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Polycrase-(Y)

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Formula:
(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
System:AmorphousColour:Black
Hardness:5 - 6
Name:From the Greek πολύς, many, and κράσις, mixture.


Metamict (X-ray amorphous) mineral that is mainly found in pegmatites.
U-dominant analogue is uranopolycrase.

May be confused with aeschynite-(Y), which has a similar composition and may be partly metamict, depending on its U and Th contents.

Classification of Polycrase-(Y)

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.19-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DG.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
G : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:8.3.8.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
3 : AB2O6
Hey's CIM Ref.:18.4.8

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
4 : Niobates and tantalates containing both U and rare earths
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Type Occurrence of Polycrase-(Y)

Type Locality:Rasvåg feldspar quarries, Hidra (Hitterø), Flekkefjord, Vest-Agder, Norway

Physical Properties of Polycrase-(Y)

Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, Sub-Metallic
Colour:Black
Streak:Yellowish, grayish, reddish brown
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Fracture:Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):4.9 - 5.1 g/cm3

Crystallography of Polycrase-(Y)

Crystal System:Amorphous
Morphology:Stout prismatic [001], sometimes flattened {010}. The faces are striated parallel to their intersection with {010}. Often in parallel or subparallel and slightly radial aggregates of crystals. Massive.
Twinning:1. On {201}, common. The twins are flattened {010} and striated [001] 2. Possibly on {101}, rare. 3. Possibly on {013}.
Comment:Metamict.
Crystal Atlas:
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Polycrase-(Y) no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Polycrase-(Y) no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Polycrase-(Y)

Type:Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Polycrase-(Y)

Formula:
(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:(Y,U)(Ti,Nb)2O6
Essential elements:O, Ti, Y
All elements listed in formula:Nb, O, Ti, U, Y
Common Impurities:Ca,Ce,U,Th,Ta

Relationship of Polycrase-(Y) to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Euxenite-(Y) (see here)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DG.05Euxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.05Fersmite
(Ca,Y)(Nb,Ta,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.05Kobeite-(Y)
(Y,Zr)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
4.DG.05Loranskite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)ZrTaO
 
6
(?)
4.DG.05Tanteuxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)(Ta,Nb,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.05Uranopolycrase
(U
4+
 
,Y)(Ti,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.05Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Y)
YNbO
 
4
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce)NbO
 
4
4.DG.10β-Fergusonite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd)NbO
 
4
4.DG.10Yttrotantalite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DG.10Beta-Fergusonite-(Nd)
4.DG.15Foordite
(Sn,Pb)(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.15Thoreaulite
(Sn
2+
 
,Pb)(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
6
4.DG.20Raspite
Pb(WO
 
4
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
18.4.1Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
(U,Ca,Ce)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
(OH,F)
18.4.2Yttrocolumbite-(Y)
Y(U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Nb
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.3Yttrotantalite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,U
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ta,Nb)
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.4Ishikawaite
U
4+
 
Fe
2+
 
Nb
 
2
O
 
8
18.4.5Euxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ti,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
18.4.6Tanteuxenite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Ca)(Ta,Nb,Ti)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
18.4.7Kobeite-(Y)
(Y,Zr)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
18.4.9Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
18.4.10Calciobetafite (of Mazzi & Munno)
18.4.11Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.4.12Samarskite-(Y)
(Y,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,U,Th,Ca)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8

Other Names for Polycrase-(Y)

Synonyms:
PolycrasePolycrasite
Other Languages:
German:Polycrasit
Polykras
Russian:Поликраз-(Y)
Simplified Chinese:复稀金矿
Spanish:Polycrasita
Ukrainian:Полікраз

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Polycrase-(Y)

Reference List:

- +
Scheerer (1844), Ann. Phys.: 62: 430.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 787-792.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1999): 1.

Internet Links for Polycrase-(Y)

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Polycrase-(Y) details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Polycrase-(Y)

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Obersulzbach valley
          • Hopffeld area
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
        • Untersulzbach valley
          • Abichl Alp - Beryller area
    Mineralien-Welt 20 (2), 17-18
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
    Polycrase specimen in the British Museum of Natura History #1927,177 [Rock Currier 2010]
    Canada
     
