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Bleyberg Mine (Bleiberg Mine), Plombières (Blieberg; Bleiberg; Bleyberg), Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district, Verviers, Liège, Wallonia, Belgiumi
Regional Level Types
Bleyberg Mine (Bleiberg Mine)Mine
Plombières (Blieberg; Bleiberg; Bleyberg)- not defined -
Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining districtMining District
Verviers- not defined -
LiègeProvince
WalloniaRegion
BelgiumCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 43' 58'' North , 5° 58' 1'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Plombières9,596 (2011)0.7km
La Calamine10,232 (2011)3.5km
Wolfhaag125 (2017)3.7km
Raren175 (2017)4.1km
Holset145 (2017)5.0km


Ancient lead-zinc mine working a vein hosted by Lower Carboniferous limestone and coal measure shales. The deposit was first mentioned in the 15th century and some mining occurred in the 16th and 18th century. Large-scale industrial mining started in 1828. By 1882 the mine ran out of ore and was closed, the lead-zinc smelter was operated until 1922 with ore from abroad. The Bleyberg mine is located 6 km NW of Kelmis and about 20 miles NE of Liege.

Total production (1828-1882):
115.000 tons of galena and 110.000 tons of sphalerite (as schalenblende).

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


17 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Hejlen, W., Muchez, P., and Banks, D.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 165-176.
Calcite var: Ferroan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Fe)CO3
Reference: Hejlen, W., Muchez, P., and Banks, D.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 165-176.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 20:467.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Hejlen, W., Muchez, P., and Banks, D.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 165-176.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 20:467; Hejlen, W., Muchez, P., and Banks, D.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 165-176.
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 20:467.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 20:467.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Hejlen, W., Muchez, P., and Banks, D.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 165-176.
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Reference: Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, H.A., Balassone, G., and Dejonghe, L. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 187-210.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 20:467.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: No reference listed
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hejlen, W., Muchez, P., and Banks, D.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 165-176.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Buttgenbach: Les minéraux de Belgique et du Congo Belge, 1947 page 114
Siderite ?
Formula: FeCO3
Description: References list ferroan calcite, but no siderite. Might be a mis-identification based on colour only.
Reference: Leon Hupperichs collection
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 20:467.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 20:467; Hejlen, W., Muchez, P., and Banks, D.A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 165-176.
Sphalerite var: Schalenblende
Reference: DEJONGHE,L., ET AL. - Atlas des Gisements Plombo-Zincifères du Synclinorium de Verviers, Belgique
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: No reference listed

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
var: Schalenblende2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
var: Ferroan Calcite5.AB.05(Ca,Fe)CO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite ?5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Nickeline2.8.11.1NiAs
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite ?14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Calcite
var: Ferroan Calcite
-(Ca,Fe)CO3
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
Sphalerite
var: Schalenblende
-ZnS

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C Calcite (var: Ferroan Calcite)(Ca,Fe)CO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O QuartzSiO2
O CerussitePbCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Calcite (var: Ferroan Calcite)(Ca,Fe)CO3
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O SideriteFeCO3
SiSilicon
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyriteFeS2
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca Calcite (var: Ferroan Calcite)(Ca,Fe)CO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Calcite (var: Ferroan Calcite)(Ca,Fe)CO3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
NiNickel
Ni NickelineNiAs
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
CuCopper
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
AsArsenic
As NickelineNiAs
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb CerussitePbCO3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Carboniferous
298.9 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3152767
Carboniferous limestone

Age: Carboniferous (298.9 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{dolomite/dolostone,coal,claystone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Namurian
315 - 330.9 Ma



ID: 2621654

Age: Carboniferous (315 - 330.9 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, sandstone, conglomerate, coal seams

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

Devonian
358.9 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3186341
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dewez, L. and Lespineux, G. (1949) Les Minérais Du Sol Belge. Centenaire de l'Association des Ingénieurs sortis de l'École de Liege, Section Geologie.
Hejlen, W., Muchez, P., and Banks, D.A. (2001) Origin and evolution of high-salinity, Zn-Pb mineralising fluids in the Variscides of Belgium. Mineralium Deposita: 36: 165-176.
Rocks & Minerals: 20: 467.
Dejonghe, L., Ladeuze, F., and Jans, D. (1993) Atlas des gisements plombo-zincifères du synclinorium de Verviers, 483pp.

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