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Matildite

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Formula:
AgBiS2
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Iron-black to gray
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Name:
From the type locality, the Matilda Mine, near Morococha, Peru.
Dimorph of:
Matildite Group.

Corresponds to the low-temperature (beta) form of synthetic AgBiS2.
The high-temperature (alpha) form is only stable above 195 +- 5°C (Wu, 1989).


Classification of Matildite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.JA.20

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb
3.7.1.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
7 : ø = 2
5.2.17

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
2 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Ag

Physical Properties of Matildite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Iron-black to gray
Streak:
Light gray
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
6.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.9 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Matildite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Colour in reflected light:
White
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Matildite

Formula:
AgBiS2
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Matildite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.12 Å, c = 19.02 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.342
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,086.06 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Rarely as indistinct prismatic crystals, striated [001]. Massive, granular.

Type Occurrence of Matildite

Relationship of Matildite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
2.JA.05eBenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12
2.JA.05gBorodaeviteAg4.83Fe0.21Pb0.45(Bi,Sb)8.84S16
2.JA.05aCupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5
2.JA.05aKitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
2.JA.05iLivingstoniteHgSb4S8
2.JA.05dMakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9
2.JA.05fMummeiteCu0.58Ag3.11Pb1.10Bi6.65S13
2.JA.05aPavoniteAgBi3S5
2.JA.05bGrumipluciteHgBi2S4
2.JA.05hMozgovaitePbBi4(S,Se)7
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18
2.JA.05cKudriavite(Cd,Pb)Bi2S4
2.JA.05aCupromakopavoniteCu8Ag3Pb4Bi19S38
2.JA.05DantopaiteAg5Bi13S22
2.JA.10aCuprobismutiteCu8AgBi13S24
2.JA.10cHodrušiteCu4Bi6S11
2.JA.10ePadĕraiteCu7(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33S22
2.JA.10dPizgrischite(Cu,Fe)Cu14PbBi17S34
2.JA.10bKupčíkiteCu3.4Fe0.6Bi5S10
2.JA.15SchapbachiteAg0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4S
2.JA.15CuboargyriteAgSbS2
2.JA.20BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2
2.JA.20VolynskiteAgBiTe2
5.2.1SmithiteAgAsS2
5.2.2TrechmanniteAgAsS2
5.2.3ProustiteAg3AsS3
5.2.4XanthoconiteAg3AsS3
5.2.5Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
5.2.6Pearceite-T2ac
5.2.7ArgentotennantiteAg6Cu4(Fe,Zn)2As4S13
5.2.8MiargyriteAgSbS2
5.2.9PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
5.2.10PyrostilpniteAg3SbS3
5.2.11StephaniteAg5SbS4
5.2.12PolybasiteCu(Ag,Cu)6Ag9Sb2S11
5.2.13BillingsleyiteAg7AsS6
5.2.14Polybasite-Tac
5.2.15FreibergiteAg6Cu4Fe2Sb4S13-x
5.2.16AramayoiteAg3Sb2(Bi,Sb)S6
5.2.18SchapbachiteAg0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4S
5.2.19PavoniteAgBi3S5
5.2.20ArcubisiteAg6CuBiS4
5.2.21BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2
5.2.22SelenostephaniteAg5Sb(Se,S)4
5.2.23BenleonarditeAg15Cu(Sb,As)2S7Te4
5.2.24VolynskiteAgBiTe2

Other Names for Matildite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Matildite

Reference List:
Rammelsberg (1877) Zs. deutsche geol. Ges.: 29: 80.

Sandberger (1882): 1: 96 (as plenargyrite).

D'Achiardi (1883): 1: 136.

Genth (1885), American Philosophical Society, Proceedings: 23: 35.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 429.

D. C. Harris and R. I. Thorpe (1969): New observations on matildite. Can. Mineral. 9, 655-662.

Harris, D. C. & Thorpe, R. I. (1969): New observations on matildite. Canadian Mineralogist 9, 655-662.

Wu, D. (1989): Stability of matildite (AgBiS2) and Ag2Bi4S7 and phase relations in the system silver sulfide (Ag2S)-bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3). Kuangwu Xuebao 9 (2), 126-131 (in Chinese).

Bayliss, P. (1991): Crystal chemistry and crystallography of some minerals in the tetradymite group. American Mineralogist 76, 257-265.

Shimizu, M., Kato, A., & Matsuyama, F. (1998): Two Se-bearing Ag–Bi sulphosalts, benjaminite and matildite from the Ikuno Deposits, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan – Au–Ag mineralization in polymetallic Zone. Resource Geology, 48, 117-124.

Damian, G. et al. (2008): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 185, 199-213.

Voronin, M. V. & Osadchii, E. G. (2013): Properties of silver and bismuth sulfosalt minerals, pavonite (AgBi3S5) and matildite (AgBiS2) and implications for ore deposits. Economic Geology, 108, 1203-1210.

Internet Links for Matildite

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Localities for Matildite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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