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Ubehebe Mine [1](Copper Bell Mine; Ubehebe Lead Mine), Teakettle Junction, Ubehebe Mining District, Cottonwood Mountains, Panamint Mts (Panamint Range), Inyo Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Ubehebe Mine [1](Copper Bell Mine; Ubehebe Lead Mine)- not defined -
Teakettle Junction- not defined -
Ubehebe Mining DistrictMining District
Cottonwood MountainsMountain Range
Panamint Mts (Panamint Range)Mountain Range
Inyo Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
36° 44' 51'' North , 117° 34' 42'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Lone Pine2,035 (2015)46.1km


A former Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu-Zn mine located in SE¼ sec. 1 and sec. 2, T14S, R40E, MDM, 3.0 km (1.9 miles) WSW of Teakettle Junction, and 6.3 km (3.9 miles) N of Ubehebe Peak at the NW corner of Racetrack Valley, on National Park Service wilderness land (Death Valley National Park/Death Valley Wilderness). Discovered in 1906. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 10 meters.

The Ubehebe copper/lead Mine is reached via a one-lane gravel access road leading west off the Racetrack Valley Road about twenty-five miles south of Ubehebe Crater, the mine area lying off the northwest corner of Racetrack Valley. Dozer activity can be seen at the Copper Bell Mine site just north of the junction of the Ubehebe Mine and Racetrack Valley roads. The mine access ends after about one mile in the vicinity of the abandoned mine camp and main adit portal.

The camp consists of two frame and composition-paper shacks extensively damaged by weathering, washing, and obvious vandalism. West of the Main Workings is a one-chute ore bin reached by tram rails, and near the timber-lined main adit are the ruins of some small corrugated-metal, tarpaper, and wooden mine buildings once housing such functions as the blacksmith shop and hoisting apparatus. Some concrete foundations are also visible in this area. Other adits and stone retaining walls are scattered up the hillside toward the ridgetop in the vicinity of the South Workings, the first stope developed. The tramway cable is still attached to one support at the top of this ridge. The Tram stope, or North Workings, to which the cable led are on the opposite side of the ridge and accessible only by foot trail or possibly by a steep four-wheel-drive climb.

The entire area has undergone extensive washing: bits of rail and pipe sections lie about near the mine, as do crockery fragments, pieces of glass, and tin cans that have worked down from the camp site. The several dumps nearby contain nothing of historical significance.

The first actual recorded production from the area was from the Ubehebe Mine, which shipped 491 ozs. of silver in 1908. From that year up to 1951 the metallic content of 4,788 tons of ore mined from the Ubehebe Peak area could be broken down as follows: 332 ozs. gold; 44,729 ozs. silver; 120,180 lbs. copper; 2,657,559 lbs. lead; 164,959 lbs. zinc. Annual lead production from the region has been less than 145,000 lbs. The annual copper production since 1930 has been under 1,000 lbs., while silver production usually did not exceed 3,700 ozs. a year. Gold has been recovered almost entirely from the Lost Burro Mine. The record for longest productivity in the area is held by the Ubehebe Mine, although it experienced a quiet period between 1931 and 1946, while the Lippincott Lead. Mine. has undergone the most continuous mining in recent years, from 1938 to 1952.

The Ubehebe Lead Mine actually began operations as a copper property, but its activities were somewhat overshadowed in the early newspaper accounts of mining in the area by those on the immensely wealthy and highly publicized copper properties of Jack Salsberry that lay nearby. The Butte Nos. 6-10 and West Extension Butte No. 3 were actually located in late 1906 through 1908, while the nearby Copper Bell Claim Group was not officially recorded until the late 1920s and early 1940s. Initial accounts of the property did not begin to appear until around the fall of 1907 when it was mentioned that "Messrs. Smith and Watterson of the Inyo County bank [Bishop] have sent in supplies and are about to begin operations on an extensive scale.

In the course of pursuing annual assessment work on their claims, located one mile northwest of the new town of "Ubehebe," one of the owners picked up quite by chance a large rock sample that proved to be galena; further investigation- uncovered a four-foot solid ledge of this ore. Immediately the efforts of the eight men employed on the property were divided, four being put to work on the copper veins and four on development of the new galena ledge. During the assessment work, forty tons of lead ore were removed, running about $60 in silver per ton, a strike momentarily topping Salsberry's mineral showings.

The Watterson stope was the first of five ore bodies opened up on the property, sometime after 1906, ultimately producing 700 to 800 tons of high-grade ore that was shipped to smelters. By February 1908 the eight-foot solid vein of lead was perceived to run entirely through the mountain, and was accordingly being opened up with drifts on both the Saline and Racetrack valley sides, making this one of the biggest and most-promising lead prospects in the district. Already over 250 tons of ore were on the dumps awaiting shipment.

In March 1908 Archibald Farrington bought a one-third interest in the property for $6,000, while the other two partners, Smith and Watterson, were considering plans for construction of a road across the mountain range from the west to enable hauling of ore from the mine and salt from the Saline Valley deposits to Bonnie Claire. The new partnership incorporated as the Ubehebe Lead Mines Company, whose development work at the mine so far consisted primarily of one twenty-five-foot tunnel, all in ore, with a face showing of 70% lead and a high silver content. Two shifts were removing ten tons a day that were then teamed to the railhead at Bonnie Claire.

A summer-long campaign on the property was planned, and in preparation for the isolated stay, two teams hauled 26,000 pounds of grain, groceries, and mining supplies to the site to sustain the crew during the long months ahead. A contract was also let at this time for hauling the ore recovered during the winter to the railroad at Bonnie Claire. In July it was reported that Watterson and his associates had organized the Ubehebe Mining Company to operate a group of 5-1/2 claims on which a tunnel had been excavated extending fifty feet and from which 1,000 tons of shipping ore were now available. A month later the property was described as "easily the biggest undeveloped property of the kind in California." A trial shipment of ore from the Watterson property sent to a Salt Lake City smelter at this time returned only $40 a ton on the average. This was not considered pay ore because of the long, time-consuming trip involved in getting the ore to Cuprite, north of Bonnie Claire and over sixty miles away. According to McAllister the first recorded production from property in the Ubehebe District was of silver from the Ubehebe Mine in 1908.

For the next few years mostly assessment work was performed on the claims, and no startling discoveries were recorded. Development was primarily impeded by lack of water and other hardships associated with desert prospecting. In an attempt to solve the transportation problem, Watterson and Farrington made an agreement with a Frank A. Campbell to transport ores from the district by means of a Vuba ball-tread tractor, beginning with an initial trial run of 500 tons of ore. The outcome of this novel experiment was eagerly awaited by other mine owners in the area who were tired of the inadequacies of an animal-powered transportation system. Because it had heretofore not been worthwhile to perform extended development work, the depth of ore bodies in the Ubehebe Mine was not known, but the surface showings were immensely promising.

The auto-tractor project turned out well, and in March 1916 Campbell was not only still hauling lead ore in the Ubehebe region, but manganese as well from Owl Holes to Riggs across the southern part of Death Valley. Production from the Ubehebe Mine now was sporadic, but reached a peak in 1916 when 254 tons of ore running 15% lead were shipped. By 1917 development at the mine consisted of two tunnels, an upper one 60 feet long and a lower one 100 feet long, connected by a fifty-foot winze. Two ten-ton-capacity Yuba tractors still transported the ore to Bonnie Claire in a fifty-two-hour round trip at a cost of $8 per ton. By April the mine's three employees had produced 200 tons of 60% lead ore.

The next step in the Ubehebe Mine's development was leasing of the property to Fred Dahlstrom and the Finkel brothers of Tonopah, Nevada, in 1928. The Snyder stope was opened about this time and turned out to be a very profitable venture. After paying $15 a ton transportation costs, the lessees netted $55,453 from twenty-five carloads of lead carbonate shipped to the U.S. Smelting, Refining and Mining Company at Salt Lake City. The ore averaged about 64% lead, 17 ozs. silver, 704 gold, and 1.7% zinc, and because of its adaptability for flux, gained for its shippers an additional $1 to $3 per ton bonus. The maximum annual recorded production of lead and silver for mines in the Ubehebe area in 1928 was attained by the Ubehebe Mine, which produced 1,120,343 lbs. of lead, 1,523 lbs. of copper, 15,222 ozs. of silver, and 17 ozs. of gold.

