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Pyroxene Group

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About Pyroxene GroupHide

Named in 1796 by Rene Just Haüy from the Greek words for fire (πυρ) and stranger (ξένος). Pyroxene was named because of its presence in a glassy or vitreous lava. Pyroxene was believed to be an impurity in the glass, and therefore a "stranger to fire" and not formed by the action of heat. Pyroxene was originally what might now be called "augite", but the name has been raised as a group name of structurally and chemically similar minerals.
A large group of inosilicate (chain silicate) minerals with the general formula ABSi2O6.
It is divided into the Clinopyroxene Subgroup (monoclinic) and the Orthopyroxene Subgroup (orthorhombic).

The most recent nomenclature is given by Morimoto (1988, 1989).

Synonyms of Pyroxene GroupHide

Other Language Names for Pyroxene GroupHide

Simplified Chinese:辉石族

Varieties of Pyroxene GroupHide

Al-pyroxeneVariety of Pyroxene with 25% of tetrahedrally coordinated sites occupied by Al.
Originally described from Oka complex, Oka, Deux-Montagnes Co., Québec, Canada.
Fe-rich pyroxeneA petrological description for iron-rich pyroxene. Usually, but not always, this indicates hedenbergite.

Relationship of Pyroxene Group to other SpeciesHide

Group Members:
Clinopyroxene Subgroup 
  Aegirine NaFe3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Aegirine-augite (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Augite (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Burnettite CaVAlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Clinoenstatite MgSiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
  Clinoferrosilite Fe2+SiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
  Davisite CaScAlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Diopside CaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Esseneite CaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Grossmanite CaTi3+ AlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Hedenbergite CaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Jadeite Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6Mon.
  Jervisite NaSc3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Johannsenite CaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Kanoite Mn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
  Kosmochlor NaCrSi2O6Mon.
  Kushiroite CaAl[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  Namansilite NaMn3+Si2O6Mon.
  Natalyite NaV3+Si2O6Mon.
  Omphacite (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m
  Petedunnite Ca(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
  Pigeonite (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
  Spodumene LiAlSi2O6Mon.
  Tissintite (Ca,Na,□)AlSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  UM2001-19-SiO:AlCaMgNa (Na,Mg,Ca)(Mg,Al)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
  UM2003-36-SiO:CaNa NaCrSi2O6 - CaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Orthopyroxene Subgroup 
  Donpeacorite (Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2Orth.
  Enstatite Mg2Si2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
  Ferrosilite FeSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
  Protoenstatite Mg2Si2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Pyroxene Group in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for Pyroxene GroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Winchell, A.N. (1923) Studies in the pyroxene group. American Journal of Science, 5th Series: 6: 504 [M.A. 2-219].
Wyckoff, R.W.G., Merwin, H.E., and Washington, H.S. (1925) X-ray diffraction measurements upon the pyroxenes. American Journal of Science, 5th. Series: 10: 383-397.
Segnit, E.R. (1953) Some data on synthetic aluminous and other pyroxenes. Mineralogical Magazine: 30(223): 218-226.
Edgar, A.D., Mottana, A., and MacRae, N.D. (1969) The chemistry and cell parameters of omphacite and related pyroxenes. Mineralogical Magazine: 37: 61-74.
Fleet, M.E. (1974) Mg,Fe 2+ site occupancies in coexisting pyroxenes. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 47: 207-214.
Reid, A.M., Brown, R.W., Dawson, J.B., Whitfield, G.G., and Siebert, J.C. (1976) Garnet and pyroxene compositions in some diamondiferous eclogites. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 58: 203-220.
Arndt, N.T. and Fleet, M.E. (1979) Stable and metastable pyroxene crystallization in layered komatiite lava flows. American Mineralogist: 64: 856-864.
Cameron, M. and Papike, J.J. (1981) Structural and chemical variations in pyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 66: 1-50.
Watanabe, S., Kitamura, M., and Morimoto, N. (1985) A transmission electron microscope study of pyroxene chondrules in equilibrated L-group chondrites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 72: 87-98.
Morimoto, N., Fabries, J., Ferguson, A.K., Ginzburg, I.V., Ross, M., Seifert, F.A., Zussman, J., Aoki, K., and Gottardi, G. (1988) Nomenclature of Pyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 73: 1123-1133.
Morimoto, N. (1989) Nomenclature of pyroxenes. The Canadian Mineralogist: 27: 143-156.
Brizi, E. and Mellini, M. (1992) Kinetical modelling of exsolution textures in igneous pyroxenes. Acta Vulcanologica: 2: 87-93.
Bell, D.R., Ihinger, P.D., and Rossman, G.R. (1995) Quantitative analysis of trace OH in garnet and pyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 80: 465-474.
Wodland, A.B. (1998) The orthorhombic to high-P monoclinic phase transition in Mg-Fe pyroxenes. Can it produce a seismic discontinuity? Geophysical Research Letters: 25: 1241-1244.
Papike, J.J., Karner, J.M., and Shearer, C.K. (2005) Comparative planetary mineralogy: Valence-state partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti and V among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel from planetary basalts. American Mineralogist: 90: 277-290.
Nespolo, M., Aroyo, M.I. (2016) The modular structure of pyroxenes. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28: 189-203.
Hawthorne, F.C. (2016) Short-range atomic arrangements in minerals. I: The minerals of the amphibole, tourmaline and pyroxene supergroups. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28: 513-536.

Internet Links for Pyroxene GroupHide

Significant localities for Pyroxene GroupHide

Showing 61 significant localities out of 17,907 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Badakhshan
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
[Diopside] Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
[Kushiroite] Makoto Kimura, Takashi Mikouchi, Akio Suzuki, Masaaki Miyahara, Eiji Ohtani, and Ahmed El Goresy (2009): Kushiroite, CaAlAlSiO6: A new mineral of the pyroxene group from the ALH 85085 CH chondrite, and its genetic significance in refractory inclusions. American Mineralogist, 94, 1479-1482.
  • Carinthia
    • Wolfsberg District
      • Frantschach-Sankt Gertraud
        • Brandrücken
[Spodumene] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Tyrol
    • Schwaz District
      • Mayrhofen
[Diopside] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagesrtääten Österreichs (1993)
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
[Hedenbergite] Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec Hudon, Pierre; Friedman, Richard M.; Gauthier, Gilles; Martignole, Jacques Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43, issue 9, pp. 1237-1249 Olivier Langelier Collection
  • Fujian
    • Fuzhou
      • Jin'an District
        • Kuai'an
[Aegirine] Suwa, K., Enami, M., Hiraiwa, I., and Yang, T. (1987): Mineralogy and Petrology 36, 111-120; Wenkui Wang, Shanrong Zhao, and Xinxi Niu (1990): Geology of Fujian 9(1)
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
[Esseneite] Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58 Kruszewski, Ł., Gatel, P., Thiéry, V., Moszumańska, I., and Kusy, D. (2018) Crystallochemical Behavior of Slag Minerals and the Occurrence of Potentially New Mineral Species from Lapanouse-de-Sévérac, France. In: Stracher, G.B. (Ed.) Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Vol. 5: Case Studies - Advances in Field and Laboratory Research, xx-xx (in press; publication date: November 2018).
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
[Esseneite] Favreau G., Meisser N., Chiappero P.J. (2004), Saint-Maime (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence): un exemple de pyrométamorphisme en région provençale, n°3, pp: 59-92
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Franconia
      • Hof District
        • Stammbach
          • Weißenstein
[Omphacite] [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
  • Aosta Valley
    • Saint-Marcel
[Diopside var: Violan] August Breithaupt (1838) Journal Prackt. Chemie, 15:329
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
[Aegirine var: Fedorovite] Viola, Carlo Maria (1899) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen aus dem Hernikerlande in dem Provinz Rom (Italien). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie, und Paeleontologie: Band I: 93-137.
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Omegna
        • Agrano
[Jervisite] Mellini, M., Merlino, S., Orlandi, P., Rinaldi, R. (1982): Cascandite and jervisite, two new scandium silicates from Baveno, Italy. American Mineralogist, 67, 599-603.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
[Johannsenite] De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Recoaro Terme
[Johannsenite] De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.; Chiarantini, L., Gallo, F., Rimondi, V., Benvenuti, M., Costagliola, P., & Dini, A. (2015). Early Renaissance Production Recipes for Naples ellow Pigment: A Mineralogical and Lead Isotope Study of Italian Majolica from Montelupo (Florence). Archaeometry, 57(5), 879-896.
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Oshima Subprefecture
      • Futami District
        • Yakumo
          • Kumaishi
[Kanoite] Kobayashi, H. (1977): Kanoite, (Mn2+,Mg)2[Si2O6], a new clinopyroxene in the metamorphic rock from Tatehira, Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan. Chishitsugaku Zasshi 83, 537-542.; Tomohiro Morishita, Hiroharu Mastueda (2011) Mineral assemblage and genesis of the Tatehira manganese ore deposit, Southeast Hokkaido, Japan. Abstracts for Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences 2011 Session ID: R1-P22
  • Southern Region
    • Zomba
[Aegirine] [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Mineralogical Record (1997) 28:64; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.; Cairncross, B. (2002). Aegirine and Associated Minerals from Mount Malosa, Malawi. Rocks & Minerals, 77(1), 31-37.
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
[Grossmanite] American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1483–1486, 2009; Ma, C., Paque, J., & Tschauner, O. (2016, March). Discovery of Beckettite, Ca2V6Al6O20, a New Alteration Mineral in a V-Rich Ca-Al-Rich Inclusion from Allende. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 47, p. 1704).
  • Mexico
    • Jiquipilco (Xiquipilco)
[Kosmochlor] Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Laspeyres, H. 1897 Die steinigen Gemengtheile im Meteoreisen von Toluca in Mexico. Z. Kristallogr. Kristallgeom. 27, 586-600.
  • Souss-Massa Region
    • Tata Province
[Tissintite] Ma, C., Liu, Y. and Tschauner, O. (2013) Tissintite, IMA 2013-027. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2707; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709; Ma, C., Tschauner, O., Beckett, J.R., Liu, Y., Rossman, G.R., Zhuravlev, K., Prakapenka, V., Dera, P., Taylor, L.A. (2015): Tissintite, (Ca, Na, □)AlSi2O6, a highly-defective, shock-induced, high-pressure clinopyroxene in the Tissint martian meteorite. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 422, 194-205
[Jadeite] Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris (1863) 56, 861.; Gübelin, E., Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel [in Dutch].
  • Buskerud
    • Øvre Eiker
[Aegirine] Strøm, P. (1821): Undersökning af ett nytt Fossil. Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, 160-163; Berzelius, J. (1821): Tillägg til föregående Afhandling. Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, 163-166; Möller, N.B. (1825a) : Achmit fra Eger. Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, 6, 174-181
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
[Aegirine] Berzelius, [J]. (1835): [without titel dated 13 jan. 1835]. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Gegnosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, 1835, 184-185 ; Murad E (2006) Mineralogy of aegirine from Låven Island, Langesundfjorden, southern Norway, Norwegian Journal of Geology, 86, 435-438
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Lake Baikal area
      • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
[Natalyite] ZVMO,(1985) 114, 630-635; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bosi, F., Reznitskii, L., Skogby, H., & Hålenius, U. (2014). Vanadio-oxy-chromium-dravite, NaV3 (Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3) 3 (OH) 3O, a new mineral species of the tourmaline supergroup. American Mineralogist, 99(5-6), 1155-1162.
  • Khabarovsk Krai
    • Taikan Ridge
      • Ir-Nimi manganese deposit
[Namansilite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
[Namansilite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Dalnegorsk Urban District
      • Dalnegorsk
