IMPORTANT MESSAGE. We need your support now to keep running. Click here to find out why.
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for Educators
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Vazante mine, Vazante, Minas Gerais, Brazil

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 17° 57' 31'' South , 46° 50' 49'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -17.95861,-46.84694
GeoHash:G#: 6uy9vfxpe
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Aw : Tropical savanna, wet

Group of several mines, closely located and jointly operated by Votorantim Metais. From S to N:
- Lumiadeira (underground and open pit)
- Morro da Usina (underground)
- Mineira (open pit)
- Sucuri (underground and open pit).

Zinc was discovered in 1933 near the village of Vazante, located in the Brasília Fold Belt. At first, mining was by independent miners using hand tools, referred to in this area as artisanal miners (called garimpeiros in other parts of Brazil). In 1969 a larger open-pit operation by Votorantim Metais began producing ore that could be processed for its zinc content. Underground mining began in 1983. Since then, the Vazante mine has become the largest producer of zinc in Brazil, with reserves estimated at 26.6 million tonnes of ore having up to 19.5% Zn content.

The primary zinc ore is the silicate willemite which occurs in pods and veinlets in a brecciated shear zone associated with the Vazante fault zone. The fault strikes N50E and dips at 60-70 degrees NW, cutting dolomitic metasediments of the Serra do Poço Verde Formation of late Mesoproterozoic age (estimated at 1.1 to 1.0 Ga). The willemite ore body extends along the fault zone for nearly 5 km, and ranges from the surface to a depth of somewhat greater than 400 meters. The fault is interpreted as a syn-sedimentary growth fault formed along the margins of a marine basin and reactivated multiple times during the Brasiliano Orogeny (ca. 630-500 Ma). Formation of the zinc silicate deposit is not well understood, but presence of willemite and hematite required oxidizing conditions. Lead isotope data suggest an upper crustal source for the lead and zinc. Hot, acidic and sulfur-deficient fluids rich in the metal flowed upward and mixed with oxygen-depleted, cool, meteoric waters under more alkaline conditions where willemite precipitated.

Mineral List

16 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

1000 - 1600 Ma

ID: 3187036
Mesoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1600 Ma)

Lithology: Low grade unclassified metamorphic rock

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Teixeira, J. B. G., Misi, A., and da Silva, M. da G. (2007), Supercontinent evolution and the Proterozoic metallogeny of South America: Gondwana Research, v. 11, p. 346-361.
Slezak, P. R. (2012), Geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the Vazante Northern Extension zinc silicate deposit, Minas Gerais, Brazil: M.S. thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Misi, A., Azmy, K., Kaufman, A. J., Oliveira, T. F., Sanches, A. L., and Oliveira, G. D. (2014), Review of the geological and geochronological framework of the Vazante sequence, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Implications to metallogenic and phosphogenic models: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 63, p. 76-90.

External Links

Mineral and/or Locality is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2018, except where stated. relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: November 13, 2018 00:25:34 Page generated: May 13, 2018 14:41:33
Go to top of page