    • Northwest Territories
      • Mackenzie District
        • Blachford Lake alkaline complex
    SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
    Sheard, E.R. (2010); SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
    • Ontario
      • Haliburton Co.
        • Cardiff Township
    G. Pouliot, J. A. Maxwell, and S. C. Robinson (1964): Cenosite from Bancroft, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 1-10.
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • Abitibi RCM
          • La Corne
    Anne P. Sabina, Rocks and Minerals for the Collector Miscellaneous Report 77, 2003, Geological Survey of Canada.
      • Outaouais
        • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
          • Val-des-Monts
    Hilderley, M., Ercit, T.S., Rowe, R.A. (2006) 33rd Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, abstracts, 13-14.
    China
     
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Tongliao League (Tongliao Prefecture)
        • Jarud Banner (Zalute Co.)
          • Baerzhe complex
    Zhongxin Yuan and Ge Bai (1997): Geology and Prospecting 33(1), 42-48
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Ganzhou Prefecture
        • Xunwu Co.
    Yunhuai Lin (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(4), 22-28
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • South Bohemia Region
        • Písek
    Škoda R., Novák M., Cícha J., Uranium-niobium-rich alteration products after “písekite”, an intimate mixture of Y,REE,Nb,Ta,Ti-oxide minerals from the Obrázek I pegmatite, Písek, Czech Republic Journal of Geosciences, 56 (2011), 3, 317 - 325
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Třebíč
    Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
    Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)]
    Germany
     
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Laach lake volcanic complex
          • Kruft
    Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
          • Mendig
            • Niedermendig
    Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
    Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
              • Wingertsberg
    Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
    • Saxony
      • Oberlausitz
        • Löbau
          • Czorneboh
            • Cunewalde
              • Schönberg
    Witzke, T., Giesler, T. (2008): Neufunde und Neubestimmungen aus der Lausitz, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 59, 245-252
    Italy
     
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Valchiavenna
          • Novate Mezzola
            • Codera Valley
    Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
    Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
    Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
    Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
    Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Luserna San Giovanni
    - Finello, G., Ambrino, P., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Blaß, G., Bracco, R. (2007): I minerali della “Pietra di Luserna”, Piemonte, Italia nord-occidentale. I. Alcune cave di gneiss della Val Luserna. Micro (località), 2/2007, 181-226.
      • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
        • Baveno
          • Oltrefiume
            • Mount Camoscio
    Grill, E. (1935): I minerali del granito di Baveno, la fayalite. Periodico di Mineralogia, 129-133. - Gallitelli, P. (1936): Le miche del granito di Baveno. . Periodico di Mineralogia, 61-76 - Pagliani, G. (1948): Le Zeoliti del granito di Baveno. Periodico di Mineralogia, 175-188. - Ravagnani, D. (1974): I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Ed., Milano, 188 pp. - min. Rec. 14 (3), 157-168 - Am. Min. 83, 1330-1334 (1998) - Am. Min. 84, 782-789 (1999). - Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2004): Kristiansenite a Baveno, second ritrovamento Mondiale della specie. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2004, 247-251. - Guastoni, A., Demartin, F., Pezzotta, F. (2004): Sekaninaite delle pegmatiti granitiche di Feriolo e Baveno (VB). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 145, 59-68. - Mineralogist americano (2005) 90, 1442-1452.
    Domenico Preite specimen
        • Ossola Valley
          • Vigezzo Valley
            • Toceno
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 23 (1), 42-49.
        • Stresa
    Sergio Varvello collection
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Campo nell'Elba
    Orlandi et al., 1990. Nb-Ta oxides from Elba Island pegmatites. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., Serie A, 97: 161-173
    P. Orlandi, M. Pasero, N. Perchiazzi (1990) - Nb-Ta oxides from Elba Island pegmatites. - Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem. serie A, v.97: 161-173.
    Ref: Orlandi, P., & Pezzotta, F. (1997). Minerali dell'Isola d'Elba. Edizioni Novecento Grafico, Bergamo.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Tohoku Region
        • Fukushima Prefecture
    Introduction to Japanese Minerals (Geological Survey of Japan, 1970)
    Keiichi Omori; Shuzo Hasegawa (1955) Chemical Compositions of the Mineral Belonging to Euxenite -Polycrase Series from the Nekonaki Pegmatites in Ishikawa Town, Fukushima Prefecture. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Japan; 2:268-274; (Japanese)
    Mongolia
     
