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Timna Valley, Eilat, Southern District (HaDarom District), Israeli
Regional Level Types
Timna ValleyValley
Eilat- not defined -
Southern District (HaDarom District)District
IsraelCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
29° North , 34° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~10km
Area:
90 km2
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:


Copper mining was known in Timna Valley at least from the 18th century B.C. Later Egyptians, who conquerred the area, made Timna a very important source of copper. There are many ancient copper mines in the valley, some look like holes in the ground, others are caves hewn in stone; in some places, there are remains of copper-smelting ovens.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

33 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Anilite
Formula: Cu7S4
Reference: Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1489/
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
'Bisbeeite'
Formula: (Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1489/; Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1489/
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
'Eilat Stone'
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorellestadite
Formula: Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Fluorellestadite var: Wilkeite
Formula: Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1489/; Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Palygorskite
Formula: (Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Paratacamite
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Reference: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1489/; Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Plancheite
Formula: Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: Mohsen Manutchehr-Danai (2000) Dictionary of Gems and Gemology. Springer
'Wad'

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Anilite2.BA.10Cu7S4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Djurleite2.BA.05Cu31S16
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Paratacamite3.DA.10cCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Dioptase9.CJ.30CuSiO3 · H2O
Fluorellestadite9.AH.25Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
var: Wilkeite9.AH.25Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Palygorskite9.EE.20(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Plancheite9.DB.35Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bisbeeite'-(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
'Eilat Stone'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Anilite2.4.7.5Cu7S4
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Paratacamite10.1.2.1Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Fluorellestadite52.4.9.3Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Dioptase61.1.3.1CuSiO3 · H2O
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca subgroup
Plancheite66.2.1.1Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Palygorskite74.3.1a.1(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Bisbeeite'-(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
'Eilat Stone'-
Fluorellestadite
var: Wilkeite
-Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
'K Feldspar'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
H Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
H DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O CupriteCu2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
O Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
O DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O Fluorellestadite (var: Wilkeite)Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
O Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O HematiteFe2O3
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
FFluorine
F Fluorellestadite (var: Wilkeite)Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
NaSodium
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na HaliteNaCl
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
Mg Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Si Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
Si DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
Si Fluorellestadite (var: Wilkeite)Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Si Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
PPhosphorus
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S ChalcociteCu2S
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S Fluorellestadite (var: Wilkeite)Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S CovelliteCuS
S DigeniteCu9S5
S AniliteCu7S4
S AcanthiteAg2S
S FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
ClChlorine
Cl ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cl HaliteNaCl
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca Fluorellestadite (var: Wilkeite)Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
FeIron
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Cu Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
Cu DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu AniliteCu7S4
Cu CopperCu
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
ZnZinc
Zn ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Conrad, H.G. & Rothenberg, B. (1980): Antikes Kupfer im Timna-Tal. Der Anschnitt, Beiheft 1, xx pp.
Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.

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