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Emerald mines (incl. Gebel Zabara; Wadi Abu Rusheid; Wadi Gimal; Wadi Sikait; Wadi Umm Debaa; Wadi Umm Kabu), Sikait-Zabara region, Eastern Desert, Red Sea, Egypti
Regional Level Types
Emerald mines (incl. Gebel Zabara; Wadi Abu Rusheid; Wadi Gimal; Wadi Sikait; Wadi Umm Debaa; Wadi Umm Kabu)Group of Mines
Sikait-Zabara regionRegion
Eastern DesertDesert
Red SeaGovernorate
EgyptCountry

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Key
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Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 24° 37' North , 34° 45' East (est.)
Margin of Error:~0km
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate


Ancient emerald mines (2000 B.C. - 1200 A.D.). Rediscovered in the fall of 1817 by French adventurer F. Cailliaud. Egypt was the source of almost all emeralds in ancient times. Found in and at the contact of pegmatitic quartz veins traversing mica and talc schists. Thousands of open pits and underground workings.

Detailed microstructural and chemical analyses of the Egyptian emeralds and their host rocks show that three generations of beryl can be distinguished: a colourless pegmatitic beryl; a pale green Cr-poor beryl crystallized from pegmatite-related hydrothermal fluids; and a deep green Cr- and Mg-rich emerald. The crystallization of the Cr- and Mg-rich emerald was controlled by the very local availability of Cr, Mg and Be-rich metamorphic fluids during the Pan-African tectono-thermal event. Emerald-rich quartz lenses demonstrate that those fluids locally did mobilize quartz, too. The pale green emeralds found within the pegmatites in association with colourless beryl are the product of a mobilization of colourless pegmatitic beryl and/or phenakite by late pegmatitic fluids slightly enriched in Cr by an interaction with the Cr-rich country rocks. The late pegmatitic fluids are typically Na-rich as is demonstrated by the pervasive albitization of the pegmatites (Grundmann & Morteani, 2008).

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate
Sahara Desert, North AfricaDesert