    • Dornogovi Aimag
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Evje og Hornnes
        • Åmland
    Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, 6. p. 79
    Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, 6. p. 79
    Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, 6. p. 79
        • Landsverk
    Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, 6. p. 96; Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.79
    Revheim, O. (2006): Landsverk 1, Jokeli-bruddet i Evje. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 33: 41-50
      • Iveland
        • Eretveit
    Bjørlykke, H. (1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311
    Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, p 96
    Revheim, O. (2007): Slobrekka, Iveland. [Del 2]. STEIN 34 (1), 3-5
    Collection of the Iveland Municipality # IKM_051
    http://www.mindat.org/photo-454291.html
        • Ljosland
          • Knipan (Knipane)
    Nordrum, F.S.(2000): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 1999-2000. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 17: 59-63
    Breivik, H., Myre, K. & Gunnufsen, K. (2010): Gammelt og nytt, stort og smått fra Storsynken, Knipane, Iveland. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 43: 88-93
    Olav Revheim specimen & photo
        • Skripeland
    Bjørlykke, H. (1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311
    • Nordland
      • Tysfjord
    Husdal, T. (2011): Tysfjordgranittens pegmatitter. Stein. 38 (4): 4-35
    • Rogaland
      • Eigersund
        • Kjervall
    Andresen, P. (1990): Fra Steinrøysa. STEIN 17 (4),36
      • Lund
        • Ualand
          • Ollestad
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Gadolinit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 88-123
      • Sokndal
    Andresen, P. (1990): Fra Steinrøysa. STEIN 17 (4), 36
    Andresen, P. (1990): Fra Steinrøysa. STEIN 17 (4),36
    • Sogn og Fjordane
      • Luster
        • Berdalen
          • Hurrungane
    Selbekk, R.S., Spurgin, S. and Lundmark, M. (2006): Beryll-allanitt-(Ce) pegmatittene i Berdalen, Hurrungane. Stein, 33 (1): 28-31
    • Telemark
      • Drangedal
        • Tørdal
    Kristiansen, R. (2009): A unique assemblage of Scandium-bearing minerals from the Heftetjern-pegmatite, Tørdal, south Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter, 41, 75-104.
    • Vest-Agder
      • Flekkefjord
        • Hidra (Hitterø)
          • Hæstad
    Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
    Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
    Scheerer, T. (1844): Polykras und Malakon, zwei neue Mineralspecies, Annalen der Physik und Chemie (Herausgegeben zu Berlin von J. C. Poggendorff), Vol. 138, 429-443 - Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, 6, p. 96
    Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
    Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
    Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
    Brøgger, W.C. (1906): Die Mineralien der Südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge, I. Niobate, tantalate, titanate und titanoniobate. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1906, 6: p 96
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Dzierżoniów District
        • Piława Górna (Ober Peilau; Gnadenfrei)
    PIECZKA et al. 2010: Nb-Ta minerals in pegmatites in the DSS mine at Piława Górna, Góry Sowie Block, southwestern Poland. Mineralogia - Special Papers, 37.
    Romania
     
    • Harghita Co.
      • Ditrău (Ditró)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
      • Gheorgheni
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Krasnyi Chikoy
    Fialova, D., Kremplova, M., Hynek, D., Konecna, M., Kaiser, J., Malina, R., ... & Adam, V. (2013). Sosedka Pegmatite Metal Ions Composition Determined by Voltammetry. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci, 8, 7853-7867.
    Badanina, E.V., Gordienko, V.V., Wiechowski, A., and Friedrich, G. (2008): Geology of ore Deposits 50(8), 772-781.
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Rožňava Co.
    Uher P., Malachovský P., Bačík P., Chudík P. & Števko M. (2009): Polykras-(Y), uranopolykras a Ti-Nb-Ta-Fe minerál v kremenných žilách a exokontaktných zónach granitov gemerika, Slovenské rudohorie. Bull. mineral-petrolog. Odd. Nár. Muz. (Praha), 17, 1, 14-24.
    Uher P., Malachovský P., Bačík P., Chudík P. & Števko M. (2009): Polykras-(Y), uranopolykras a Ti-Nb-Ta-Fe minerál v kremenných žilách a exokontaktných zónach granitov gemerika, Slovenské rudohorie. Bull. mineral-petrolog. Odd. Nár. Muz. (Praha), 17, 1, 14-24.
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa. 206.
      • ZF Mgcawu District
    Minerals of South Africa
          • Steyns Put
    Minerals of South Africa
    South Korea
     
    • Chungcheongbukdo (Chungchong-pukto)
      • Chungju (Chung Won Kum; Chung-ju)
        • Joongwon-gun
          • Mt. Eorae
    P.M. Kartashov data
      • Goesan-gun (Koesan-gun)
    Gi Young Jeong (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 469-481.
    Spain
     
    • Galicia
      • Pontevedra
        • Ponteareas
    Calvo, M., Viñals, J. and Vila, F. (2009) Mineralogy of the pegmatites and miarolitic cavities in the granitic batholit of Porriño, Pontevedra, galicia, Spain. Mineral Up, (2009-1), 6-23
    Sweden
     
