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Apache Mine (Defiance Mine; Defiance Lead Mine; Apache Vanadium Mine; Defiance vein; Vanadium shaft), Radium, Burch area, Globe Hills, Globe Hills District, Globe-Miami District, Gila Co., Arizona, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 28' 10'' North , 110° 48' 53'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.46944,-110.81472
GeoHash:G#: 9tcnqkgjt
Other regions containing this locality:Sonoran Desert, North America
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate

A former surface and underground Pb-V-Mo-Zn-Cu-Ag-Au-W mine located on 8 claims and 2 fractions, in the NW¼NW¼ sec. 2, T1N, R15E, about 5 miles NW of Globe and 1¼ miles NE of Radium on Pinal Creek, a siding on the railroad connecting Globe and Miami, on National Forest land. The Vanadium shaft is located in sec. 2; other claims continue into sec. 34. Claims extend into sec. 34, T2N, RI5E. Discovered 1875. Produced 1929-1957. Owned/operated by Pfeister Brothers (1913); Edward C. O'Brien & Co. (circa 1930); D.S. McDonald and Frank Chisum (1936-1948); Mrs. Ida McDonald (circa 1950), and being operated under lease from her by Edwin Sikes; the Mercur-King Consolidated Mines, Ltd. (1953); E.J. Sikes; J. Raggio; Fred Goat (1973). Owned by Worley, Sprik, Hunter (1974). NOTE: There seems to be quite a bit of uncertainty over the exact location of this property based on coordinates. Alternate coordinates provided: 33.53333N, 110.8W; and 33.46944N, 110.81472W; and 33.4625N, 110.8069W. The coordinates incorporated into this file appear to be the closest match to physical location description.

Mineralization is a vein deposit hosted in Pioneer Quartzite (Apache group). The ore zone is 457.2 meters long, 3.05 meters wide, striking N35E and dipping 80SE. Ore control was a narrow band in the middle part of a fault zone where quartzite and diabase gouge are altered to a white porous mass of clay, sericite and calcite. Alteration also includes chloritization. An associated rock unit is diabase. The mineralization is associated with a Late Cretaceous-Tertiary intrusive period.

The rocks exposed in the vicinity of the Defiance Mine are Pioneer formation and diabase. The Pioneer formation (Pioneer quartzite), which here is a hard fine-grained, feldspathic quartzite, crops out in several small blocks on the south slope of a chain of low hills that trend WNW. The generzal dip of the beds is 30º-40ºS., a little steeper than the slope of the hillsides. The structural relationships of the diabase and quartzite apparently resulted from intrusion of the diabase between the blocks of quartzite along old faults and also between the beds as sills.

The Defiance vein strikes N35E and dips 80SE. The outcrop of the vein fissure can be traced for 1,500 feet SW of the mine; though along most of its course, it is marked only by a darker color of the diabase, caused by slight mineralization and chloritic alteration. NE of the mine the vein ends at the north contact of the Pioneer formation with the diabase. About 300 feet SE of the end of the Defense vein, a weakly mineralized fissure extends northeastward from the north edge of the Pioneer outcrop. A fissure that may be the continuation of this fissure crops out for nearly a mile NE of the quartzite. The southwestern part of this fissure contains small amounts of lead and vanadium minerals, but along the northeastern part the vein minerals are mainly manganese oxides. NW of the mine several short weakly mineralized fissures in the quartzite and diabase are about parallel to the main vein.

The main vein is bounded on top by a diabase flow and on the bottom by a bedding plane fault, and features very regular slickensided walls that generally dip 80º to 85º SE. The stopes range in width from 3 to 12 feet and average about 5 feet.

The mineralized fault zone consists chiefly of quartzite fragments and of diabase gouge that has been altered to a white porous mass of clay, sericite, and finely disseminated calcite. The ore minerals appear to have been confined largely to a narrowe band in the middle part of the zone. The common minerals are calcite, vanadinite, mottramite and descloizite. Vanadinite crystals are sometimes recovered as collectibles.

Workings comprise 2 shafts and about 1,400 feet of drifts, crosscuts, and raises. Shaft No. 1, commonly called the Vanadium shaft, is 150 feet deep, with levels at 50 and 150 feet. Shaft No. 2 is 160 feet to the SW and its collar is 40 feet lower. It is 110 feet deep, with levels at 30, 65 & 110 feet, but it is filled with waste rock to the 65 foot level. The 110 level is said to connect with the 150 level of shaft No. 1. Drifts from the 2 shafts explore the vein for 550 feet along its strike, and partially backfilled. The vein has been stoped for 450 feet along it length except for pillars. The workings total some 426.7 meters in length and 45.72 meters in depth.

About 20 short tons of ore containing 14% V2O5 were shipped by the Edward C. O'Brien Co.(1930)(Peterson, 1950)(mostly vanadinite crystals). This was obviously hand-picked ore. No information on where shipped or V recovery. No data on Pb, Au, Ag resources; V resources probably nil.

Assay data: 14% V205, 0.17 oz/ton Au, 3.7 oz/ton Ag, 19% Pb, 3.7% Zn, 0.55% Cu.

Please note that mining claims are current and that collecting is forbidden.

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

23 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

1000 - 1200 Ma

ID: 3025105
Middle Proterozoic diabase

Age: Stenian (1000 - 1200 Ma)

Description: Dark gray to black sills (intrusions mostly parallel to bedding) in strata of the Apache Group and irregular to sheet-like intrusions in other rocks. Present in east-central and southeastern Arizona. Some sills are more than 100 m thick. Exposures are extensive north of Globe. (1050-1150 Ma)

Comments: ~ 1.1 Ga. Associated with Grand Canyon Supergroup, and Apache Group (unit Ys)

Lithology: Major:{hypabyssal basalt,gabbro}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

1000 - 1600 Ma

ID: 3188570
Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1600 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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Guild, F.N. (1910), Mineralogy of Arizona, Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA.
Tenney, J.B. (1930), The Second Report on the Mineral Industries of Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 129: 89-90.
Peterson, N.L. (1950) Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 156, Geology Series 18: 98-111, 101.
Wilson, E.D., et al (1950), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part I, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 101-105, 156.
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Report 172-480 (1953), Gila County Preliminary Reconnaissance Report: 1, 24.
Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 50, 58, 70, 95.
Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, Arizona Geological Society Digest: 3: 53-56.
Peterson, N.P. (1962), Geology and ore deposits of the Globe-Miami district, AZ, USGS PP 342: 75, 77, 78, 126-128.
Rocks & Minerals (1945): 20: 591.
Rocks and Minerals (1946): 21: 481.
Wilson, W. (1971), Mineralogical Record: 2(6): 252-258.
Blair, Gerry (1992), The Rockhound's Guide to Arizona: Helena, MT, Falcon Press.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 112, 141, 146, 157, 201, 228, 248, 291, 306-307, 319, 410, 420.
Flagg, A.L., Vanadium Reports Books 2 and 3 (unpublished).
USGS Globe Quadrangle map.
Arizona Department of Mineral Resources Defiance Lead Mine file.
U.S. Bureau of Mines - Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mining Technology file data.
MRDS database Dep. ID #10008143, MRDS ID # D000084; and Dep. ID #10027368, Dep. ID #M002970; and Dep. ID #10258162, MAS ID #0040070281.

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