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Brochantite

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André Brochant de Villiers
Formula:
Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Colour:
Green, emerald green, green-black, light green; bluish green in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Specific Gravity:
3.97
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1824 by Serve-Dieu Abailard "Armand" Lévy in honor of the French geologist and mineralogist, André-Jean-François-Marie Brochant de Villiers [August 6, 1772, Mantes-la-Ville, Yvelines, France - May 16, 1840, Paris, France].
A common secondary copper hydroxy sulphate. Two polytypes, both monoclinic, are known (see below).

May be observed as pseudomorphs after malachite, azurite and langite, and altered to chrysocolla. Acicular varieties may be confused with acicular dioptase.

See also the closely related, less common antlerite.




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Classification of BrochantiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.BB.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
30.1.3.1
30.1.3.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
25.2.7

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag

Physical Properties of BrochantiteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavages.
Colour:
Green, emerald green, green-black, light green; bluish green in transmitted light.
Streak:
Pale green
Hardness:
3½ - 4 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100} perfect.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.97 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.09 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BrochantiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.728 nβ = 1.771 nγ = 1.800
2V:
Measured: 72° , Calculated: 76°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.072
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
medium r < v
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Slight in shades of bluish green.

Chemical Properties of BrochantiteHide

Formula:
Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
IMA Formula:
Cu4SO4(OH)6

Crystallography of BrochantiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Setting:
P21/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.08 Å, b = 9.85 Å, c = 6.02 Å
β = 103.35°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.328 : 1 : 0.611
Unit Cell V:
754.65 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals stout prismatic to acicular [001], elongated [010] at times, or, [100] more rarely; also tabular {001}. Loosely coherent aggregates of acicular crystals; groups and drusy crusts; massive, granular.
Twinning:
On {100} with composition surface {100}, common. The twinned crystals are often symmetrical and pseudo-orthorhombic in appearance.
Comment:
OD structure. The MDO1 polytype (P21/a; cell given above) corresponds to "normal" brochantite. The MDO2 polytype has space group P21/n and a = 12.776, b = 9.869, c = 6.026 A, beta = 90.15 (Merlino et al., 2003).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.38 (40)
5.36 (40)
3.90 (85)
3.19 (40)
2.923 (20)
2.678 (50)
2.521 (100)