Lead and silver mining was much less active in 1929 when lead prices dropped. The California lead output was down about 600,000 pounds from the previous year, and the number of miscellaneous shippers in Inyo County had vastly decreased. Principal lead producers listed in the Ubehebe District were the Estelle (?) and Butte. In these later years the Ubehebe Mine's production varied from 22 tons in 1929 to 379 tons in 1951. Most development work was done prior to 1930. The Tramway stope was not mined until the tramway was installed, and then is said to have produced nine carloads for the lessees, one of which netted over $5,000. The No. 4 stope, discovered in 1930 and completely gutted by lessees after that, contained small quantities of molybdenum. Successive lessees after 1930 mostly enlarged the old stopes and cleaned them out in the search for shipping ore. In 1937 Sol Camp returned to the Ubehebe Mine in an attempt to revamp mining operations because of a rise in lead prices. A contract was let to haul the ore to Death Valley Junction for shipment over the Tonopah & Tidewater to the smelter at Murray, Utah.

The Archie Farrington Estate owned the property in 1938, but the nine or twelve claims (figures differ) were under lease to Grant Snyder of Salt Lake City and C.A. Rankin of Los Angeles who were working a crew of ten. Trucks hauled the ore, reportedly carrying 50% to 60% lead with some silver, to Death Valley Junction, and from there it was shipped to Salt Lake City smelters. Principal development consisted of a long tunnel with drifts and crosscuts, with production so far totalling approximately $100,000 in lead-silver ore.

In the late 1940s Snyder was still working the property, which in 1946 consisted of eleven unpatented lode claims: the Butte Nos. 6-10, West Extension Butte No. 3, Copper Bell, Copper Bell Nos. 1-3, and the Quartz Spring Claim seven miles east of the mine. Five principal ore bodies were being worked: the Watterson, Snyder, Flat, No. 4, and Tram stopes. Facilities and equipment at the mine included a cook- and bunkhouse with three rooms, furnished with beds, a stove, and table; a small compressor house with a 100-cubic-foot compressor driven by an auto engine; a small air receiver; a dilapidated blacksmith shop with an anvil, vise, grindstone, and workbench; four mine cars; one jackhammer; and a tramway cable.

The maximum recorded annual production of zinc in the Ubehebe District in 1948 was 53,854 pounds from the Ubehebe Mine. Camp facilities in 1949 remained about the same. In the gulley near the portal of the main tunnel was one house with two large bedrooms and a kitchen, provided with beds and a coal cookstove, while a partially constructed house nearby could be completed for a second bunkhouse if needed. This complex adequately served about five to seven men. The mine workings consisted of two major tunnels, three short ones, and several cuts and shallow shafts penetrating the steep ridge. The Tram tunnel was located on the opposite side of the ridge from the camp, about 200 feet above the main tunnel. Ore from here was transported to the ore bin at the lower tunnel portal by a single-bucket tramway operated by a ten-horsepower gas engine on top of the ridge. Wheelbarrows brought the ore out of the tunnel to the tramway terminal. The Ubehebe Group now consisted of thirteen unpatented lode claims--the Butte Nos. 3-10 and West Extension Butte #3 in the lead zone, and the Copper Bell and Copper Bell Nos. 1-3 in the copper area to the east--plus the Quartz Spring Claim. No water supply existed on site, so that during shipping periods this precious commodity was hauled back from Beatty on the ore trucks and at other times one of the nearby springs was tapped and water stored in large drums on site. Total production of the mine at this time was estimated at 5,000 tons, containing 20% to 60% lead, an amount of ore that at the current 1949 market price exceeded $250,000 in value. Ore was hauled to Beatty, Nevada, and then either on to Las Vegas for rail shipment to Salt Lake City or trucked directly to Salt Lake City through Tonopah and Ely.

In 1966 a lease/purchase agreement between the Ubehebe Lead Mines, Inc., and Basic Resources Corporation was initiated, but development was disappointing and BRC's interests were later quitclaimed back in 1968. Ubehebe Lead Mines Company has owned the property ever since. Revised estimates of the total tonnage produced by the Ubehebe Mine are placed at about 3,500 tons, averaging 38% lead, 7% zinc, 12 ozs. silver, and .02 oz. gold per ton. The Copper Bell claims have averaged about 16% copper.
Greene, 1981

Mineralization is hosted in a tactite (limestone). The ore body is irregular in form at a thickness of 4.57 meters. The limestone is cut by diorite dikes. Associated rocks include diorite. Local rocks include Silurian and/or Ordovician marine rocks, unit 1 (Death Valley).

