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Bellingerite

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Herman Carl Bellinger
Formula:
Cu3(IO3)6 · 2H2O
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Green, light green; ...
Hardness:
4
Name:
Named in 1940 by Harry Berman and Caleb Wroe Wolfe for Herman Carl Bellinger [April 23, 1867 Caub, Nassau, Germany - July 27, 1941 Spokane, Washington, USA], metallurgist and general manager of the Chile Exploration Company, Chuquicamata, Chile, who submitted the first specimens to the eventual describers of the species. Bellinger was the 1941 recipient of the William Lawrence Saunders Gold Medal awarded by the Society of Mining Engineers for his innovations in mining methods. Herman Bellinger's father, Emil Hugo Bellinger, was a mining engineer and his family emigrated to Nevada, USA in 1873. In the mid-1880's, Herman Bellinger worked with, the then young, Fritz Augustus Heinze, who was a founder of the Anaconda Mining Company in Butte, Montana, USA. In 1897, Bellinger established a summer residence in Spokane, Washington, USA where he was a metallugist with the Trail Smelter which processed the Le Roi Mining Company's ores from Rossland, British Columbia. In 1906, Bellinger was still working at Crofton, British Columbia, Canada. By 1913, Bellinger was manager of the Great Cobar Limited in Australia. Beginning in 1916, Bellinger worked with the Chile Exploration Company. His professional assignments were far reaching including Utah, Europe, and Africa mining areas. Herman and Bertha Mae Bellinger also maintained a home in New York City. (In 1924, Bertha Mae Atherton Bellinger inherited a home in Moran Prairie, Washington and the house is now an historical museum.)
This page provides mineralogical data about Bellingerite.

Classification of Bellingerite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.KC.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
K : Iodates: Trigonal [IO3] pyramids (mostly).
C : Iodates without additional anions, with H2O
Dana 7th ed.:
21.1.3.1
21.1.3.1

21 : NORMAL IODATES
1 : Miscellaneous
29.2

29 : Iodates
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First Recorded Occurrence of Bellingerite

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Veinlets in altered granitic rock; tiny isolated crystals.
Year of Discovery:
1940
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Physical Properties of Bellingerite

Colour:
Green, light green; light bluish green in transmitted light
Comment:
Photographs of bellingerite are frequently bluer than the natural material, similar to how the green colors of dioptase and emerald may appear in photographs.
Streak:
Very light green
Hardness (Mohs):
4
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.88 - 4.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.932 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Bellingerite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.22Å, b = 7.82Å, c = 7.94Å
α = 105°, β = 96.98°, γ = 92.94°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.923 : 1 : 1.015
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [001] and rather tabular {100}. {100} striated parallel to [001].
Twinning:
On {101}. Reentrant angles may, or may not, be present.

Optical Data of Bellingerite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.890 nβ = 1.900 nγ = 1.990
2V:
Measured: 50° , Calculated: 40°
Birefringence:
0.10
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.100
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Light bluish green
Y = Light bluish green
Z = Blue-green

Chemical Properties of Bellingerite

Formula:
Cu3(IO3)6 · 2H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Bellingerite to other Species

29.1SalesiteCu(IO3)(OH)
29.3LautariteCa(IO3)2
29.4BrüggeniteCa(IO3)2 · H2O
29.5DietzeiteCa2(IO3)2(CrO4) · H2O
29.6SeeligeritePb3(IO3)OCl3
29.7SchwartzembergitePb5H2(IO2)O4Cl3
29.8HectorfloresiteNa9(SO4)4(IO3)

Other Names for Bellingerite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Slightly soluble in hot water. Readily soluble in dilute HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bellingerite

Reference List:
Berman, Harry and Wolfe, Caleb Wroe (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 505-512.
Motter, W. D. B., Jr. (1941) Herman Carl Bellinger, Bolitin Minero de la Sociadad Nacional de la Mineria, v. 53, p. 392-393.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 313-315.

Acta Crystallographica: B30: 965-974.

Internet Links for Bellingerite

Localities for Bellingerite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
American Mineralogist (1940): 25: 505-512; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 315.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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