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Rutile

This page kindly sponsored by Dawn Markus
Formula:
TiO2
Colour:
Blood red, brownish yellow, brown-red, yellow, greyish-black, black, brown, bluish or violet
Lustre:
Adamantine, Metallic
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
4.23
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1800 by Abraham Gottlob Werner from the Latin "rutilus", meaning "reddish."
The most common member of the Rutile Group.

Rutile is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide found in nature.

Sellaite (magnesium fluoride, MgF2) also has a rutile-type structure.

Compare 'UM1987-04-O:Ti'.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Rutile.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of RutileHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
4.4.1.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.9.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of RutileHide

Adamantine, Metallic
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Blood red, brownish yellow, brown-red, yellow, greyish-black, black, brown, bluish or violet
Streak:
Greyish black, pale brown, light yellow
Hardness:
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=894 - 974 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{110} distinct, {100} less distinct; and, {111} in traces.
Parting:
On {092} due to twin gliding; also on {011}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.23(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    4.25 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of RutileHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.605 - 2.613 nε = 2.899 - 2.901
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.294
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Dispersion:
Strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Shades of red, brown, yellow and green.

Chemical Properties of RutileHide

Formula:
TiO2
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ta,Nb,Cr,V,Sn

Age informationHide

Age range:
Neoarchean to Carboniferous : 2665 Ma to 336.3 ± 0.8 Ma - based on data given below.
Sample ages:
Sample IDRecorded ageGeologic TimeDating method
1336.3 ± 0.8 MaMississippianPb-Pb
2507.9717 to 504.4283 MaCambrian Series 3U-Pb
3514.07244 to 512.32756 MaCambrian Series 2U-Pb
4517.56468 to 513.23532 MaCambrian Series 2U-Pb
5529.32 to 526.68 MaTerreneuvianU-Pb
61538 ± 37 MaCalymmianU-Pb
72098 ± 7 MaRhyacianPb/Pb
82217.5 MaRhyacianU-Pb
92223 to 2211 MaRhyacianU-Pb
102612 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
112630 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
122632 ± 5 MaNeoarcheanU-Pb
132632 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
142634 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
152635 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
162638 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
172641 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
182643 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
192652 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
202665 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Dražice, Tábor, South Bohemia Region, Bohemia, Czech RepublicJanousek, V., & Gerdes, A. (2003) Timing the magmatic activity within the Central Bohemian Pluton, Czech Republic: conventional U-Pb ages for the Sázava and Tábor intrusions and their geotectonic significance. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 48(1-2), 70-71.
2Musoshi Mine, Musoshi, Katanga Copper Crescent, Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)Richards, J. P., Krogh, T. E., & Spooner, E. T. C. (1988) Fluid inclusion characteristics and U-Pb rutile age of late hydrothermal alteration and veining at the Musoshi stratiform copper deposit, Central African copper belt, Zaire. Economic Geology, 83(1), 118-139.
3  "  "  "  "
4  "  "  "  "
5  "  "  "  "
6Ernest Henry Cu-Au deposit, Cloncurry, Cloncurry Shire, Queensland, AustraliaFoster, A. R., Williams, P. J., & Ryan, C. G. (2007). Distribution of gold in hypogene ore at the Ernest Henry iron oxide copper-gold deposit, Cloncurry District, NW Queensland. Exploration and Mining Geology, 16(3-4), 125-143.
7Ashanti gold belt, Western Region, GhanaOberthür, T., Vetter, U., Davis, D. W., & Amanor, J. A. (1998). Age constraints on gold mineralization and Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution in the Ashanti belt of southern Ghana. Precambrian Research, 89(3), 129-143.
8Cobalt-Gowganda region, Timiskaming District, Ontario, CanadaMarshall D, Watkinson D H (2000) The Cobalt Mining District: Silver Sources, Transport and Deposition, Exploration and Mining Geology, 9, 81-90 
9Castle Mine, Haultain Township, Gowganda area, Cobalt-Gowganda region, Timiskaming District, Ontario, CanadaCorfu, F., & Andrews, A. J. (1986) A U-Pb age for mineralized Nipissing diabase, Gowganda, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 23(1), 107-109.
10Hemlo gold deposit, Bomby Township, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, CanadaCorfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-275
11  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-280
12  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-246
13  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-292
14  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-283
15  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-286
16  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-270
17  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-289
18  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-273
19  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-272
20  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-288

Crystallography of RutileHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P42/mnm
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.5937 Å, c = 2.9587 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.644
Unit Cell V:
62.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Commonly prismatic, often slender to acicular [001]. Prism zone vertically striated or furrowed. Usually terminated by {101} or {111}; {001} rare. Rarely pyramidal. Granular massive.
Twinning:
On {011} common. Often geniculated; also contact twins of very varied habit. Sixlings and eightlings at times, occasionally polysynthetic. The twins are sometimes distorted by extension of a pair of faces on {011}. Twin gliding observed on this plane as well. Also on {031}, rare. On {092}, as twin gliding plane.

