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Vazante mine, Vazante, Minas Gerais, Brazili
Regional Level Types
Vazante mineMine
Vazante- not defined -
Minas Gerais- not defined -
BrazilCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 17° 57' 31'' South , 46° 50' 49'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -17.95861,-46.84694
GeoHash:G#: 6uy9vfxpe
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Aw : Tropical savanna, wet
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Vazante15,459 (2012)7.2km


Group of several mines, closely located and jointly operated by Votorantim Metais. From S to N:
- Lumiadeira (underground and open pit)
- Morro da Usina (underground)
- Mineira (open pit)
- Sucuri (underground and open pit).

Zinc was discovered in 1933 near the village of Vazante, located in the Brasília Fold Belt. At first, mining was by independent miners using hand tools, referred to in this area as artisanal miners (called garimpeiros in other parts of Brazil). In 1969 a larger open-pit operation by Votorantim Metais began producing ore that could be processed for its zinc content. Underground mining began in 1983. Since then, the Vazante mine has become the largest producer of zinc in Brazil, with reserves estimated at 26.6 million tonnes of ore having up to 19.5% Zn content.

The primary zinc ore is the silicate willemite which occurs in pods and veinlets in a brecciated shear zone associated with the Vazante fault zone. The fault strikes N50E and dips at 60-70 degrees NW, cutting dolomitic metasediments of the Serra do Poço Verde Formation of late Mesoproterozoic age (estimated at 1.1 to 1.0 Ga). The willemite ore body extends along the fault zone for nearly 5 km, and ranges from the surface to a depth of somewhat greater than 400 meters. The fault is interpreted as a syn-sedimentary growth fault formed along the margins of a marine basin and reactivated multiple times during the Brasiliano Orogeny (ca. 630-500 Ma). Formation of the zinc silicate deposit is not well understood, but presence of willemite and hematite required oxidizing conditions. Lead isotope data suggest an upper crustal source for the lead and zinc. Hot, acidic and sulfur-deficient fluids rich in the metal flowed upward and mixed with oxygen-depleted, cool, meteoric waters under more alkaline conditions where willemite precipitated.

Regions containing this locality

South America PlateTectonic Plate
South AmericaContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


16 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Apatite'
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
'Chlorite Group'
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Franklinite
Formula: Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Galena
Formula: PbS
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Zincite
Formula: ZnO

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Franklinite4.BB.05Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Zincite4.AB.20ZnO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX
Zincite4.2.2.1ZnO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Franklinite7.2.2.4Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
CCarbon
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O FrankliniteZn2+Fe23+O4
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O HematiteFe2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O SideriteFeCO3
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O ZinciteZnO
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S BaryteBaSO4
S SphaleriteZnS
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe FrankliniteZn2+Fe23+O4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe SideriteFeCO3
ZnZinc
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn FrankliniteZn2+Fe23+O4
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
Zn ZinciteZnO
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Mesoproterozoic
1000 - 1600 Ma



ID: 3187036
Mesoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1600 Ma)

Lithology: Low grade unclassified metamorphic rock

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Teixeira, J. B. G., Misi, A., and da Silva, M. da G. (2007), Supercontinent evolution and the Proterozoic metallogeny of South America: Gondwana Research, v. 11, p. 346-361.
Slezak, P. R. (2012), Geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the Vazante Northern Extension zinc silicate deposit, Minas Gerais, Brazil: M.S. thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Misi, A., Azmy, K., Kaufman, A. J., Oliveira, T. F., Sanches, A. L., and Oliveira, G. D. (2014), Review of the geological and geochronological framework of the Vazante sequence, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Implications to metallogenic and phosphogenic models: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 63, p. 76-90.

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