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

22 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008): Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 2, 168-187.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Apatite'
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35; Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008): Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 2, 168-187.
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35; Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008): Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 2, 168-187.
'Biotite'
Reference: Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008): Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 2, 168-187.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Von Knorring & Fadipe (1981): On the mineralogy and geochemistry of niobium and tantalum in some granite pegmatites and alkali granites of Africa. Bull.Minéral.104, 496-507
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35; Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008): Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 2, 168-187.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Rutile var: Ilmenorutile
Formula: Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35; Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008): Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 2, 168-187.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262.
Uranophane
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.
Zincite
Formula: ZnO
Reference: Ibrahim, M. E., Saleh, G. M., Dawood, N. A., & Aly, G. M. (2013). Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 2(4), 74-86.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Ilmenorutile4.DB.05Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Zincite4.AB.20ZnO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Uranophane9.AK.15Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX
Zincite4.2.2.1ZnO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
var: Ilmenorutile4.4.1.2Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 53 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions or Complex Cations
Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions of Complex Cations with (UO2)
Uranophane53.3.1.2Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-
Beryl
var: Emerald
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C GraphiteC
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
O ZinciteZnO
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
PPhosphorus
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
TiTitanium
Ti Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
NiNickel
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CuCopper
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Zn ZinciteZnO
NbNiobium
Nb Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
TaTantalum
Ta Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
AuGold
Au GoldAu
UUranium
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
U UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Cailliaud, F. [redigé et publié par M. Jomard] (1821): Voyage à l'oasis de Thèbes et dans le déserts situés à l'orient et à l'occident de la Thébaïde, fait pendent les années 1815, 1816, 1817 et 1818. Imprimerie royale, Paris, xvii + 120 pp.
Cailliaud, F. [edited by M. Jomard] (1822): Travels in the oasis of Thebes, and the deserts situated east and west of the Thebiad in the years 1815, 16, 17, and 18 [translated from the French]. Printed for Sir Richard Phillips & Co., London, xii + 72 pp. + 18 leaves of plates (1 fold.).
Arzruni, A. (1892): Vergleichende Untersuchung der Smaragde von Alexandrien, vom Gebel Sabara und vom Ural. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 24, 2, 91-100.
Floyer, E.A. (1892): The mines of the Northern Etbai or of Northern Aethiopia. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 811-833.
Schneider, O., Arzruni, A. (1892): Der Aegyptische Smaragd. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 24, 2, 41-91.
MacAlister, D. A. (1900): The emerald mines of northern Etbai. Geographical Journal of London, 16, 537-549.
Claremont, L. (1913): Prehistoric emerald mines. Knowledge Magazine, 36, (April), 124-127.
Hume, W.F. (1934): Geology of Egypt. Volume II, Part I. Survey of Egypt (later Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority), Cairo, 300 p.
Basta, E.Z., Zaki, M. (1961): Geology and mineralisation of Wadi Sikeit area, South-Eastern Desert. Journal of Geology of the United Arab Republic (later Egyptian Journal of Geology), 5, 1, 1-36.
El Shazly, E.M., Hassan, M.A. (1972): Geology and radioactive mineralisation at Wadi Sikait-Wadi El Gemal area, Eastern Desert. Egyptian Journal of Geology, 16, 2, 201-234.
Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262.
Cavenago-Bignami Moneta, S. (1980): Gemmologia : pietre preziose, ornamentali, perle, coralli, avorio, tartaruga, sintesi, imitazioni. Quarta edizione riveduta, aggiornata ed aumentata. Hoepli, Milano, 1734 pp.
Soliman, M.M. (1986): Ancient emerald mines and beryllium mineralization associated with Precambrian stanniferous granites in the Nugrus-Zabara area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 4, 2, 529-548.
Grubessi, O., Aurisicchio, C., Castiglioni, A. (1990): The pharaoh’s forgotten emerald mines. Journal of Gemmology, 22, 3, 164-177.
Hassan, M.A., Hashad, A.H. (1990): Precambrian of Egypt, in Said, R. (ed.), The Geology of Egypt. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pages 201-245.
Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (1993): Smaragdminen der Cleopatra: Zabara, Sikait und Umm Kabo in Ägypten. Lapis, 18, 7/8, 27-39.
Jennings, R.H., Kammerling, R.C., Kovaltchouk, A., Calderon, C.P., El Baz, M.K., Koivula, J.I. (1993): Emeralds and green beryls of Upper Egypt. Gems & Gemology, 29, 2, 100-115.
Giuliani, G., France-Lanord, C., Coget, P., Schwarz, D., Cheilletz, A., Branquet, Y., Giard, D., Martin-Izard, A., Alexandrov, P., Piat, D.H. (1998): Oxygen isotope systematics of emerald – relevance for its origin and geological significance. Mineralium Deposita, 33, 513-519.
Abdalla, H.M., Mohamed, F.H. (1999): Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of emerald and beryl mineralization, Pan-African Belt of Egypt – genetic and exploration aspects. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28, 3, 581-598.
Symes, R.F., Harding, R.R. (1999): Eyewitness Guides, Crystal & gem.
Giuliani, G. (2001): L’exploitation des mines d’emeraude d’Autriche et de la Haute Egypte à l’Epoque Gallo-Romaine; mythe ou réalité? Revue de Gemmologie, 143, 20-24.
Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragd-Vorkommen der Welt. ExtraLapis, 21, 26-37.
Rivard, J-L., Foster, B.C., Sidebotham, S.E. (2002): Emerald City. Archaeology, 55, 3, 36-41.
Harrell, J.A. (2004): Archaeological geology of the world’s first emerald mine. Geoscience Canada, 31, 2, 69-76.
Harrell, J.A. (2006): Archaeological geology of Wadi Sikait. Journal of Archaeology of Egypt, 4, 1, 1-12.
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., Turner, D. (2008): Emerald deposits and occurrences: A review. Ore Geology Reviews, 34, 87-112.
Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008): Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 2, 168-187.
Wagenplast, P. (2011): Antiker Smaragdabbau am Roten Meer. Aufschluss, 62, 363-368.

Localities in this Region
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  • Red Sea
    • Eastern Desert
      • Sikait-Zabara region
        • Emerald mines (incl. Gebel Zabara; Wadi Abu Rusheid; Wadi Gimal; Wadi Sikait; Wadi Umm Debaa; Wadi Umm Kabu)

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