecedens Hay
1916Testudo luciae Hay
1916Testudo ocalana Hay
1916Testudo hayi Sellards
1917Testudo equicomes Hay p. 41
1923Testudo annae Hay p. 113
1923Testudo francisi Hay p. 116
1923Chelys patagonica Wieland
1929Testudo louisekressmani Wark
1935Testudo castrensis Bergounioux
1946Testudo quadratus Gilmore p. 309
1946Testudinidae Kuhn p. 58
YearName and Author
1950Gopherus hayi Williams
1950Gopherus ocalana Williams p. 70
1953Testudinidae Stirton p. 612
1957Geochelone luciae Ray
1957Geochelone ocalana Ray
1957Gopherus hayi Ray
1962Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) equicomes Auffenberg p. 630
1963Geochelone (Caudochelys) hayi Auffenberg p. 78
1963Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) equicomes Auffenberg p. 91
1963Geochelone (Caudochelys) laticaudata Auffenberg p. 93
1963Stylemys calaverensis Auffenberg p. 95
1964Stylemys calaverensis Auffenberg p. 323
1964Testudinidae Estes p. 99
1966Testudinidae Kuhn p. 26
1967Geochelone sombrerensis Auffenberg
1970Testudinidae Estes and Berberian p. 5
1974Chelonoidis sellowi Auffenberg
1974Chelonoidis sombrerensis Auffenberg
1975Testudinidae Gaffney p. 429
1977Testudinidae Antunes and de Broin
1977Hadrianus castrensis de Broin
1981Testudinidae Thurmond and Jones p. 123
1982Gopherus praecedens Bramble p. 854
1986Testudinidae Meylan and Auffenberg p. 280
1988Testudinidae Carroll
1996Testudinidae Frank and Ramus
2000Testudinidae Meylan and Sterrer
2002Testudinidae Lapparent de Broin
2003Testudinidae Hervet
2003Testudinidae Takahashi et al.
2004Testudinidae Hutchison et al. p. 42
2004Testudinidae Joyce et al.
2007Testudinidae Karl p. 56
2007Testudinidae Staesche et al.
2008Testudinidae Böhme p. 168
2009Testudinidae Manzano et al.
2013Testudinidae Pérez-García et al.
2013Floridemys hurdi Weems and George
2013Testudinidae Zacarias et al.
2014Testudinidae Vlachos et al.
2014Testudinidae van Dijk et al.
2015Chelonoidis sombrerensis Rhodin et al.
2015Testudinidae Vlachos et al.
2016Testudinidae Garcia et al.
2016Testudinidae Vlachos and Delfino
2016Testudinidae Vlachos and Tsoukala
2017Testudinidae Pérez-García et al.
2017Testudinidae Turvey et al.
2018Testudinidae Vlachos
2018Testudinidae de la Fuente et al.

References

Stirton R. A. (1953) Vertebrate paleontology and continental stratigraphy in Colombia, Geological Society of America Bulletin 64, 603-622
Weiss C. Über das südliche Ende des gegebirgzuges von Brasilien in der Provinz do Sul und der Banda Oriental oder dem Staate von Montevideo: nach den Sammlungen des hernn Fr. Sellow, Abhanlungen Physikal Klasse Königliche Akamische Wissenshcaft, 217-293
Owen R. Report on British fossil reptiles, part II, Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 11, 60-204
Leidy J. Notice of some vertebrate remains from the West Indian Islands, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 20, 178-180
Cope E. D. On the homologies of some of the cranial bones of the Reptilia, and on the systematic arrangement of the class, Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 19, 194-247
Leidy J. Part I. Contributions to the extinct vertebrate fauna of the western territories, Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories 1, 1-358
Cope E. D. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia; with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution. Based on the specimens contained in the U. S. National Museum, Bulletin of the United States National Museum 1, 1-109
Cope E. D. Appendix G 1. Report on the geology of that part of northwestern New Mexico examined during the field-season of 1874, Annual Report upon the Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming and Montana. Appendix LL. Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1875 2 2, 981-1017
Scalabrini P. Cartas Científicas Museo de la Provincia de Entre Ríos, Tipografía y Encuadernación La Velocidad, 1-209
Cope E. D. The Edentata of North America, American Naturalist 23 272, 657-664
Lydekker R. , Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History) Part III. The Order Chelonia, 1-239
Moreno F. P. Breve reseña de los progresos del Museo de la Plata, durante el segundo semestre de 1888, Boletin del Museo de La Plata 2, 1-44
Cope E. D. A Contribution to a Knowledge of the Fauna of the Blanco Beds of Texas, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 44, 226-229
Baur G. Notes on the classification of the Cryptodira, American Naturalist 27 319, 672
Cope E. D. A preliminary report on the vertebrate paleontology of the Llano Estacado, Fourth Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Texas 1892, 11-136
Gadow H. , A Classification of Vertebrata Recent and Extinct, xvii-82
Gilbert J. Z. On the skull of Xerobates (?) undata Cope, Kansas University Quaterly 8, 143-148
Hay O. P. (1902) Description of two species of extinct tortoises, one new, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 54, 383-388
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Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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