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Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexicoi
Regional Level Types
Naica- not defined -
Mun. de SaucilloMunicipality
Chihuahua- not defined -
MexicoCountry

This page kindly sponsored by Peter Megaw
Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 51' North , 105° 30' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 27.85000,-105.50000
GeoHash:G#: 9suyrmcnp
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate
Other/historical names associated with this locality:Gibraltar, Maravillas, Lepanto, Siglo XX


Some caves encountered in and near the workings of the Naica Mine are famous for giant gypsum crystals (up to 14 m in length!), among them "Cave of Swords" within the old Gibraltar Mine workings and "Cave of Crystals" at about 480m depth in the main Naica Mine workings.

Note that the upper level oxide workings of the Gibraltar, Maravillas, Lepanto, Siglo XX etc. Mines were incorporated into the Naica Mine in the mid-1950s and for the most part sealed off and abandoned. Although the name Gibraltar Shaft survives within the Naica Mine, Gibraltar (and other old mine names) no longer bear any relation to the current workings (now dominantly well below the 500 m level). Pretty much any specimen mined since the 1950s...except for crystals taken from the Cave of the Swords (and most of the gypsum crystals that have come out in that period came from caverns other than the Cave of the Swords) should be simply labeled Naica Mine, Naica, ... etc.

Distinctive sharp gypsum crystals on a dark brown hard limestone matrix come from the Chubasco Breccia Body, probably a collapsed solution cave/pipe. Chubasco lies at the end of a long exploration heading driven to chase a geophysical anomaly. There was no ore present and the drift was closed off permanently.

2015: Rumors that the Cave of the Crystals is flooded are false. Strong water inflow was encountered in deep workings in early 2015 and some of the mine has been allowed to flood, but this does not affect the Cave. Work is underway on a work-around and the mine should be back in production before long.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico
Naica, Mexico