[Hedenbergite] [MinRec 32:9]; Rogulina, L.I., and Sveshnikova, O.L. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 60-74.; Dobovol'skaya, M. G., Baskina, V. A., Balashova, S. P., Kenisarin, A. M., Arakelyants, M. M., Klimachev, L. A., & Muravitskaya, G. N. (1990). Order of Formation of the Ores and Mafic Dikes of the Nikolayevsk Deposit (Southern Primor'ye). International Geology Review, 32(4), 391-403.; Vasilenko, G.P. (2001) The Dalnegorsk Ore District. pp98-124 in Khanchuk, A.I., Gonevchuk, G.A. & Seltmann, R. (Eds) Metallogeny of the Pacific Northwest (Russian Far East): Tectonics, Magmatism and Metallogeny of Active Continental Margins. IAGOD Guidebook series 11, Dalnauka Publishing House, Vladivostok 2004, 176 p
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Asbest
[Diopside] [MinRec 32:41]; Antonov A.A. [Антонов А.А.] (2003): Mineralogy of rodingites of the Bazhenovsk ultrabasic massif [Минералогия родингитов Баженовского гипербазитого массива]. Nauka, Sankt-Peterburg, 129 pp. (in Russian).
  • Södermanland County
    • Nyköping
      • Tunaberg
        • Tunaberg Cu-Co Ore Field
[Hedenbergite] Hedenberg, A.L. in Afhandlingar i Fysic, Kemi och Mineralogi. Utgifne af W. Hisinger och J. Berzelius. (Stockholm, 1806-18),Vol 2, p. 164; Berzelius, J.J. (1819): Nouveau Système de Minéralogie. A Paris, Chez Méquignon-Marvis, 1819. p.206
  • Stockholm County
    • Haninge
      • Utö
[Spodumene] d’Andrada, J. B. (1800): Der eigenschaften und kennzeichen einiger neuen fossilien aus Schweden und Norwegen nebst einigen chemischen bemerkungen ueber dieselben. Allgemeines Journal der Chemie 4, 28-39 ; Langhof, J., Jonson, E, Gustafsson, L. & Otter, B. (1998): Utö- en klassisk svensk mineralfyndort. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 14, 29-31
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
[Aegirine-augite var: Urbanite] Sjögren, H. (1894): Contributions to Swedish mineralogy. Bull. Geol. Inst. Univ. Upsala. 2 (3), 39-74.
[Hedenbergite] Flink, G. 1885 Öfversigt K. Vet.-Ak. Förh.
  • Västmanland County
    • Sala
[Diopside var: Salite] d’Andrada, J. B. (1800): Der eigenschaften und kennzeichen einiger neuen fossilien aus Schweden und Norwegen nebst einigen chemischen bemerkungen ueber dieselben. Allgemeines Journal der Chemie 4, 28-39
  • California
    • San Diego County
      • Warner Springs Mining District
        • Warner Springs
[Spodumene var: Kunzite] Larson, W. F. (2011), Personal collection of William F. Larson. On display at the Collector in Fallbrook, California.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
[Spodumene] Brush and Dana (1880); Shainin (1946); Cameron et al (1954) USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Canaan
        • Falls Village
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
      • New Milford
        • Boardman's Bridge
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
      • North Canaan
[Diopside] Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (1961), The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schairer, J. F. (1931), The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Hartford Connecticut Bulletin 51.
      • Torrington (Wolcottville)
[Diopside] Mike Polletta specimen
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
[Spodumene] Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
    • New Haven Co.
      • Orange
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
  • Maine
    • Oxford County
      • Newry
[Spodumene var: Kunzite] King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
  • Massachusetts
    • Essex Co.
      • Essex
[Aegirine] Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Huntington (Norwich)
