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Brochantite

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Formula:
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
System:MonoclinicColour:Green, emerald green, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, PearlyHardness:3½ - 4
Name:
Named in 1824 by Serve-Dieu Abailard "Armand" Lévy in honor of the French geologist and mineralogist, André-Jean-François-Marie Brochant de Villiers [August 6, 1772 Mantes-la-Ville, Yvelines, France - May 16, 1840 Paris, France].


A common secondary copper hydroxy sulphate. Two polytypes, both monoclinic, are known (see below).

May be observed as pseudomorphs after malachite, azurite and langite, and altered to chrysocolla. Acicular varieties may be confused with acicular dioptase.

See also the closely related, less common antlerite.


Classification of Brochantite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.01-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.BB.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th edition ID:30.1.3.1
Dana 8th edition ID:30.1.3.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.2.7

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag
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Type Occurrence of Brochantite

Type Locality:Mednorudyanskoye Cu Deposit, Nizhnii Tagil, Sverdlovskaya Oblast', Middle Urals, Urals Region, Russia
Year of Discovery:1824

Occurrences of Brochantite

Geological Setting:In arid climates or in rapidly oxidizing copper sulfide deposits under low acid conditions.

Physical Properties of Brochantite

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on cleavages.
Colour:Green, emerald green, green-black, light green; bluish green in transmitted light.
Streak:Pale green
Hardness (Mohs):3½ - 4
Cleavage:Perfect
On {100} perfect.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.97 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.09 g/cm3

Crystallography of Brochantite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Space Group Setting:P21/a
Cell Parameters:a = 13.08Å, b = 9.85Å, c = 6.02Å
β = 103.35°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.328 : 1 : 0.611
Unit Cell Volume:V 754.65 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals stout prismatic to acicular [001], elongated [010] at times, or, [100] more rarely; also tabular {001}. Loosely coherent aggregates of acicular crystals; groups and drusy crusts; massive, granular.
Twinning:On {100} with composition surface {100}, common. The twinned crystals are often symmetrical and pseudo-orthorhombic in appearance.
Comment:OD structure. The MDO1 polytype (P21/a; cell given above) corresponds to "normal" brochantite. The MDO2 polytype has space group P21/n and a = 12.776, b = 9.869, c = 6.026 A, beta = 90.15 (Merlino et al., 2003).
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
6.38 (40)
5.36 (40)
3.90 (85)
3.19 (40)
2.923 (20)
2.678 (50)
2.521 (100)

Optical Data of Brochantite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.728 nβ = 1.771 nγ = 1.800
2V:Measured: 72° , Calculated: 76°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.072

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:medium r < v
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Slight in shades of bluish green.

Chemical Properties of Brochantite

Formula:
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Essential elements:Cu, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, O, S

Relationship of Brochantite to other Species

Common Associates:
TenoriteMalachiteLinariteCupriteAzurite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.BB.05Caminite
Mg
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.BB.10Hauckite
Fe
3+
3
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
24
Zn
 
18
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
81
7.BB.15Antlerite
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
7.BB.20Dolerophanite
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O
7.BB.30Vergasovaite
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(MoO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)O
7.BB.35Klebelsbergite
(SbO)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
7.BB.40Schuetteite
Hg
2+
3
(SO
 
4
)O
 
2
7.BB.45Paraotwayite
Ni(OH)
 
2-x
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
0.5x
7.BB.50Xocomecatlite
Cu
 
3
(TeO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
7.BB.55Pauflerite
(V
4+
 
O)SO
 
4
7.BB.60Grandviewite
Cu
 
3
Al
 
9
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
29
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.2.1Chalcocyanite
CuSO
 
4
25.2.2Bonattite
CuSO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.3Chalcanthite
CuSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
25.2.4Boothite
CuSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.2.5Dolerophanite
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O
25.2.6Antlerite
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
25.2.8Posnjakite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.2.9Langite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.10Wroewolfeite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.11Kröhnkite
Na
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.12Natrochalcite
NaCu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
25.2.13Piypite
K
 
2
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
25.2.14Fedotovite
K
 
2
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
25.2.15Cyanochroite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.2.16Euchlorine
KNaCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
25.2.17Devilline
CaCu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.18Leightonite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.19Chalcoalumite
CuAl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.20Cyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.21Woodwardite
Cu
 
1-x
Al
 
x
(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
25.2.22Campigliaite
Mn
2+
 
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
25.2.23Guildite
CuFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
25.2.24Ransomite
CuFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
25.2.26Klyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
25.2.27Poitevinite
(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.2.28Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Brochantite

Synonyms:
BlancharditeBrogniartine (of Huot)IMA1980-s.p.KamareziteKoenigine
KönigineKonigiteWaringtoniteWarringtonite
Other Languages:
Catalan:Brochantita
Czech:Brochantit
Dutch:Brochantiet
German:Brochantit
Blanchardit
Konigit
Krisuvigit
Waringtonit
Italian:Brochantite
Polish:Brochantyt
Russian:Брошантит
Simplified Chinese:水胆矾
羟胆矾
Slovak:Brochantit
Spanish:Blanchardita
Brochantita
Konigita
Krisuvigita
Waringtonita
Swedish:Krisuvigite
Traditional Chinese:水膽礬
羥膽礬
Ukrainian:Брошантит

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Brochantite

Reference List:

- +
Lévy (1824) Annals of Philosophy, London: 8: 241.

Lévy (1826) Annals of Philosophy, London: 11: 194 (as Königine).

Huot, J.J. (1841) Manuel de Minéralogie. 2 volumes, Paris: 1: 331 (as Brongniartine).

Forchhammer (1842) Skand. Nat. Stockholm, Arsb. 192, 1843 (as Krisuvigite).

Maskelyne (1864) The Chemical News: 10: 263 (as Waringtonite).

Maskelyne (1865) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 29: 475 (as Waringtonite).

Ford (1910) American Journal of Science: 30: 16.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 234.

Schoep and Buysse (1923) Bulletin de la Sociètè Belge de Gèologie: 33: 72.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4220.

Posnjak and Tunell (1929) American Journal of Science: 18: 1.

Vavrinecz (1929) Magyar Chem. Foly.: 35: 1.

Cavinato (1939) Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma: 10: 259.

Palache, C. (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 463.

Lauro C. (1940) Sulle costanti reticolari della brochantite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma. 12: 419-427.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 541-544.

Cocco G., Mazzi F. (1959): La struttura della brochantite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma, 28, 121-149.

Helliwell, M. & Smith, J. V. (1997): Brochantite. Acta Crystallographica, C53, 1369-1371.

Merlino, S., Perchiazzi, N. & Franco, D. (2003): Brochantite, Cu4SO4(OH)6: OD character, polytypism and crystal structures. European Journal of Mineralogy 15, 267-275.

Vilminot, S.; Richard-Plouet, M.; Andre, G.; Swierczynski, D.; Bouree-Vigneron, F. & Kurmoo, M. (2006): Nuclear and magnetic structures and magnetic properties of synthetic brochantite, Cu4(OH)6SO4. Dalton Transactions (11), 1455-1462.

Yoder, C. H., Agee, T. M., Ginion, K. E., Hofmann, A. E., Ewanichak, J. E., Schaeffer, C. D., Jr., Carroll, M. J., Schaeffer, R. W. & McCaffrey, P. F. (2007): The relative stabilities of the copper hydroxyl sulphates. Mineralogical Magazine 71, 571-577.

Crichton, W. A. & Muller, H. (2008): Brochantite-2M2 from Pierre Plate Mine, Vizille. Powder Diffraction 23, 246-250.

F. Girgsdies and M. Behrens (2012): On the structural relations of malachite. II. The brochantite MDO polytypes. Acta Crystallogr. B68, 571-577.

Mindat.org articles about Brochantite

Article entries:
The Emundian mine EnigmaPaul Van hee (2)

Internet Links for Brochantite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project[Link Broken?]
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    Localities for Brochantite

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