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The mineralogy of Lead

General Properties
Atomic Number:82
Standard atomic weight (Ar):207.2(1)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Oxidized lead nodules
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.33
Atomic Radius:154 pm
Ionic Radius:119 pm (+2)
Van der Waals Radius:202 pm
1st Ionization energy:716 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-35 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:-4,2,4
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:601 K
Boiling Point:2022 K
Density:11.34 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Lead
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
204Pb1.4%>1.4×1017yα ?200Hg
206Pb24.1%-α ?202Hg
207Pb22.1%-α ?203Hg
208Pb52.4%>2×1019yα ?204Hg
Main ions of Lead
NameIonExample minerals
lead(II)Pb2+Cerussite, Galena
Other Information
Year Discovered:7000 BC
Discovered By:Middle Easterns
Named For:from the Anglo-Saxon word "lead"
CPK color coding:#575961
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfideslead sulphidePbS+2Galena
Selenideslead selenidePbSe+2Clausthalite
Tellurideslead telluridePbTe+2Altaite
Fluorideslead difluoridePbF2+2Fluorocronite
lead tetrafluoridePbF4+4
Chlorideslead dichloridePbCl2+2Cotunnite
lead tetrachloridePbCl4+4
Bromideslead tetrabromidePbBr4+4
Iodideslead diiodidePbI2+2
Oxideslead oxidePbO+2Litharge, Massicot
lead dioxidePbO2+4Plattnerite, Scrutinyite
dilead trioxidePb2O3+2,+4
trilead tetroxidePb3O4+2,+4Minium
Mineral Diversity of Lead
1. Elements 7 valid mineral species
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 161 valid mineral species
3. Halides40 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 60 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 17 valid mineral species
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 46 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates71 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 35 valid mineral species
Total:438 valid species containing essential Lead
Geochemistry of Lead
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
Pb2+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Pb2+ enters later phases in igneous rocks due to its large size.
Pb2+ is essential to nutrition of at least some vertebrates ('essential minerals').
Elemental Lead in Nature
Found as native element:LeadPb
Elemental Abundance for Lead
Crust (CRC Handbook)1.4 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)1.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)1.3 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)8.000 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)1.5000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.0000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)1.7000 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)3 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)3 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.0 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)3.1 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)3.15 x 10-6 (7.8%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Lead in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Lead and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Lead and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Lead.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Lead% of Pb mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen983 minerals with Pb and O60.38%21.56% lower
Sulfur718 minerals with Pb and S44.10%119.47% higher
Hydrogen627 minerals with Pb and H38.51%28.26% lower
Copper382 minerals with Pb and Cu23.46%86.10% higher
Arsenic346 minerals with Pb and As21.25%80.71% higher
Antimony276 minerals with Pb and Sb16.95%258.23% higher
Chlorine275 minerals with Pb and Cl16.89%137.37% higher
Bismuth264 minerals with Pb and Bi16.22%295.83% higher
Iron246 minerals with Pb and Fe15.11%28.27% lower
Silver189 minerals with Pb and Ag11.61%251.57% higher
Silicon143 minerals with Pb and Si8.78%67.66% lower
Tellurium139 minerals with Pb and Te8.54%182.76% higher
Manganese110 minerals with Pb and Mn6.76%36.44% lower
Uranium106 minerals with Pb and U6.51%30.29% higher
Calcium102 minerals with Pb and Ca6.27%73.32% lower
Aluminium97 minerals with Pb and Al5.96%69.16% lower
Carbon92 minerals with Pb and C5.65%24.34% lower
Phosphorus87 minerals with Pb and P5.34%52.57% lower
Zinc83 minerals with Pb and Zn5.10%1.66% higher
Selenium80 minerals with Pb and Se4.91%117.41% higher
Vanadium73 minerals with Pb and V4.48%4.07% higher
Fluorine58 minerals with Pb and F3.56%52.42% lower
Thallium54 minerals with Pb and Tl3.32%160.89% higher
Chromium52 minerals with Pb and Cr3.19%86.48% higher
Potassium44 minerals with Pb and K2.70%70.05% lower
Sodium39 minerals with Pb and Na2.40%86.98% lower
Titanium34 minerals with Pb and Ti2.09%68.29% lower
Tin30 minerals with Pb and Sn1.84%7.58% higher
Magnesium30 minerals with Pb and Mg1.84%85.47% lower
Gold28 minerals with Pb and Au1.72%195.15% higher
Yttrium25 minerals with Pb and Y1.54%33.11% lower
Mercury25 minerals with Pb and Hg1.54%12.16% lower
Germanium24 minerals with Pb and Ge1.47%152.98% higher
Palladium24 minerals with Pb and Pd1.47%17.58% higher
Boron23 minerals with Pb and B1.41%71.73% lower
Barium19 minerals with Pb and Ba1.17%73.46% lower
Cadmium18 minerals with Pb and Cd1.11%131.90% higher
Niobium18 minerals with Pb and Nb1.11%61.11% lower
Nickel16 minerals with Pb and Ni0.98%66.87% lower
Tungsten15 minerals with Pb and W0.92%15.95% higher
Molybdenum14 minerals with Pb and Mo0.86%28.38% lower
Tantalum13 minerals with Pb and Ta0.80%30.43% lower
Platinum12 minerals with Pb and Pt0.74%19.26% higher
Iodine11 minerals with Pb and I0.68%27.55% higher
Strontium10 minerals with Pb and Sr0.61%74.97% lower
Iridium9 minerals with Pb and Ir0.55%56.53% higher
Neodymium8 minerals with Pb and Nd0.49%13.04% lower
Nitrogen8 minerals with Pb and N0.49%76.42% lower
Rhodium7 minerals with Pb and Rh0.43%43.23% higher
Beryllium6 minerals with Pb and Be0.37%82.75% lower
Cerium6 minerals with Pb and Ce0.37%86.96% lower
Gallium6 minerals with Pb and Ga0.37%198.16% higher
Caesium6 minerals with Pb and Cs0.37%16.52% lower
Indium6 minerals with Pb and In0.37%49.08% higher
Cobalt6 minerals with Pb and Co0.37%70.18% lower
Lanthanum4 minerals with Pb and La0.25%77.56% lower
Thorium3 minerals with Pb and Th0.18%73.24% lower
Gadolinium1 mineral with Pb and Gd0.06%247.85% higher
Zirconium1 mineral with Pb and Zr0.06%97.22% lower
Samarium1 mineral with Pb and Sm0.06%73.93% higher
Bromine1 mineral with Pb and Br0.06%76.81% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Pb Relative Frequency
Thallium << Lead >> Bismuth

Most widespread minerals containing Lead
This list of minerals containing Lead is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Lead mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Lead mineral species
map should go here
2Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Oshikoto Region, Namibia76 Pb minerals
4Långban mine, Långban Ore District, Filipstad, Värmland County, Sweden53 Pb minerals
6Clara Mine, Oberwolfach, Wolfach, Ortenaukreis, Freiburg Region, Baden-Württemberg, Germany50 Pb minerals
8Mammoth-Saint Anthony Mine (Mammoth-St Anthony Mine; Mammoth Mine; St. Anthony Mine), St. Anthony deposit, Tiger, Mammoth Mining District, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA47 Pb minerals

Important ores of Lead
NameFormulaCrystal System

Minor ores of Lead
NameFormulaCrystal System

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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