Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Azurite

This page kindly sponsored by Mariusz Oleszczuk
Formula:
Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Colour:
Azure blue, blue, light blue, or dark blue; light blue in transmitted light
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Specific Gravity:
3.77
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
From the ancient Persian lazhward, meaning "blue", in allusion to the color. Name changed to azurite in 1824 by Francois Sulpice Beudant.
A secondary copper mineral frequently found in the oxidized zones of Cu-bearing ore deposits.

Azurite is typically found as tabular to prismatic crystals of a deep "azure blue" color with splendent vitreous faces. There are over 45 well-known forms, and over 100 forms have been described. Azurite is often pseudomorphed to Malachite, and the two are very frequently found together.
Azurite may be confused with (the very rare) Mrázekite.

For discussion on type locality, see http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-379912.html

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Azurite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of AzuriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.BA.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
A : With Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn
Dana 7th ed.:
16.2.1.1
16a.2.1.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)3(XO3)2Zq
11.2.2

11 : Carbonates
2 : Carbonates of Cu

Physical Properties of AzuriteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Azure blue, blue, light blue, or dark blue; light blue in transmitted light
Streak:
Light blue
Hardness:
3½ - 4 on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {011}; on {100} fair; on {110} in traces.
Parting:
None
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
3.77 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.834 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AzuriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.730 nβ = 1.758 nγ = 1.838
2V:
Measured: 68° , Calculated: 64°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.108
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
relatively weak
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Pleochroic in blue, with absorption Z greater than Y greater than X.

Chemical Properties of AzuriteHide

Formula:
Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2

Crystallography of AzuriteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 5 Å, b = 5.84 Å, c = 10.35 Å
β = 92.33°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.856 : 1 : 1.772
Unit Cell V:
301.97 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Tabular {001}, less common {102} or {102}; prismatic [001] or [010]; sometimes equant or even rhombohedral; faces may be wavy with striations on {001} parallel to "a", on {100} parallel to "b." May also be massive, stalactic, or botryoidal.
Twinning:
Rare, across {101}, {102} or {001}.

Crystallographic forms of AzuriteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Azurite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Azurite no.87 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Azurite no.157 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Azurite no.301 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.15(60)
5.08(30)
3.67(50)
3.52(100)
2.54(30)
2.51(40)
2.29(40)
2.22(70)

Type Occurrence of AzuriteHide

Synonyms of AzuriteHide

Other Language Names for AzuriteHide

Varieties of AzuriteHide

KupferblauAn impure azurite that leaves a silica skeleton when dissolved in acid.
ZincazuriteDiscovered and published by J.F. Auguste Breithaupt in the 1850s, but later discredited as a species. A zinc rich azurite.

Common AssociatesHide

AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
CalciteCaCO3
ChalcociteCu2S
ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
CopperCu
CupriteCu2O
Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
TenoriteCuO
WadA generic name for (often poorly crystalline) soft manganese oxides/hydroxides, often containing significant amounts ...
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Malachite4,330 photos of Azurite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Quartz384 photos of Azurite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Cerussite266 photos of Azurite associated with Cerussite on mindat.org.
Calcite211 photos of Azurite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Chrysocolla210 photos of Azurite associated with Chrysocolla on mindat.org.
Olivenite162 photos of Azurite associated with Olivenite on mindat.org.
Baryte144 photos of Azurite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Dolomite126 photos of Azurite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Cuprite118 photos of Azurite associated with Cuprite on mindat.org.
Smithsonite105 photos of Azurite associated with Smithsonite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.BA.10GeorgeiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2 · 6H2OAmor.
5.BA.10Glaukosphaerite(Cu,Ni)2(CO3)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.BA.10Kolwezite(Cu,Co)2(CO3)(OH)2Tric.
5.BA.10MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.BA.10Mcguinnessite(Mg,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10NullaginiteNi2(CO3)(OH)2Mon.
5.BA.10PokrovskiteMg2(CO3)(OH)2Mon.
5.BA.10Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.BA.10Zincrosasite(Zn,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2Mon.
5.BA.10ChukanoviteFe2+2(CO3)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.BA.15Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.BA.15HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.BA.20HoldawayiteMn6(CO3)2(OH)7(Cl,OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.BA.25DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
5.BA.25UM1977-03-COSiO:CaClHCa10-11(CO3)7(SiO4)Cl1-2(OH)1-2Mon.
5.BA.30Loseyite(Mn2+,Zn,Mg)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10Mon. 2/m
5.BA.30Sclarite(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.2.1MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
11.2.4ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
11.2.5CallaghaniteCu2Mg2(CO3)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon.

Fluorescence of AzuriteHide

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in dilute acids, ammonia, and hot concentrated solutions of NaHCO3. Slowly decomposed with removal of CO2 by boiling, but not by cold, water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
A very minor ore of copper.

Azurite in petrologyHide

Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for AzuriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 280 (as Cæruleum montanum).
Stütz (1798) Einricht. nat., Vienna: 49 (as Unächter Lasurstein).
Jameson, R. (1805): System of Mineralogy II. Bell and Bradfute Edinburgh, U.K. (542-544).
Beudant, F.S. (1832): Traité élémentaire de minéralogie (2nd ed.). Chez Verdière, Paris, France. 417.
Haidinger, Wm. (1845) Handbuch der bestimmenden Mineralogie. Vienna: 508 (as Lasur).
Rose (1851) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 84: 484.
Breithaupt, A. (1852) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Zeitung, Freiberg, Leipzig (merged into Glückauf): 11: 101 (as Zinkazurit).
Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller, London: 594 (as Chessylite).
Kobell, Fr. Von (1853): 32 (as Lasurit).
Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 715.
Schrauf (1871) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzber., Vienna: 64: 123.
Schröder (1874) Jb. Min.: 712.
Yeates (1889) American Journal of Science: 38: 405.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 295.
Lacroix (1909): 3: 756.
Merwin (1914) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 4: 253.
Schrader et al (1917) USGS Bulletin 624 (localities).
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 85.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 43.
Palache, C., Lewis, L.W. (1927) Crystallography of azurite from Tsumeb, Southwest Africa. American Mineralogist: 12: 99-143.
Stecher (1929) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 59A: 159.
Zedlitz (1929) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 71: 1.
Brasseur (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 177.
Brasseur (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 82: 195.
Brasseur (1933) Soc. roy. sc. Liége, Mem.: 18: 1.
Galbraith (1941) Arizona Bureau of Mines, Geology Series, Bull. 149.
Palache, C., Lewis, L.W. (1942) Errata: Crystallography of azurite from Tsumeb, Southwest Africa. American Mineralogist: 27: 334.
Beck (1946) Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University (unpublished).
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 264-269.
Gattow, G. & Zemann, J. (1958): Neubestimmung der Kristallstructur von Azurit,
Cu3(OH)2(CO. 3)2 Acta Crystallographica 11, 866-872.
Zigan, F., Schuster, H.D. (1972) Verfeinerung der Struktur von Azurit, CU3(OH)2(CO3)2, durch Neutronenbeugung. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 135: 416-436.
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.W.H., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 482.
Jeschke, H., Opahle, I., Kandpal, H., Valentí, R., Das, H., Saha-Dasgupta, T., Janson, O., Rosner, H., Brühl, A., Wolf, B., Lang, M., Richter, J., Hu, S., Wang, X., Peters, R., Pruschke, T., Honecker, A. (2011) Multi-step approach to microscopic models for frustrated quantum magnets - the case of the natural mineral azurite. Physical Review Letters: 106: 217201.

Internet Links for AzuriteHide

Localities for AzuriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow