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Hemimorphite

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Formula:
Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Colour:
Colorless, white, pale blue, pale green, gray, brown
Lustre:
Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Silky, Pearly
Hardness:
4½ - 5
Specific Gravity:
3.475
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1853 by Adolph Kenngott in allusion to the hemimorphic morphology of the crystals. Many names were previously assigned to this species, including calamine.
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Classification of HemimorphiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.BD.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
D : Si2O7 groups, with additional anions; cations in tetrahedral [4] and greater coordination
56.1.2.1

56 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
1 : Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
14.7.12

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
7 : Silicates of Ba, Sr and Zn

Physical Properties of HemimorphiteHide

Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Silky, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colorless, white, pale blue, pale green, gray, brown
Streak:
White
Hardness:
4½ - 5 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {110}, poor on {101}, {001} rare
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.475 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.484 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HemimorphiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.614 nβ = 1.617 nγ = 1.636
2V:
Measured: 46° , Calculated: 44°
Birefringence:
0.022
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
strong r > v
Optical Extinction:
Parallel

Chemical Properties of HemimorphiteHide

Formula:
Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Common Impurities:
Cu,Fe

Crystallography of HemimorphiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Imm2
Setting:
Imm2
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.367(5) Å, b = 10.730 Å, c = 5.155(3) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.78 : 1 : 0.48
Unit Cell V:
462.81 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Thin tabular crystals, sheaf-like or fan-like aggregates, stalactitic, mammillary, botryoidal.
Twinning:
On {101} rare

Crystallographic forms of HemimorphiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
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Hemimorphite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hemimorphite no.33 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hemimorphite no.91 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.60 (86)
5.36 (55)
3.296 (73)
3.288 (75)
3.104 (100)
2.559 (51)
2.400 (54)
Comments:
Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USA (Anthony et al. (1990) Handbook of Mineralogy, v. 2(I), p. 328.)

Type Occurrence of HemimorphiteHide

Synonyms of HemimorphiteHide

Other Language Names for HemimorphiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

AnglesitePbSO4
Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
CalciteCaCO3
CerussitePbCO3
ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
GalenaPbS
HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
SmithsoniteZnCO3
SphaleriteZnS
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Aurichalcite272 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Aurichalcite on mindat.org.
Calcite265 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Wulfenite238 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Wulfenite on mindat.org.
Rosasite225 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Rosasite on mindat.org.
Smithsonite168 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Smithsonite on mindat.org.
Mimetite115 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Mimetite on mindat.org.
Cerussite98 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Cerussite on mindat.org.
Quartz93 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Hydrozincite93 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Hydrozincite on mindat.org.
Veszelyite71 photos of Hemimorphite associated with Veszelyite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.BD.05BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
9.BD.15JunitoiteCaZn2Si2O7 · H2OOrth. mm2
9.BD.20Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OHTric. 1 : P1
9.BD.20Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OHTric.
9.BD.20Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.BD.20TinzeniteCa2Mn2+4Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2Tric.
9.BD.25VistepiteSnMn4B2Si4O16(OH)2Tric. 1
9.BD.30BoralsiliteAl16B6Si2O37Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BD.35Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37Tric.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.7.1SanborniteBa2(Si4O10)Orth.
14.7.2KrauskopfiteBaSi2O5 · 3H2OMon.
14.7.3WalstromiteBaCa2(Si3O9)Tric.
14.7.4MacdonalditeBaCa4Si16O36(OH)2 · 10H2OOrth.
14.7.5EricssoniteBaMn2+2Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
14.7.6Ericssonite-2OBaMn2+2Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)Orth.
14.7.7GillespiteBaFe2+Si4O10Tet.
14.7.8AndrémeyeriteBaFe2+2(Si2O7)Mon.
14.7.9PellyiteBa2Ca(Fe,Mg)2Si6O17Orth.
14.7.10TaikaniteSr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2Mon.
14.7.11WillemiteZn2SiO4Trig. 3 : R3
14.7.13ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
14.7.14HardystoniteCa2Zn(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
14.7.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
14.7.16ClinohedriteCaZn(SiO4) · H2OMon. m : Bb
14.7.17JunitoiteCaZn2Si2O7 · H2OOrth. mm2
14.7.18LarsenitePbZnSiO4Orth. mm2 : Pna21
14.7.19EsperitePbCa2Zn3(SiO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.7.20HodgkinsoniteMn2+Zn2(SiO4)(OH)2Mon.
14.7.21GerstmanniteMnMgZn(SiO4)(OH)2Orth.
14.7.22GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20Mon. 2/m
14.7.23FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2

Fluorescence of HemimorphiteHide

May be bluish under SW UV.

Other InformationHide

IR Spectrum:
May fluoresce and phosphoresce white to pale yellow in SW, MW, LW UV (Sterling Mine, NJ).
Electrical:
Pyroelectric
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ore of zinc.

References for HemimorphiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 159: 47-48.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 146: 241-259.
European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 803-810.

Internet Links for HemimorphiteHide

Localities for HemimorphiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow