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Cashin Mine (Red Chief claim; Titon claim; Angell claim; Horse Shoe claim; Bennie claim; Maud claim; Humboldt claim), La Sal District (Paradox Valley District), Montrose Co., Colorado, USA

This page kindly sponsored by Frank Karasti
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 38° 18' 38'' North , 108° 56' 56'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 38.31083,-108.94889
GeoHash:G#: 9wf9by3bf
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate


A Cu-Ag-Au-Pb-Zn-U-Sb-As occurrence/mine located in secs. 22 & 23, T47N, R19W, NMM, about 7.2 km S of Paradox (air miles) along La Sal Creek and about 12 miles S71W from Uravan (site). Discovered in 1896. Last recorded production was in 1972. MRDS database stated accuracy for this locality is 10 meters.

The claims lie across La Sal Creek and onto Nyswonger Mesa, about 2.5 miles above the confluence with the Dolores River, 4 miles SSE of Oaradox and 3.2 miles WNW of Bedrock. The geographic coordionates given by the USGS are for the principal tunnel in the SE¼NW¼SE¼ of sec. 22.

The La Sal Mining District includes both the Cashin Mine and the Cliff Dweller Mine located about 1,500 feet to the west. The properties were first staked in 1895 by James N. McBride (Claimant) and mining began in 1896, with the development of underground access and stoping on the highly mineralized portions of the Cashin fault. First production occurred in 1898 and activity ended in 1972. The mine operated intermittently until 1946. Total production from the two mines was approximately 1.8 million pounds of Cu and 425,000 ounces of Ag from a total of 23,000 tons of ore averaging 4.0% Cu and 18.5 ounces per ton of Ag. The Cashin Mine developed workings for some 2,200 horizontal and 300 vertical feet over widths of 1 to 20 feet on the north side of La Sal Creek. To the south of the creek, an adit extends for a further 300 feet to the south with Cu mineralization visible along its length. The historic production has been exclusively from the highly mineralized fault zones. The potential for exploitation of the disseminated mineralization adjacent to the structures was identified in the 1960’s. This led to a geochemical sampling and drilling program in the period from 1967-1969. A total of 4,379 feet of small diameter core was drilled in 43 drill holes.

This deposit was discovered in 1896 but no active development took place until 1898. The first operator apparently was the La Sal Copper Mining Company, that sold the property in 1918-1919 to the Michigan-Colorado Copper Company. Due to high transportation costs in the early years only high-grade sulfide and native copper ore could be mined. A small leach plant and smelter produced matte in the early 1900's, using pyrite from Ophir and coal from ovens W of Naturita. Intermittent production took place by various operators from 1922 to 1946. Further exploration/development and rehabilitation was conducted by the Cashin Copper Corporation in 1955, Interstate Oil and Gas in 1962, Gold Bar Resources in 1963 to 1965, and Austin Smith in 1972, who shipped 50 tons of dump ore to a leach plant in the Lisbon Valley, Utah, but no values were recovered. In 1981, the New Star Corporation acquired the property (Mining Record, 12/2/1981), and performed exploration and development, and shipped a trial lot of 500 tons of ore that were successfully milled.

Claims: Cashin; MS 1303a; Michigan; MS 19163; Titon Mill Site; MS 13030b; Patented Claims: Red Chief; MS 13029a; Titon; MS 13030a; Angell; MS 13031a; Horse Shoe; MS 19163; Bennie; MS 13031a; Maud Mill Site; MS 13031b; Maud; MS 13031a; Humboldt; MS 13031a.

Owned by the New Star Corporation, Provo, Utah (1981---). Also owned by the Sumito Minerals Corporation of Canada (timeframe unstated). Operated by Austin B. Smith (1972).

