Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Linarite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
The descent of miners into a shaft, Linares, ca. 1908.

Linares, Linares-La Carolina District, Jaén, Andalusia, Spain
Formula:
PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Colour:
Deep azure blue; deep blue in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
5.35
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1839 by Ernst Friedrich Glocker for the type locality, Linares, Linares-La Carolina District, Jaén, Andalusia, Spain.
Linarite-Chenite group.

Usually found as small to microscopic azure blue crystals, either tabular or elongated, in clusters or as crusts.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Linarite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of LinariteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.BC.65

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 7th ed.:
30.2.3.1
30.2.3.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
25.7.6

25 : Sulphates
7 : Sulphates of Pb

Physical Properties of LinariteHide

Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Deep azure blue; deep blue in transmitted light.
Comment:
Similar to azurite but not as deep.
Streak:
Pale blue.
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100}, perfect; on {001}, imperfect.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
5.35 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.33 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LinariteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.809 nβ = 1.838 nγ = 1.859
2V:
Measured: 80° , Calculated: 78°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
Strong r < v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X ^c~ -24° = Pale blue
Y = Clear blue
Z = b = Prussian-blue

Chemical Properties of LinariteHide

Formula:
PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
IMA Formula:
PbCuSO4(OH)2

Crystallography of LinariteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.701(2) Å, b = 5.65 Å, c = 4.69 Å
β = 102.65°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.717 : 1 : 0.83
Unit Cell V:
250.82 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals thin to thick tabular {101} and {001}, also elongated parallel to [010]; usually found as small to microscopic clusters or crusts.
Twinning:
Twinning on {100} common; reported on {001}.

Crystallographic forms of LinariteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Linarite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Linarite no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.85(40)
4.52(60)
3.63(30)
3.56(60)
3.15(100)
3.11(40)
2.71(30)
2.59(30)

Type Occurrence of LinariteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 46.527

Synonyms of LinariteHide

Other Language Names for LinariteHide

Catalan:Linarita
Dutch:Linariet
Italian:Linarite
Japanese:青鉛鉱
Portuguese:Linarite
Simplified Chinese:青铅矾
Spanish:Linarita
Traditional Chinese:青鉛礬

Relationship of Linarite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4Mon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Brochantite258 photos of Linarite associated with Brochantite on mindat.org.
Cerussite171 photos of Linarite associated with Cerussite on mindat.org.
Quartz164 photos of Linarite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Galena151 photos of Linarite associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Malachite138 photos of Linarite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Caledonite128 photos of Linarite associated with Caledonite on mindat.org.
Anglesite79 photos of Linarite associated with Anglesite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite65 photos of Linarite associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite61 photos of Linarite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Serpierite54 photos of Linarite associated with Serpierite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BC.05D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3Iso.
7.BC.10AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10DorallchariteTlFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe3+2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.15Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12Iso.
7.BC.20AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
7.BC.20NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OClTet.
7.BC.25ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BC.30EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3OMon.
7.BC.30FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.BC.35KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BC.40PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)ClTet.
7.BC.45KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2Mon.
7.BC.45AlumoklyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)4O2Tric. 1 : P1
7.BC.50CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
7.BC.55WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BC.60MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2Mon. 2 : B2
7.BC.65SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4Mon.
7.BC.65MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
7.BC.70ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
7.BC.75KrivovichevitePb3Al(OH)6(SO4)(OH)Trig. 3m : R3c
7.BC.80AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.7.1SchaurteiteCa3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.7.2Zircosulfate(Zr,Ti)(SO4)2 · 4H2OOrth.
25.7.3AnglesitePbSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.7.4LanarkitePb2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.7.5Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.7ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2OMon. 2/m
25.7.8ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
25.7.9OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.10ItoitePb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.7.11FleischeritePb3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.7.12Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.13PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Observed to alter to Antlerite and to cerussite with malachite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LinariteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sowerby, J. (1809) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London: 3: 5, fig. 203 (as Crystallized Blue Carbonate of Copper).
Brooke, H.I. (1822) On a new lead ore. Annals of Philosophy, London: 4: 117 (as Cupreous Sulfate of Lead).
Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed. (as Bleilasur).
Lévy, A. (1837) Description d’une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland, et appartenant à M. Ch. H. Turner, de Rooksnest, dans le comté de Surrey en Angleterre. 3 volumes and atlas of 85 plates, London: 2: 455 (as Plomb sulfaté cuprifère).
Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 618.
Phillips, Wm., revised by Alger, F. (1844) Mineralogy, Fifth edition. 662pp., Boston: 552.
Koksharov, N. von (1866) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands. 11 volumes with atlas: vol. 5: 206.
Koksharov, N. von (1869) Bulletin de Académy imperial de sciences, St. Pétersburg: 13: 472.
Brugnatelli (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 28: 307.
Wada, Tsunashiro (1904) Minerals of Japan. 144 pp., Tokyo: 78 (Tamura, cited in).
Johnston (1910) Geological Survey of Canada, Summary Report 260.
Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 152.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 158.
Shannon, E.V. (1926) The Minerals of Idaho. U.S. Natural History Museum Bulletin: 131: 455.
Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4205.
Fenoglio, M. (1932) Sulla linarite di Arenas in Sardegna. Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 3: 4.
Chukhrov, F.V. (1937) Comptes rendu de l’Académy des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes: 15: 95.
Chukhrov, F.V. (1939) Comptes rendu de l’Académy des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes: 22: 257.
Chukhrov, F.V. (1939) New data on linarite in ore deposits of Kazakhstan. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 22(5): 257-258.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 553-555.
Cook, R.B. (2010) Linarite Mammoth-St. Anthony Mine, Tiger, Pinal County, Arizona. Rocks & Minerals: 81: 208-213.
Bachmann, V.H.G., Zemann, J. (1961) Die kristallstruktur von linarit, PbCuSO4(OH)2. Acta Crystallographica: 14: 747-753.
Effenberger, H. (1987) Crystal structure and chemical formula of schmiederite Pb2Cu2(OH)4(SeO3)(SeO4), with a comparison to linarite, PbCu(OH)2(SO4). Mineralogy and Petrology: 36: 3-12.
Gaines, R.V., Catherine, H., Skinner, W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 629.
Lane, M.D. (2007) Mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of sulfate and sulfate-bearing minerals. American Mineralogist: 92: 1-18.
Buzgar, N., Buzatu, A., Sanislav, I.V. (2009) The Raman study on certain sulfates. Annalele Stiintifice ale Universitatii: 55: 5-23.
Schofield, P.F., Wilson, C.C., Knight, K.S., Kirk, C.A. (2009) Proton location and hydrogen bonding in the hydrous lead copper sulfates linarite, PbCu(SO4)(OH)2, and caledonite, Pb5Cu2(SO4)3CO3(OH)6. The Canadian Mineralogist: 47: 649-662.

Internet Links for LinariteHide

Localities for LinariteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2017, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: August 21, 2017 00:00:56 Page generated: August 11, 2017 03:33:24
Go to top of page