Crystallographic forms of RutileHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Rutile no.26 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.52 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.62 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.107 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of RutileHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
HematiteFe2O3
BrookiteTiO2
AnataseTiO2
Epitaxy Comments:
Oriented microscopic needles of rutile are frequently observed in corundum, pseudobrookite, phlogopite, and quartz.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of RutileHide

Synonyms of RutileHide

Other Language Names for RutileHide

Varieties of RutileHide

Ferrian Antimonian RutileAn Fe,Sb-variety of rutile, reported from Yadovitaya fumarole, Tolbachik volcano, Russia.
Gel-RutileOne of the constituents of Leucoxene pseudomorps.
IlmenorutileA Nb-bearing Rutile (see also Niobian Rutile); compare also the Ta-bearing variety "strüverite".
Iserite (of Janovsky)Doubtful variety
LusteriteTrade name for artificial rutile.
NigrineAn iron-rich variety of rutile, or an intimate intergrowth of rutile and ilmenite
Niobian Chromian RutileNb-V-enriched variety from DeBeers mine (kimberlites), associated, i.a., with hawthorneite.
Niobian RutileSee also ilmenorutile.
Sagenite (of Saussure)The original definition of the name Sagenite was made by Horace Bénédict de Saussure in 1796.
StrüveriteA Ta- and Fe-bearing variety of rutile.
Compare also ilmenorutile.

Relationship of Rutile to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
ParatelluriteTeO2Tet.
PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
StishoviteSiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4Tet.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hematite843 photos of Rutile associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Quartz751 photos of Rutile associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Anatase336 photos of Rutile associated with Anatase on mindat.org.
Muscovite104 photos of Rutile associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Brookite103 photos of Rutile associated with Brookite on mindat.org.
Calcite102 photos of Rutile associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Ilmenite80 photos of Rutile associated with Ilmenite on mindat.org.
Siderite71 photos of Rutile associated with Siderite on mindat.org.
Chlorite Group65 photos of Rutile associated with Chlorite Group on mindat.org.
Smoky Quartz55 photos of Rutile associated with Smoky Quartz on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4Tet.
4.DB.05TugarinoviteMoO2Mon.
4.DB.05Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10OrdoñeziteZnSb2O6Tet.
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.DB.15cNsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
4.DB.15aParamontroseiteV4+O2Orth.
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.20Scrutinyiteα-PbO2Orth.
4.DB.25IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8Mon.
4.DB.25Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8Orth.
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)Y(U4+,Fe2+)Nb2O8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe3+,Y)2(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O8Mon.
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30HübneriteMnWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.30KrasnoselskiteCoWO4Mon.
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4Mon. 2/m
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)FeTa2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6Orth.
4.DB.35Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10Orth.
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.40FerrowodginiteFe2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
4.DB.40LithiotantiteLiTa3O8Mon.
4.DB.40LithiowodginiteLiTa3O8Mon.
4.DB.40TitanowodginiteMn2+TiTa2O8Mon.
4.DB.40WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
4.DB.40FerrotitanowodginiteFe2+TiTa2O8Mon.
4.DB.40WolframowodginiteMn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DB.45TivaniteV3+TiO3(OH)Mon.
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.60Biehlite((Sb,As)O)2[MoO4]Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.4.1.2IlmenorutileFex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2Tet.
4.4.1.3Strüverite(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
4.4.1.4PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.5CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.6PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.4.1.7ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.9StishoviteSiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.3AnataseTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2Orth.
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19Hex.
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6Amor.
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe2TiO4Iso.
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16Mon.
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10Hex.
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16Tet.
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13Mon.
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Rutile in petrologyHide

Common component of (items highlighted in red)
Accessory component of (items highlighted in red)

References for RutileHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Miller (1840) Phil. Mag.: 17: 268.
Hidden, W.E. (1888) On edisonite, a fourth form of titanic acid. American Journal of Science: 36: 272.
Prior, G.T., Zambonini, F.Dr. (1908) On Strüverite and Its Relation to Ilmenorutile. Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 78-89.
Lacroix (1912) Bull. soc. min.: 35: 185.
Ungemach (1916) Bull. soc. min.: 39: 5.
Gliszczynski, S. (1940) Die struktur-geometrische Deutung der Rutil-, Anatas- und Brookitzwillinge. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. Abt. A.: Mineralogie und Petrographie: 9: 181.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 554-561.
Meagher, E.P., Lager, G.A. (1979) Polyhedral thermal expansion in the TiO2 polymorphs; refinement of the crystal structures of rutile and brookite at high temperature. The Canadian Mineralogist: 17: 77-85.
Foord, E.E., Chirnside, W., Davis, A.M., Lichte, F.E., Esposito, K.J. (1995) A new U–Ti–Ca–HREE hydrated oxide and associated niobian rutile from Topaz Valley, Utah. Mineralogical Record: 26: 122-128.
Smith, D.C., Perseil, E.-A. (1997) Sb-rich rutile in the manganese concentrations at St. Marcel-Praborna, Aosta Valley, Italy: petrology and crystal-chemistry. Mineralogical Magazine: 61: 655-669.
Maldener, J., Rauch, F., Gavranic, M., Beran, A. (2001) OH absorption coefficients of rutile and cassiterite deduced from nuclear reaction analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Mineralogy and Petrology: 71: 21-29.
Withers, A.C., Essene, E.J., Zhang, Y. (2003) Rutile/TiO2 II phase equilibria. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 145: 199-204.
Bauer, W.H. (2007) The rutile type and its derivatives. Crystallography Reviews: 13: 65-113.
Rečnik, A., Stanković, N., Daneu, N. (2015) Topotaxial reactions during the genesis of oriented rutile/hematite intergrowths from Mwinilunga (Zambia). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 169: 19. http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00410-015-1107-x.pdf
Emma Hart, Craig Storey, Emilie Bruand, Hans-Peter Schertl, Bruce D. Alexander (2016): Mineral inclusions in rutile: A novel recorder of HP-UHP metamorphism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 446, 137–148. [open access]

Internet Links for RutileHide

Localities for RutileHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow