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The mineralogy of Silver

General Properties
Atomic Number:47
Standard atomic weight (Ar):107.8682(2)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d10 5s1
Silver - Ag
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.93
Atomic Radius:165 pm
Ionic Radius:115 pm (+1)
Van der Waals Radius:172 pm
1st Ionization energy:731 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-126 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:1,2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1235 K
Boiling Point:2435 K
Density:10.49 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Silver
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
107Ag51.839%-Spontaneous fission ?
Isomeric transition108Ag
109Ag48.161%-Spontaneous fission ?
Main ions of Silver
NameIonExample minerals
silver(I)Ag+Acanthite, Chlorargyrite
Other Information
Year Discovered:before 5000 BC
Named For:Greek: árguros - "grey" or "shining"
CPK color coding:#C0C0C0
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesdisilver sulphideAg2S+1Acanthite
Selenidesdisilver selenideAg2Se+1Naumannite
Telluridesdisilver tellurideAg2Te+1Hessite
Fluoridessilver fluorideAgF+1
silver difluorideAgF2+2
silver subfluorideAg2F0,+1
Chloridessilver chlorideAgCl+1Chlorargyrite
Bromidessilver bromideAgBr+1Bromargyrite
Iodidessilver iodideAgI+1Iodargyrite
Oxidessilver oxideAgO+1,+3
disilver oxideAg2O+1
Mineral Diversity of Silver
1. Elements 6 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 128 valid mineral species
3. Halides7 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 1 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates1 valid mineral species
Total:144 valid species containing essential Silver
Geochemistry of Silver
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
Elemental Abundance for Silver
Crust (CRC Handbook)7.5 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)8 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)8 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)8.0 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)6.95 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)5.0 x 10-8mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)4 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)2.8 x 10-10mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)4.9 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)4.86 x 10-7 (2.9%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Silver in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Silver and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Silver and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Silver.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Silver% of Ag mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur412 minerals with Ag and S74.50%272.51% higher
Lead189 minerals with Ag and Pb34.18%249.76% higher
Antimony167 minerals with Ag and Sb30.20%541.16% higher
Copper156 minerals with Ag and Cu28.21%124.81% higher
Arsenic136 minerals with Ag and As24.59%110.11% higher
Bismuth101 minerals with Ag and Bi18.26%347.94% higher
Tellurium70 minerals with Ag and Te12.66%321.20% higher
Mercury63 minerals with Ag and Hg11.39%554.78% higher
Iron53 minerals with Ag and Fe9.58%54.29% lower
Selenium46 minerals with Ag and Se8.32%269.77% higher
Thallium37 minerals with Ag and Tl6.69%428.76% higher
Gold33 minerals with Ag and Au5.97%928.93% higher
Chlorine26 minerals with Ag and Cl4.70%33.62% lower
Oxygen24 minerals with Ag and O4.34%94.33% lower
Zinc23 minerals with Ag and Zn4.16%16.67% lower
Palladium20 minerals with Ag and Pd3.62%189.84% higher
Tin20 minerals with Ag and Sn3.62%112.15% higher
Manganese19 minerals with Ag and Mn3.44%67.53% lower
Hydrogen13 minerals with Ag and H2.35%95.60% lower
Iodine11 minerals with Ag and I1.99%277.28% higher
Germanium9 minerals with Ag and Ge1.63%180.62% higher
Bromine9 minerals with Ag and Br1.63%517.36% higher
Indium6 minerals with Ag and In1.08%340.97% higher
Cadmium6 minerals with Ag and Cd1.08%128.65% higher
Potassium5 minerals with Ag and K0.90%89.93% lower
Calcium3 minerals with Ag and Ca0.54%97.68% lower
Vanadium3 minerals with Ag and V0.54%87.35% lower
Fluorine3 minerals with Ag and F0.54%92.72% lower
Nickel3 minerals with Ag and Ni0.54%81.63% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Ag Relative Frequency
Palladium << Silver >> Cadmium

Most widespread minerals containing Silver
This list of minerals containing Silver is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Silver mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Silver mineral species
map should go here
3Lengenbach Quarry, Fäld, Binn, Goms, Valais, Switzerland24 Ag minerals
5Bisbee, Cochise County, Arizona, USA22 Ag minerals
6Clara Mine, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Ortenaukreis, Freiburg Region, Baden-Württemberg, Germany22 Ag minerals
7Kremnica (Kremnitz) Au-Ag deposit, Kremnica, Žiar nad Hronom District, Banská Bystrica Region, Slovakia21 Ag minerals
8Pirquitas Ag-Sn Deposit, Mina Pirquitas, Rinconada Department, Jujuy Province, Argentina21 Ag minerals

Important ores of Silver
NameFormulaCrystal System

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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