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

89 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: No reference listed
'Apophyllite'
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: No reference listed
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Reference: Peter Megaw
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Max Wisshak, Leif Tapanila: Current Developments in Bioerosion, p.149 (http://books.google.be/books?id=6Zy6xC4rB3oC&pg=PA149&lpg=PA149&dq=%22iceland+spar%22+naica&source=bl&ots=yNZUsRoVac&sig=m0Cp9OBbvp1TJtBm0syQM_c4puc&hl=nl&ei=6F_STviGJo6VOu3mveIJ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&sqi=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22iceland%20spar%22%20naica&f=false)
Calcite var: Iceland Spar
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Max Wisshak, Leif Tapanila: Current Developments in Bioerosion, p.149 (http://books.google.be/books?id=6Zy6xC4rB3oC&pg=PA149&lpg=PA149&dq=%22iceland+spar%22+naica&source=bl&ots=yNZUsRoVac&sig=m0Cp9OBbvp1TJtBm0syQM_c4puc&hl=nl&ei=6F_STviGJo6VOu3mveIJ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&sqi=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22iceland%20spar%22%20naica&f=false)
Calcite var: Manganoan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: No reference listed
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
'Chlorite Group'
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Mining company data
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Peter Megaw
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: No reference listed
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: No reference listed
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gold
Formula: Au
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Hydroniumjarosite
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Ilvaite
Formula: CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Reference: Mining company data
'K Feldspar'
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Kobellite
Formula: Pb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Peter Megaw
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Matildite
Formula: AgBiS2
Reference: Mining company data
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Peter Megaw
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Nuffieldite
Formula: Cu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Palygorskite
Formula: (Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: No reference listed
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Mining company data
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Silver
Formula: Ag
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Tintinaite
Formula: Pb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Reference: Mining company data
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: Mining company data
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: Peter Megaw
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Copper'1.AA.05Cu
'Gold'1.AA.05Au
Mercury1.AD.05Hg
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Acanthite'2.BA.35Ag2S
'Arsenopyrite'2.EB.20FeAsS
'Bismuthinite'2.DB.05Bi2S3
'Bornite'2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
'Boulangerite'2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
'Bournonite'2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Cinnabar'2.CD.15aHgS
'Cosalite'2.JB.10Pb2Bi2S5
'Covellite'2.CA.05aCuS
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Gersdorffite'2.EB.25NiAsS
Jamesonite2.HB.15Pb4FeSb6S14
Kobellite2.HB.10aPb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Matildite2.JA.20AgBiS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Nuffieldite2.JB.25gCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Pearceite2.GB.15[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Polybasite2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite2.GA.05Ag3SbS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stephanite2.GB.10Ag5SbS4
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Tintinaite2.HB.10aPb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
Ullmannite2.EB.25NiSbS
Group 3 - Halides
'Chlorargyrite'3.AA.15AgCl
'Fluorite'3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cassiterite'4.DB.05SnO2
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aurichalcite'5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Azurite'5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
var: Iceland Spar5.AB.05CaCO3
var: Manganoan Calcite5.AB.05(Ca,Mn)CO3
'Cerussite'5.AB.15PbCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Hydrozincite'5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anglesite'7.AD.35PbSO4
'Anhydrite'7.AD.30CaSO4
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Brochantite'7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
'Celestine'7.AD.35SrSO4
'Copiapite'7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Selenite7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Hydroniumjarosite'7.BC.10(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Conichalcite'8.BH.35CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Andradite'9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Bustamite'9.DG.05CaMn2+(Si2O6)
'Chrysocolla'9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
'Diopside'9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Grossular'9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
'Hedenbergite'9.DA.15CaFe2+Si2O6
'Hemimorphite'9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Ilvaite9.BE.07CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nontronite9.EC.40Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Palygorskite9.EE.20(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Zoisite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apophyllite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
K Feldspar-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Mercury1.1.7.1Hg
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Ullmannite2.12.3.3NiSbS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Pearceite3.1.8.1[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Polybasite3.1.7.2[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ø = 4
Stephanite3.2.4.1Ag5SbS4
3 <ø < 4
Nuffieldite3.3.4.1Cu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite3.4.1.2Ag3SbS3
2.5 < ø < 3
Boulangerite3.5.2.1Pb5Sb4S11
Cosalite3.5.9.1Pb2Bi2S5
2 < ø < 2.49
Jamesonite3.6.7.1Pb4FeSb6S14
Kobellite3.6.19.1Pb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Tintinaite3.6.19.2Pb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
ø = 2
Matildite3.7.1.1AgBiS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Conichalcite41.5.1.2CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Ilvaite56.2.3.3CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Zoisite58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Hedenbergite65.1.3a.2CaFe2+Si2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Bustamite65.2.1.2CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Nontronite71.3.1a.3Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Palygorskite74.3.1a.1(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Apophyllite'-
Calcite
var: Iceland Spar
-CaCO3
var: Manganoan Calcite-(Ca,Mn)CO3
'Chlorite Group'-
Gypsum
var: Selenite
-CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hydroniumjarosite-(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C Calcite (var: Iceland Spar)CaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Calcite (var: Manganoan Calcite)(Ca,Mn)CO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
O CalciteCaCO3
O CassiteriteSnO2
O CelestineSrSO4
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
O HematiteFe2O3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O Calcite (var: Iceland Spar)CaCO3
O IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Calcite (var: Manganoan Calcite)(Ca,Mn)CO3
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RutileTiO2
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
NaSodium
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SSulfur
S AcanthiteAg2S
S AnglesitePbSO4
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CelestineSrSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S CosalitePb2Bi2S5
S CovelliteCuS
S GalenaPbS
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
S KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MatilditeAgBiS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
S Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S StephaniteAg5SbS4
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
S UllmanniteNiSbS
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Ca Calcite (var: Iceland Spar)CaCO3
Ca IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
Ca Calcite (var: Manganoan Calcite)(Ca,Mn)CO3
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Mn Calcite (var: Manganoan Calcite)(Ca,Mn)CO3
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
Fe JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Fe KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
NiNickel
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni UllmanniteNiSbS
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Cu Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Cu Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
As Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag MatilditeAgBiS2
Ag Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Ag Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Ag SilverAg
Ag StephaniteAg5SbS4
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Sb KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Sb NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Sb Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Sb Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Sb PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Sb StephaniteAg5SbS4
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
Sb UllmanniteNiSbS
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
Hg MercuryHg
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Pb KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Bi KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Bi MatilditeAgBiS2
Bi NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Bi TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Cretaceous
100.5 - 145 Ma



ID: 2441292

Age: Early Cretaceous (100.5 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Limestone

Reference: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. Conjunto de Datos Vectoriales Geológicos. Continuo Nacional. Escala 1:1’000,000. [63]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Fisher, R.D. (2006): Die grössten Gipskristalle der Welt: "Crystal Cave of the Giants" in Naica, Mexiko. LAPIS 31 (11), 33-36. (in German)

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