Type Occurrence of BrochantiteHide

Synonyms of BrochantiteHide

Other Language Names for BrochantiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
CupriteCu2O
LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
TenoriteCuO
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Linarite258 photos of Brochantite associated with Linarite on mindat.org.
Malachite169 photos of Brochantite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Cyanotrichite131 photos of Brochantite associated with Cyanotrichite on mindat.org.
Quartz115 photos of Brochantite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Azurite93 photos of Brochantite associated with Azurite on mindat.org.
Spangolite67 photos of Brochantite associated with Spangolite on mindat.org.
Langite48 photos of Brochantite associated with Langite on mindat.org.
Chalcoalumite47 photos of Brochantite associated with Chalcoalumite on mindat.org.
Cerussite45 photos of Brochantite associated with Cerussite on mindat.org.
Cuprite44 photos of Brochantite associated with Cuprite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BB.05CaminiteMg7(SO4)5(OH)4 · H2OTet.
7.BB.10HauckiteFe3+3(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
7.BB.15AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.BB.20DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BB.30VergasovaiteCu3(SO4)(MoO4,SO4)OOrth.
7.BB.35KlebelsbergiteSb4O4(SO4)(OH)2Orth. mm2
7.BB.40SchuetteiteHg2+3(SO4)O2Trig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
7.BB.45ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5xMon.
7.BB.50XocomecatliteCu3(TeO4)(OH)4Orth.
7.BB.55Pauflerite(V4+O)SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BB.60GrandviewiteCu3Al9(SO4)2(OH)29Mon. 2 : P2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
25.2.3ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.6AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2OMon. m : Pm
25.2.9LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m : Pm
25.2.11KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.13PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)ClTet.
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
25.2.16EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3OMon.
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon. 2 : P21
25.2.20CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OOrth.
25.2.21WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.2.22CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMon.
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OMon.
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.26KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2Mon.
25.2.27Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2OTric.
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BrochantiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Lévy, A. (1824) On a new mineral substance. Annals of Philosophy, London: 8: 241.
Lévy, A. (1826) Annals of Philosophy, London: 11: 194 (as Königine).
Huot, J.J. (1841) Manuel de Minéralogie. 2 volumes, Paris: 1: 331 (as Brongniartine).
Forchhammer (1842) Skand. Nat. Stockholm, Arsb. 192, 1843 (as Krisuvigite).
Maskelyne, N.S. (1864) New minerals from Cornwall. The Chemical News: 10: 263 (as Waringtonite).
Maskelyne, N.S. (1865) On new Cornish minerals of the brochantite group. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 29: 473-476 (as Waringtonite).
Schrauf, A. (1873) Ber. Ak. Wien.: 1(67): 273.
Semmons, W. (1881) XVII. On brochantite and its associations. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 4, n° 20, 259-263.
Ford, W.E. (1910) On some remarkable twins of atacamite and on some other copper minerals from Collahurasi, Tarapaca, Chile. American Journal of Science: 30: 16-24.
Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 234.
Schoep, A., Buysse, G. (1923) Sur l’existence de la brochantite au Katanga. Bulletin de la Sociètè Belge de Gèologie: 33: 72-73.
Hintze, C. (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4220.
Posnjak, E., Tunell, G. (1929) The system cupric oxide-sulphur trioxide-water. American Journal of Science: 18: 1-34.
Vavrinecz (1929) Magyar Chem. Foly.: 35: 1.
Cavinato (1939) Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma: 10: 259.
Palache, C. (1939) Brochantite. American Mineralogist: 24: 463-481.
Lauro, C. (1940) Sulle costanti reticolari della brochantite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma. 12: 419-427.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 541-544.
Cocco, G., Mazzi, F. (1959) La struttura della brochantite. Periodico di Mineralogia: 28: 121-149.
Mrose, M.E., Reichen, L.E. (1965) Mineralogical notes: evidence for the identity of kamarezite with brochantite, Cu4(SO4)(OH)6. American Mineralogist: 50: 1450-1457.
Helliwell, M., Smith, J.V. (1997) Brochantite. Acta Crystallographica: C53: 1369-1371.
Merlino, S., Perchiazzi, N., Franco, D. (2003) Brochantite, Cu4SO4(OH)6: OD character, polytypism and crystal structures. European Journal of Mineralogy: 15: 267-275.
Frost, R.L., Williams, P.A., Martens, W., Leverett, P., Kloprogge, J.T. (2004) Raman spectroscopy of basic copper (II) and some complex copper (II) sulfate minerals: Implications for hydrogen bonding. American Mineralogist: 89: 1130-1137.
Vilminot, S., Richard-Plouet, M., Andre, G., Swierczynski, D., Bouree-Vigneron, F., Kurmoo, M. (2006) Nuclear and magnetic structures and magnetic properties of synthetic brochantite, Cu4(OH)6SO4. Dalton Transactions: 11: 1455-1462.
Lane, M.D. (2007) Mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of sulfate and sulfate-bearing minerals. American Mineralogist: 92: 1-18.
Yoder, C.H., Agee, T.M., Ginion, K.E., Hofmann, A.E., Ewanichak, J.E., Schaeffer, C.D., Jr., Carroll, M.J., Schaeffer, R.W., McCaffrey, P.F. (2007) The relative stabilities of the copper hydroxyl sulphates. Mineralogical Magazine: 71: 571-577.
Crichton, W.A., Muller, H. (2008) Brochantite-2M2 from Pierre Plate Mine, Vizille. Powder Diffraction: 23: 246-250.
Mills, S.J., Kampf, A.R., Pasero, M., Merlino, S. (2010) Discreditation of "orthobrochantite" (IMA 78-64) as the MDO1 polytype of brochantite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 22: 453-457.
Girgsdies, F., Behrens, M. (2012) On the structural relations of malachite. II. The brochantite MDO polytypes. Acta Crystallographica B68: 571-577.
Die metallenen Grabplatten im Kreuzgang des Erfurter Doms: Bestandsaufnahme und Erarbeitung eines präventiven Konservierungskonzeptes (https://www.uni-bamberg.de/restwiss/forschung/interdisziplinaere-forschung/dom-erfurt-grabplatten/)

Internet Links for BrochantiteHide

Localities for BrochantiteHide

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