    • Lappland
      • Jokkmokk
    Gunnar Farber
    • Norrbotten
      • Pajala
    • Småland
      • Vetlanda
        • Alseda
          • Slättåkra
    Blomstrand 1878
    • Uppland
      • Vaxholm
        • Resarö
    No reference listed
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Binn Valley
        • Chummibort
    See references at locality description - cuchet et al. 2014, Schweizer Strahler. I am co-author - M. Crumbach
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Buckeye Hills District
    Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 41, 112.
      • Mohave Co.
        • Aquarius Mts (Aquarius Range; Peacock Range)
    Hanson, S.L., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.U. (2006) 33rd Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, abstracts, 18-19.; Brown, TJ, "Geology & Geochemistry of the Kingman Feldspar, Rare Metals and Wagon Bow Pegmatites" (2010). University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1280.
    Parker, R. L., 1963, Niobium and Tantalum in the US, USGS Mineral Investigations map MR – 3.
        • Lost Basin Mts (Lost Basin Range)
          • Lost Basin District
            • Garnet Mountain
    Theodore, T.G., et al (1987), USGS PP 1361: 98; Reyner (1954), US Atomic Energy Comm. Rept. RME-158, Recon. for Uranium in Mohave Co., AZ: 43.
    Parker, R. L., 1963, Niobium and Tantalum in the US, USGS Mineral Investigations map MR – 3.
      • Yavapai Co.
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10064167, MRDS ID #TC38436.
    • California
      • Los Angeles Co.
        • Pearblossom
    Hewett, Donnel Foster, Stone, J., and Stieff, L.R. (1969) The ages of three uranium minerals, Mojave Desert, California. USGS Prof. Paper 650-B: 86; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 180.
    • Colorado
      • Chaffee Co.
        • Buena Vista
    Rocks & Min.: 64: 471.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Eckel, E. B.(1997): Minerals of Colorado. [Updated and revised edition]. Fulcrum Publishing. 665 pages.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Gunnison Co.
        • Tomichi District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Pitkin Co.
        • Columbia District
    Rudy Bologna
      • Saguache Co.
        • Crestone District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
        • Hayden Pass Area
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Idaho
      • Boise Co.
    R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
        • Boise Basin District
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
        • Idaho City District
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
        • Redfish Lake area
          • Unorganized District
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    • Maine
      • Sagadahoc Co.
        • Topsham
    Rocks & Min. Vol.71,No.3, p.195
    • New Mexico
      • Rio Arriba Co.
    Michael N. Spilde, Steve Dubyk, Brian Salem, and William P. Moats, (2011) Rare earth bearing-minerals of the Petaca district, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Fall Field Conference Guidebook – 62 Geology of the Tusas Mountains and Ojo Caliente pp. 389-398.
          • La Jarita-Apache area
    Michael N. Spilde, Steve Dubyk, Brian Salem, and William P. Moats, (2011) Rare earth bearing-minerals of the Petaca district, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Fall Field Conference Guidebook – 62 Geology of the Tusas Mountains and Ojo Caliente pp. 389-398.
    • New York
      • Saratoga Co.
    Jensen (1978) Minerals of New York State, p.165; Am Min (1947) 32:585-587
        • Overlook
    Jensen (1978) Minerals of New York State; Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483
    • North Carolina
    Genth,F.A.,1891,The Minerals Of North Carolina;USGS Bulletion No.74
        • Zirconia (Tuxedo Station)
    Wilson,W.F, and McKenzie,B.J,1978, Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina
    U.S Bureau of Mines/Spatial Data from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(Mas/Mils)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
        • Zirconia Pegmatite District
          • Tuxedo
    Wilson,W.F.,and McKenzie,B.J. ,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina, Information Circular 24
    • South Carolina
    Gems and Minerals of America-Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
    • Texas
      • Burnet Co.
    Self-Collected by Franklin Roberts
      • Llano Co.
        • Bluffton
    Am Min (1932) Volume 17, pages 381-390,
    • Washington
      • Grant Co.
        • Grand Coulee Dam area
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.62,88
    • Wisconsin
      • Marathon Co.
        • Wausau pluton
          • "Rotten granite" quarries
    www.uwrf.edu/~wc01
      • Wood Co.
        • Cary Mound quarries
    Buchholz, T.W., Falster, A.U., Simmons, W.B. (2006) 33rd Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, abstracts, 18-19.
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