Mineralization is a Cu deposit (Mineral occurrence model information: Model code: 197; USGS model code: 30b; BC deposit profile: E04; Deposit model name: Sediment-hosted Cu; Mark3 model number: 63), hosted in Late Jurassic shale and the Wingate Sandstone of the Chinle Formation. The ore body is 6.1 meters thick. Controls for ore emplacement included a fault cutting poorly cemented, friable sandstone. Local alteration includes oxidation of Cu sulfides to carbonates and oxides. Local rocks include Glen Canyon Group and the Chinle Formation.

Regional geologic structures include the Paradox Basin Fold and Fault Belt. Local structures include the Paradox Anticline, Paradox Valley Graben, and unnamed faults.

Workings include underground openings. The mine was developed by a main tunnel at 2,900 feet long with a 600 foot long overhead stope and two 300 foot raises. Three levels were developed off a 260 foot inclined winze: 100 level with 300 foot N and 180 foot S drifts; 160 level with 100 foot N and 100 foot S drifts. and the 260 level with 30 foot N and 30 foot S drifts. The Maud tunnel is 380 feet long with an 80 foot shaft at its portal. Two leach ponds were constructed near the main tunnel to treat dump material.

production information: There is only a partial production record. The annual totals for 1899 to 1918 are unavailable. Cumulative totals for 1899 to 1905 from Emmons (1906). No production was cited in Colorado Division of Mines records for 1919 to 1921, 1923 to 1936, 1938, 1940 to 1971, and after 1972. Annual figures for 1938 to 1955 were found in the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral Yearbooks. The figure for 1939 includes a small production from the Independence No. 7 claim. The figure for 1940 includes a small production from the Talbert claim. Cu production in 1955 was covellite specimens for a rock shop. Production figures recorded for the district in 1957-1958, 1960, and 1964, but Mineral Yearbooks did not state whether or not all or bulk of this production was credited to the Cashin Mine.

Ore mined in 1937 and 1939 contained 7 to 8% Cu, 8 ounces/ton Ag and a trace of Au. High-grade, crude ore was shipped in 1922 and contained 12% Cu and 68 ounces Ag/ton. Other high-grade ore averaged 12.5% Cu and 134 ounces Ag/ton. The former leaching operation at the mine yielded an average of 3.5% Cu and 28 ounces Ag/ton. One shipment of native copper ore contained 89% Cu and 77 ounces Ag/ton.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Cashin Mine, Montrose Co., Colorado, USA

Regions containing this locality

Rocky Mountains, North America

Mountain Range - 2,039 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


30 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866
Algodonite
Formula: (Cu1-xAsx)
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Self collected by Brent Thorne
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Self collected by Brent Thorne
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866
Cornetite ?
Formula: Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 81:296-300
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866
Domeykite
Formula: Cu3As
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866; Shawe, D.R., (2011), Uranium-vanadium deposits of the Slick Rock district, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 576-F, 80 p., 20 plates.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Koutekite
Formula: Cu5As2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Self collected by Brent Thorne 10-04
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Self collected by Brent Thorne
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
'Native Amalgam'
Formula: (Ag,Hg)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Novákite
Formula: Cu20AgAs10
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Self collected by Brent Thorne; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1853-1866
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Copper'1.AA.05Cu
'Silver'1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Acanthite'2.BA.35Ag2S
'Algodonite'2.AA.10a(Cu1-xAsx)
'Bornite'2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
'Chalcocite'2.BA.05Cu2S
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Covellite'2.CA.05aCuS
'Djurleite'2.BA.05Cu31S16
'Domeykite'2.AA.10bCu3As
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Koutekite'2.AA.10dCu5As2
'Luzonite'2.KA.10Cu3AsS4
'Novákite'2.AA.15Cu20AgAs10
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
'Tennantite'2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aurichalcite'5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Azurite'5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Caledonite'7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
'Langite'7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
'Linarite'7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Cornetite' ?8.BE.15Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Group 9 - Silicates
'Kaolinite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Native Amalgam'-(Ag,Hg)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p > 3:1
Algodonite2.1.1.1(Cu1-xAsx)
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:1
Domeykite2.2.2.1Cu3As
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 5:2
Koutekite2.3.1.1Cu5As2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
Novákite2.4.18.1Cu20AgAs10
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Luzonite3.2.2.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)Zq
Cornetite ?41.3.2.1Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Native Amalgam'-(Ag,Hg)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
O CupriteCu2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
SSulfur
S AcanthiteAg2S
S BaryteBaSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S GalenaPbS
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S LuzoniteCu3AsS4
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FeIron
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu DomeykiteCu3As
Cu KoutekiteCu5As2
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu LuzoniteCu3AsS4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu NovákiteCu20AgAs10
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
As DomeykiteCu3As
As KoutekiteCu5As2
As LuzoniteCu3AsS4
As NovákiteCu20AgAs10
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag Native Amalgam(Ag,Hg)
Ag NovákiteCu20AgAs10
Ag SilverAg
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
HgMercury
Hg Native Amalgam(Ag,Hg)
PbLead
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Jurassic - Late Triassic
174.1 - 237 Ma



