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Reef Mine (Tungsten Reef Mine; Exposed Reef Mine; Sitric Mine; Reef group of claims), Carr Canyon, Hartford District (Huachuca Mountains District), Huachuca Mts, Cochise Co., Arizona, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 31° 25' 37'' North , 110° 17' 16'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 31.42694,-110.28778
Other regions containing this locality:Sonoran Desert, North America

A former small surface and underground W-Au-Ag-Pb-Cu-Zn (Te) mine located on 9 patented and 5 unpatented claims on the crest of the range (7,000 feet of altitude), at the head of Carr Canyon, in the SW¼ sec. 14 & East-central sec. 15, T23S, R20E (Miller Peak 7.5 minute topo map), S of Carr Canyon and about 12 miles W of Hereford. Discovered 1895. Produced 1875, 1916-1918, 1934-1942, 1953-1954, 1956. Reopened during WWI. Owned at times, or in part, by the Primos Chemical Co., Tungsten Reef Mines Co. (1918- ); and, the Exposed Reef Tungsten Co. ( -1918).

Mineralization is irregular and sporadic bunches and disseminations of scheelite with some gold and silver values and weak, base metal sulfides along fractures and at joint intersections in a quartz blanket at the base of the Cambrian Abrigo Limestone. Also includes oxidized copper minerals.

Cambrian Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone have been weakly deformed by a series of thrust drag folds of gentle northwestward plunge and broken by fractures of NW- and northward trends.

Quartz veins lie near the base of the Abrigo formation & in general dip conformably in the flexed strata. There are two principal veins from a few feet to 12 feet apart. The lower vein ranges from less than 1 foot to 6 feet and the upper from about 2 feet to 15 feet thick. Coarsely crystalline grayish-white quartz and minerals comprise the vein filling.

Workings include numerous trenches, pits and open stopes and a few adit workings. Minor gold-silver production in the early 1900's and a total of several thousand tons of tungsten ore and concentrates produced in 1916-1918, 1934-1942, and 1955-1956 periods.

Mindat Articles

Collecting at the Reef Mine, Huachuca Mts. Arizona by Rolf Luetcke

Mineral List

40 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Serpukhovian - Early Cambrian
323.2 - 541 Ma
Mississippian, Devonian, and Cambrian sedimentary rocks

Age: Paleozoic (323.2 - 541 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Tapeats Sandstone; Bright Angel Shale; Muav Limestone; Temple Butte Formation; Redwall Limestone; Bolsa Quartzite; Abrigo Formation; Martin Formation; Escabrosa Limestone

Description: Brown to dark gray sandstone grades upward into green and gray shale, overlain by light to medium gray or tan limestone and dolostone. This unit includes the Tapeats Sandstone, Bright Angel Shale, Muav Limestone, Temple Butte Formation and Redwall Limestone in northern Arizona, and the Bolsa Quartzite, Abrigo Formation, Martin Formation, and Escabrosa Limestone in southern Arizona. These rocks record intermittent sea-level rise and inundation in early Paleozoic time. (330-540 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{sandstone,shale,limestone}, Minor:{dolostone,quartzite}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Palache, C. (1941a), Crystallographic notes: Cahnite, stolzite, zincite, ultrabasite, American Mineralogist: 26: 429-436.

Wilson, E.D. (1941), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 148: 48-49.

Weber, R.H. (1950), The Geology of the East-central Portion of the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, University of Arizona, PhD. Thesis: 122-156.

Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 158: 37.

Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 81

Dale, V.B., et al (1960), Tungsten deposits of Cochise, Pima, and Santa Cruz Counties., Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 5650: 28-32.

Lemmon, D.M., and Tweto, O.L. (1962) Tungsten in the U.S., USGS Mineral Resources map, MR-25.

Keith, Stanton B. (1973), Arizona Bureau of Geology & Mineral Technology, Geological Survey Branch Bull. 187, Index of Mining Properties in Cochise Co., Arizona: 67 (Table 4).

Phillips, K.A. (1987), Arizona Industrial Minerals, 2nd. Edition, Arizona Department of Mines & Minerals Mineral Report 4, 185 pp.: 156.

Niemuth, N.J. & K.A. Phillips (1992), Copper Oxide Resources, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Open File Report 92-10: 5 (Table 1).

Sawyer, M.B., Gurmendi, A.C., Daley, M.R., and Howell, S.B. (1992) Principal Deposits of Strategic and Critical Minerals in Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, 334 pp.

Tuftin, S.E. and Armstrong, R.C. (1994) U.S. Bureau of Mines Open File Report Mineral Land Assessment (MLA) 1-94.

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 165, 228, 362, 384.

Walstrom, Robert E. (2012), "The Accidental Pocket," talk presented at 2012 NCMA meeting. (unpublished).

U.S. Bureau of Mines file data.

MRDS database Dep. ID file #10008524, MRDS ID #D000755; and, Dep. ID #10233922, MRDS ID #M241502, MAS ID #0040030202.

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