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The Mineralogy of Lead

General Properties
Atomic Number:82
Standard atomic weight (Ar):207.2(1)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Oxidized lead nodules
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.33
Atomic Radius:154 pm
Ionic Radius:119 pm (+2)
Van der Waals Radius:202 pm
1st Ionization energy:716 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-35 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-4,2,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:601 K
Boiling Point:2022 K
Density:11.34 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Lead
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
204Pb1.4%>1.4x1017yα ?200Hg
206Pb24.1%-α ?202Hg
207Pb22.1%-α ?203Hg
208Pb52.4%>2x1019yα ?204Hg
Main ions of Lead
NameIonExample minerals
lead(II)Pb2+Cerussite, Galena
Other Information
Year Discovered:7000 BC
Discovered By:Middle Easterns
Named For:from the Anglo-Saxon word "lead"
CPK color coding:#575961
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfideslead sulphidePbS+2Galena
Selenideslead selenidePbSe+2Clausthalite
Tellurideslead telluridePbTe+2Altaite
Fluorideslead difluoridePbF2+2Fluorocronite
lead tetrafluoridePbF4+4
Chlorideslead dichloridePbCl2+2Cotunnite
lead tetrachloridePbCl4+4
Bromideslead tetrabromidePbBr4+4
Iodideslead diiodidePbI2+2
Oxideslead oxidePbO+2Litharge, Massicot
lead dioxidePbO2+4Plattnerite, Scrutinyite
dilead trioxidePb2O3+2,+4
trilead tetroxidePb3O4+2,+4Minium
Mineral Diversity of Lead
1. Elements 7 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 156 valid mineral species
3. Halides41 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 59 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 17 valid mineral species
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 42 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates70 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 34 valid mineral species
Total:427 valid species containing essential Lead
Geochemistry of Lead
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
Pb2+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Pb2+ enters later phases in igneous rocks due to its large size.
Pb2+ is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
Elemental Lead in Nature
Found as native element:LeadPb
Elemental Abundance for Lead
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.4 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)1.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.3 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)8.000 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)1.5000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.0000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)1.7000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)3 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)3 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.0 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)3.1 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)3.15 x 10-6 (7.8%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Lead in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Lead and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Lead and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Lead.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Lead% of Pb mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen315 minerals with Pb and O61.05%19.89% lower
Sulfur226 minerals with Pb and S43.80%124.65% higher
Hydrogen199 minerals with Pb and H38.57%28.15% lower
Copper124 minerals with Pb and Cu24.03%92.28% higher
Arsenic106 minerals with Pb and As20.54%80.70% higher
Chlorine89 minerals with Pb and Cl17.25%129.45% higher
Antimony88 minerals with Pb and Sb17.05%248.90% higher
Bismuth84 minerals with Pb and Bi16.28%299.65% higher
Iron80 minerals with Pb and Fe15.50%31.92% lower
Silver63 minerals with Pb and Ag12.21%268.39% higher
Tellurium49 minerals with Pb and Te9.50%212.74% higher
Silicon45 minerals with Pb and Si8.72%68.51% lower
Manganese38 minerals with Pb and Mn7.36%36.16% lower
Calcium36 minerals with Pb and Ca6.98%71.58% lower
Uranium34 minerals with Pb and U6.59%37.94% higher
Aluminium29 minerals with Pb and Al5.62%71.63% lower
Zinc29 minerals with Pb and Zn5.62%5.40% higher
Carbon28 minerals with Pb and C5.43%26.55% lower
Phosphorus27 minerals with Pb and P5.23%52.50% lower
Selenium26 minerals with Pb and Se5.04%115.99% higher
Vanadium23 minerals with Pb and V4.46%7.96% higher
Fluorine20 minerals with Pb and F3.88%53.38% lower
Chromium18 minerals with Pb and Cr3.49%111.69% higher
Thallium14 minerals with Pb and Tl2.71%140.23% higher
Sodium13 minerals with Pb and Na2.52%86.66% lower
Tin12 minerals with Pb and Sn2.33%26.87% higher
Potassium12 minerals with Pb and K2.33%75.94% lower
Titanium12 minerals with Pb and Ti2.33%66.24% lower
Gold10 minerals with Pb and Au1.94%248.90% higher
Barium9 minerals with Pb and Ba1.74%62.32% lower
Yttrium9 minerals with Pb and Y1.74%33.19% lower
Magnesium8 minerals with Pb and Mg1.55%88.71% lower
Palladium8 minerals with Pb and Pd1.55%16.30% higher
Niobium8 minerals with Pb and Nb1.55%53.99% lower
Germanium8 minerals with Pb and Ge1.55%188.75% higher
Mercury7 minerals with Pb and Hg1.36%21.22% lower
Boron7 minerals with Pb and B1.36%73.26% lower
Cadmium6 minerals with Pb and Cd1.16%132.60% higher
Nickel6 minerals with Pb and Ni1.16%64.11% lower
Platinum6 minerals with Pb and Pt1.16%36.53% higher
Tungsten5 minerals with Pb and W0.97%27.65% higher
Tantalum5 minerals with Pb and Ta0.97%28.31% lower
Strontium4 minerals with Pb and Sr0.78%72.46% lower
Molybdenum4 minerals with Pb and Mo0.78%32.47% lower
Iodine3 minerals with Pb and I0.58%25.60% higher
Iridium3 minerals with Pb and Ir0.58%25.60% higher
Rhodium3 minerals with Pb and Rh0.58%65.27% higher
Gallium2 minerals with Pb and Ga0.39%199.06% higher
Beryllium2 minerals with Pb and Be0.39%82.55% lower
Nitrogen2 minerals with Pb and N0.39%79.68% lower
Neodymium2 minerals with Pb and Nd0.39%59.74% lower
Cerium2 minerals with Pb and Ce0.39%88.24% lower
Lanthanum2 minerals with Pb and La0.39%77.25% lower
Caesium2 minerals with Pb and Cs0.39%12.77% lower
Indium2 minerals with Pb and In0.39%49.53% higher
Cobalt2 minerals with Pb and Co0.39%72.46% lower
Gadolinium1 mineral with Pb and Gd0.19%74.45% higher
Samarium1 mineral with Pb and Sm0.19%74.45% higher
Zirconium1 mineral with Pb and Zr0.19%91.95% lower
Thorium1 mineral with Pb and Th0.19%78.19% lower
Bromine1 mineral with Pb and Br0.19%38.43% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Pb Relative Frequency
Thallium << Lead >> Bismuth

Most widespread minerals containing Lead
This list of minerals containing Lead is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Lead mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Lead mineral species
map should go here
1Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine), Tsumeb, Oshikoto Region (Otjikoto Region), Namibia76 Pb minerals
2Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden53 Pb minerals
3Clara Mine, Rankach valley, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany50 Pb minerals
4Mammoth-Saint Anthony Mine (Mammoth-St Anthony Mine; Mammoth Mine; St. Anthony Mine), St. Anthony deposit, Tiger, Mammoth District, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA47 Pb minerals
Lavrion District slag localities, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece40 Pb minerals
6Kintore opencut, Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine), Broken Hill, Broken Hill district, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia34 Pb minerals
7Bird Nest drift, Otto Mountain, Baker, Soda Mts, Silver Lake District, San Bernardino Co., California, USA34 Pb minerals
Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines), Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza), Lavrion District Mines, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece33 Pb minerals

Important ores of Lead
NameFormulaCrystal System

Minor ores of Lead
NameFormulaCrystal System

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
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