ID: 3185972
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mesozoic (174.1 - 237 Ma)

Lithology: Sandstone-conglomerate

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Jurassic - Late Triassic
174.1 - 237 Ma



ID: 2791642
Glen Canyon Group and Chinle Fm

Age: Mesozoic (174.1 - 237 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Glen Canyon Group; Chinle Formation

Description: In southwest, Glen Canyon Group consists of Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Fm (red siltstone, shale, and sandstone) and Wingate Sandstone; Chinle is red siltstone

Comments: Original map source: Green, G.N., 1992, The Digital Geologic Map of Colorado in ARC/INFO Format: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-0507, 9 p., scale 1:500,000.

Lithology: Major:{sandstone,siltstone,shale}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Hall, R.G. (1903), Secondary Enrichment in Copper Veins, Ebngineering & Mining Journal: 75(8): 288.
Emmons, W.H. (1906), The Cashin Mine, Montrose County, Colorado, USGS Bulletin 285: 125-128.
Coffin, R.C. (1921), Radium, Uranium, and Vanadium Deposits of Southwestern Colorado, Colorado Geoplogical Survey Bulletin 16: 219-220.
Fischer, R.P. (1936), Peculiar Hydrothermal Copper-Bearing Veins of the Northeastern Colorado Plateau, Economic Geology: 31(6): 571-599.
Colorado Bureau of Mines (1937), 1937 Annual Report.
U.S. Bureau of Mines (1939-1955), Mineral Yearbooks.
Gott, G.B. and Erickson, R.L. (1952), Reconnaissance of Uranium and Copper Deposits in Parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, USGS Circular 219: 4-5.
Withington, C.F. (1955), Geologic Map of the Paradox Quadrangle, Colorado, USGS Map GQ-72.
Carter, W.D. and Gualtieri, J.L. (1957), La Sal Creek Area, Colorado and Utah, in: Geologic Investigations of Radioactive Deposits, Semi-annual Progress Report, December 1, 1956 to May 31, 1957, Atomic Energy Commission TEI-690: 94.
Colorado Division of Mines (1973), Summary of Mining Industry Activities for 1972.
Economic Geology (1986): 81: 1853-1866.
Eckel, E. B. (1997), Minerals of Colorado.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10014257.
Constellation Copper Corporation ["CCC"], Lakewood, Colorado (2006), Technical Report: Cashin Copper Report, Montrose County, Colorado.
Rocks & Minerals (2006): 81: 296-300.
Shawe, D.R. (2011), Uranium-vanadium deposits of the Slick Rock district, Colorado: USGS Professional Paper 576-F, 80 p., 20 plates.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file #0080851018.
Colorado Division of Mines Information Reports and Annual Operator Reports.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Mineral Survey MS 13029A&B.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Mineral Survey MS 13030A&B.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Mineral Survey MS 13031A&B.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Mineral Survey MS 19163.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Mineral Survey MS 19164.


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