[Spodumene] Emerson, Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597), p.257.
  • Minnesota
    • Cook Co.
[Pigeonite] A. N. Winchell ,Am. Geol.,26, 1900 p. 203.; Am Min 16:195-208
  • Montana
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Libby Mining District (Snowshoe Mining District)
        • Libby
[Aegirine var: Vanadian Aegirine] Larsen, E. S. & Hunt, W.F. (1913) Two vanadiferous aegirites from Libby, Montana American Journal of Science. 36: 290- 296
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
[Hedenbergite] Van King
[Johannsenite] Schaller, W.T.: Am.Min.:23:575-582 (1938); Dunn(1995):Pt3:434-435.
[Petedunnite] Essene, E.J. and Peacor, D.R. (1987) Petedunnite (CaZnSi2O6), a new zinc clinopyroxene from Franklin, New Jersey, and phase equilibria for zincian pyroxenes. American Mineralogist (1987): 72: 157-166; Dunn, Pete J. (1995): Franklin and Sterling Hill New Jersey: the world's most magnificent mineral deposits, Part 3: 436.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
[Augite] Dunn(1995):Pt3:432.; Leavens, P. B., Zullo, J., & Verbeek, E. (2009). A complex, genthelvite-bearing skarn from the Passaic pit, Sterling Hill mine, Ogdensburg, New Jersey. Axis, 5, 26.
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc Mining District
        • Balmat
[Donpeacorite] Fleischer's Glossary of Mineral Species 2004; Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483; Peterson, E.U., Anovitz, L.M., Essene, E.J. (1984) Donpeacorite, (Mn,Mg)MgSi2O6 a new orthopyroxene and its proposed phase relations in the system MnSiO3-MgSiO3-FeSiO3. American Mineralogist: 69: 472-480.
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain Mining District
[Spodumene] Jan H.Bernard and Jaroslav Hyrsl,2004,Minerals and their Localities,pg # 567; Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
  • Oregon
    • Lake Co.
      • Plush
[Protoenstatite] Xu, H. and Hill, T.R. (2017) Protoenstatite, IMA 2016-117. CNMNC Newsletter No. 37, June 2017, page 738; Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 737–742.; Xu, H., Hill, T.R., Konishi, H., Farfan, G. (2017): Protoenstatite: A new mineral in Oregon sunstones with “watermelon” colors. American Mineralogist, 102, 2146-2149
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone Mining District
        • Keystone
[Spodumene] Hess, F.L. (1909) Contributions to economic geology, 1908, Part I, Metals and nonmetals except fuels--Rare Metals. USGS Bulletin 380D.; Norton, James J. (1964) Pegmatites and other Precambrian Rocks in the Southern Black Hills; Geology and mineral deposits of some pegmatites in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. USGS Professional Paper 297E.; Mason, A. (1976) The world of Rocks and Minerals. New York, N.Y., Larousse & Co., 108 pages.; U.S. Geological Survey (2005) Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Rocks & Minerals: 57: 160 &/or 60: 110 & 112.
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Golden Horn Batholith
[Aegirine] MinRec 14:51; Rocks and Minerals 66:6, p453; Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.49
    • Snohomish Co.
      • Sultan Mining District
        • Sultan Basin
[Hedenbergite] Rocks & Minerals (1991) 66:478-484
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Reno Junction
[Esseneite] Am.Min. 72 (1987), 148; Lee, S., Xu, H., Xu, H., Jacobs, R., Morgan, D. (2019) Valleyite: A new magnetic mineral with the sodalite-type structure. American Mineralogist: 140(9): 1238-1245.
    • Park Co.
[Clinoferrosilite] Amer.J.Sci.(1935) ser. 4, 30, 481-494
Mineral and/or Locality  
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