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Matildite

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Formula:
AgBiS2
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Iron-black to gray
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Name:
From the type locality, the Matilda Mine, near Morococha, Peru.
Dimorph of:
Matildite Group.

Corresponds to the low-temperature (beta) form of synthetic AgBiS2.
The high-temperature (alpha) form is only stable above 195 +- 5°C (Wu, 1989).


Classification of Matildite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.JA.20

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb
3.7.1.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
7 : ø = 2
5.2.17

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
2 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Ag

Physical Properties of Matildite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Iron-black to gray
Streak:
Light gray
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
6.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.9 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Matildite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Colour in reflected light:
White
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Matildite

Formula:
AgBiS2
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Matildite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.12 Å, c = 19.02 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.342
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,086.06 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Rarely as indistinct prismatic crystals, striated [001]. Massive, granular.

Type Occurrence of Matildite

Relationship of Matildite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
2.JA.05eBenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12
2.JA.05gBorodaeviteAg5(Bi,Pb,Fe)8(Sb,Bi)2S17
2.JA.05aCupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5
2.JA.05aKitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
2.JA.05iLivingstoniteHgSb4S6(S2)
2.JA.05dMakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9
2.JA.05fMummeiteCu0.58Ag3.11Pb1.10Bi6.65S13
2.JA.05aPavoniteAgBi3S5
2.JA.05bGrumipluciteHgBi2S4
2.JA.05hMozgovaitePbBi4(S,Se)7
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18
2.JA.05cKudriavite(Cd,Pb)Bi2S4
2.JA.05aCupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38
2.JA.05DantopaiteCu1.06Ag4.24Pb0.9Bi12.23S21.89Te0.11
2.JA.10aCuprobismutiteCu8AgBi13S24
2.JA.10cHodrušiteCu8Bi12S22
2.JA.10ePadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22
2.JA.10dPizgrischite(Cu,Fe)Cu14PbBi17S35
2.JA.10bKupčíkiteCu3.4Fe0.6Bi5S10
2.JA.15SchapbachiteAg0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4S
2.JA.15CuboargyriteAgSbS2
2.JA.20BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2
2.JA.20VolynskiteAgBiTe2
5.2.1SmithiteAgAsS2
5.2.2TrechmanniteAgAsS2
5.2.3ProustiteAg3AsS3
5.2.4XanthoconiteAg3AsS3
5.2.5Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
5.2.6Pearceite-T2ac
5.2.7ArgentotennantiteAg6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
5.2.8MiargyriteAgSbS2
5.2.9PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
5.2.10PyrostilpniteAg3SbS3
5.2.11StephaniteAg5SbS4
5.2.12Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
5.2.13BillingsleyiteAg7AsS6
5.2.14Polybasite-Tac
5.2.15FreibergiteAg6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-x
5.2.16AramayoiteAg3Sb2(Bi,Sb)S6
5.2.18SchapbachiteAg0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4S
5.2.19PavoniteAgBi3S5
5.2.20ArcubisiteAg6CuBiS4
5.2.21BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2
5.2.22SelenostephaniteAg5Sb(Se,S)4
5.2.23Benleonardite[Ag6(Sb,As)2S6Te] [Ag9Cu(S,Te)2Te2]
5.2.24VolynskiteAgBiTe2

Other Names for Matildite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Matildite

Reference List:
Rammelsberg (1877) Zs. deutsche geol. Ges.: 29: 80.

Sandberger (1882): 1: 96 (as plenargyrite).

D'Achiardi, A. (1883) Matildite e scirmerite. I Metalli Loro Minerali e Miniere, Volume 1, Ulrico Hoepli (Milano): 136-137.

Genth, F.A. (1886) Contributions from the Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania, No. 24. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 23: 30-47. (as argentobismutite)

Ramdohr, P. (1936) Bleiglanz, Schapbachite, Matildite. Fortschritte der Mineralogie: 20: 56-57.

Foshag, W.F. (1937) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 22: 70-72.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 429.

Geller, S., Wernick, J.H. (1959) Ternary semiconducting compounds with sodium chloride-like structure: AgSbSe2, AgSbTe2, AgBiS2, AgBiSe2. Acta Crystallographica: 12: 46-54.

Harris, D.C., Thorpe, R.I. (1969) New observations on matildite. Canadian Mineralogist: 9: 655-662.

Scott, J.D. (1976) A microprobe-homogeneous intergrowth of galena and matildite from the Nipissing mine, Cobalt, Ontario. The Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 182-184.

Wu, D. (1989) Stability of matildite (AgBiS2) and Ag2Bi4S7 and phase relations in the system silver sulfide (Ag2S)-bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3). Kuangwu Xuebao: 9(2): 126-131. (in Chinese)

Bayliss, P. (1991) Crystal chemistry and crystallography of some minerals in the tetradymite group. American Mineralogist: 76: 257-265.

Shimizu, M., Kato, A., Matsuyama, F. (1998) Two Se-bearing Ag–Bi sulphosalts, benjaminite and matildite from the Ikuno Deposits, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan – Au–Ag mineralization in polymetallic Zone. Resource Geology: 48: 117-124.

Ondruš, P., Veselovský, F., Gabašová, A., Hloušek, J., Šrein, V., Vavrín, I., Skála, R., Sejkora, J., Drábek, M. (2003) Primary minerals of the Jáchymov ore district. Journal of the Czech Geological Society: 48: 19-147.

Damian, G. et al. (2008): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 185, 199-213.

Voronin, M.V., Osadchii, E.G. (2013) Properties of silver and bismuth sulfosalt minerals, pavonite (AgBi3S5) and matildite (AgBiS2) and implications for ore deposits. Economic Geology: 108: 1203-1210.

Internet Links for Matildite

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