Workings include underground openings with a length of 502.92 meters, and comprised of a 900 foot tunnel (1949), and 750 feet of drifts (1951).

Production data are found in: Goodwin, J. G. (1957): 519.

Assay data results: Year: 1949; period: 1948-1949; ore: ^20% Pb, 13% Zn, 5 ounces (141 grams) Ag/ton

Ore shipped in 1951 averaged 13.8% Pb, 4.93% Zn, 3.47 ounces Ag/ton, and some Cu. Shipment in 1952 contained 12.4% Pb, 12.4% Zn, 3.93 ounces Ag/ton, plus some Cu & Au.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


18 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 39; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 300.
'Axinite Group'
Colour: White
Description: Occurs as small, perfectly-formed crystals.
Reference: Eakle, Arthur Starr (1923), Minerals of California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 91, 328 pp.: 188; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 505.
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Reference: Keck Museum (Reno, Nevada) Specimen #9663
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 56; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 188.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Keck Museum (Reno, Nevada) Specimen #9663
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 231; www.mineralsocal.org
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Aubury, Lewis E. (1908), The copper resources of California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 50: 302; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 129.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 89.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Description: Occurs as drusy, clear rhombohedra of supergene material in gangue.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 55; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 218.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 56; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 188.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Colour: Red-purple
Description: Occurs as anhedral and subhedral crystal.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 56; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 188.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Description: Occurs as massive aggregates.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 24; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 101; Mr. William Besse.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Description: Occurs widely and in good crystals to 5 mm and in coarse-grained aggregates in cavities.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 27, 39; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 340, 513.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: Occurs as colloform linings of fine-grained material coating and filling cavities.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 27; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 229; www.mineralsocal.org.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 379.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Keck Museum (Reno, Nevada) Specimen #9663
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Eakle, Arthur Starr (1923), Minerals of California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 91, 328 pp.: 188; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 91.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Mr. William Besse.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Description: Occurs as drusy encrustations in ores.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 24, 62; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 324, 340.
Vanadinite var: Arsenatian Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Description: Occurs as drusy encrustations in ores.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 24, 62; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 324, 340.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: Thin tabular; minute elongate crystals; open crystal meshes.
Description: Widely distributed with other Pb minerals.
Reference: McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 24, 62; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 340; www.mineralsocal.org

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
var: Arsenatian Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Axinite Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Axinite Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Vanadinite
var: Arsenatian Vanadinite
-Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
CCarbon
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
OOxygen
O CerussitePbCO3
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
ClChlorine
Cl Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
VVanadium
V Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
ZnZinc
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
AsArsenic
As Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
SbAntimony
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
PbLead
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb Vanadinite (var: Arsenatian Vanadinite)Pb5[(V,As)O4]3Cl
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A) In-text Citation No.
Aubury, Lewis E. (1908), The copper resources of California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 50: 302.
Eakle, Arthur Starr (1923), Minerals of California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 91, 328 pp.: 188.
Norman, L.A. & Richard M. Stewart (1951), Mines and mineral resources of Inyo County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology (Report 47): 47(1): 82.
McAllister, James Franklin (1955), Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe Peak quadrangle, Inyo County, California. California Division Mines, Special Report 42, 63 pp.: 24, 27, 39, 46-50, 55, 56, 62.
Goodwin, Joseph Grant (1957) Lead and zinc in California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, Division of Mines (Report 53): 53(3&4): 519.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 91, 129, 217, 223, 379, 388.
Greene, Linda I. (1981), U.S. National Park Service, Historic Preservation Branch, Pacific Northwest/Western Team, Denver Service Center, Death Valley – Historic Resource Study – A History of Mining, Volume I (Parts 1 and 2): part 2: III.C.2.h and III.C.2.j)(3)(a) & (b)).
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 89, 101, 188, 218, 229, 231, 300, 324, 340, 505, 513.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10076604 & 10188251.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060270091.
Mr. William W. Besse.
Keck Museum (Reno, Nevada) holdings (specimen #9663).

Other Databases

USGS MRDS Record:10076604

External Links


Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
USA

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