|Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):||17° 57' 31'' South , 46° 50' 49'' West|
|Latitude & Longitude (decimal):||-17.95861,-46.84694|
|Köppen climate type:||Aw : Tropical savanna, wet|
Group of several mines, closely located and jointly operated by Votorantim Metais. From S to N:
- Lumiadeira (underground and open pit)
- Morro da Usina (underground)
- Mineira (open pit)
- Sucuri (underground and open pit).
Zinc was discovered in 1933 near the village of Vazante, located in the Brasília Fold Belt. At first, mining was by independent miners using hand tools, referred to in this area as artisanal miners (called garimpeiros in other parts of Brazil). In 1969 a larger open-pit operation by Votorantim Metais began producing ore that could be processed for its zinc content. Underground mining began in 1983. Since then, the Vazante mine has become the largest producer of zinc in Brazil, with reserves estimated at 26.6 million tonnes of ore having up to 19.5% Zn content.
The primary zinc ore is the silicate willemite which occurs in pods and veinlets in a brecciated shear zone associated with the Vazante fault zone. The fault strikes N50E and dips at 60-70 degrees NW, cutting dolomitic metasediments of the Serra do Poço Verde Formation of late Mesoproterozoic age (estimated at 1.1 to 1.0 Ga). The willemite ore body extends along the fault zone for nearly 5 km, and ranges from the surface to a depth of somewhat greater than 400 meters. The fault is interpreted as a syn-sedimentary growth fault formed along the margins of a marine basin and reactivated multiple times during the Brasiliano Orogeny (ca. 630-500 Ma). Formation of the zinc silicate deposit is not well understood, but presence of willemite and hematite required oxidizing conditions. Lead isotope data suggest an upper crustal source for the lead and zinc. Hot, acidic and sulfur-deficient fluids rich in the metal flowed upward and mixed with oxygen-depleted, cool, meteoric waters under more alkaline conditions where willemite precipitated.
16 valid minerals.
This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.
Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org
1000 - 1600 Ma
|Mesoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks|
Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1600 Ma)
Lithology: Low grade unclassified metamorphic rock
Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529.