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Pyroxene Group

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Named in 1796 by Rene Just Haüy from the Greek words for fire (πυρ) and stranger (ξένος). Pyroxene was named because of its presence in a glassy or vitreous lava. Pyroxene was believed to be an impurity in the glass, and therefore a "stranger to fire" and not formed by the action of heat. Pyroxene was originally what might now be called "augite", but the name has been raised as a group name of structurally and chemically similar minerals.
A large group of inosilicate (chain silicate) minerals with the general formula ABSi2O6.
It is divided into the Clinopyroxene Subgroup (monoclinic) and the Orthopyroxene Subgroup (orthorhombic).

The most recent nomenclature is given by Morimoto (1988, 1989).

Classification of Pyroxene Group

Relationship of Pyroxene Group to other Species

Group Members:
Clinopyroxene Subgroup 
  Aegirine NaFe3+Si2O6
  Aegirine-augite (Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg,Al)Si2O6
  Augite (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
  Clinoenstatite MgSiO3
  Clinoferrosilite Fe2+SiO3
  Diopside CaMgSi2O6
  Esseneite CaFe3+[AlSiO6]
  Hedenbergite CaFe2+Si2O6
  Jadeite Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
  Jervisite (Na,Ca,Fe2+)(Sc,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
  Johannsenite CaMn2+Si2O6
  Kanoite Mn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6
  Kosmochlor NaCrSi2O6
  Kushiroite CaAl[AlSiO6]
  Namansilite NaMn3+Si2O6
  Natalyite NaV3+Si2O6
  Omphacite (Ca,Na)(Mg,Al)Si2O6
  Petedunnite Ca(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
  Pigeonite (Mg,Fe2+,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
  Spodumene LiAlSi2O6
Orthopyroxene Subgroup 
  Donpeacorite (Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2
  Enstatite MgSiO3
  Ferrosilite FeSiO3

Other Names for Pyroxene Group

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:辉石族

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Pyroxene Group in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)
Accessory component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Pyroxene Group

Reference List:
Wyckoff, R.W.G., Merwin, H.E., Washington, H.S. (1925) X-ray diffraction measurements upon the pyroxenes. American Journal of Science, 5th. Series: 10: 383-397.

Edgar, A.D., Mottana, A., MacRae, N.D. (1969) The chemistry and cell parameters of omphacite and related pyroxenes. Mineralogical Magazine: 37: 61-74.

Fleet, M.E. (1974) Mg,Fe 2+ site occupancies in coexisting pyroxenes. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 47: 207-214.

Reid, A.M., Brown, R.W., Dawson, J.B., Whitfield, G.G., Siebert, J.C. (1976) Garnet and pyroxene compositions in some diamondiferous eclogites. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 58: 203-220.

Arndt, N.T., Fleet, M.E. (1979) Stable and metastable pyroxene crystallization in layered komatiite lava flows. American Mineralogist: 64: 856-864.

Cameron, M., Papike, J.J. (1981) Structural and chemical variations in pyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 66: 1-50.

Watanabe, S., Kitamura, M., Morimoto, N. (1985) A transmission electron microscope study of pyroxene chondrules in equilibrated L-group chondrites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 72: 87-98.

Morimoto, N., Fabries, J., Ferguson, A.K., Ginzburg, I.V., Ross, M., Seifert, F.A., Zussman, J., Aoki, K., Gottardi, G. (1988) Nomenclature of Pyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 73: 1123-1133.

Morimoto, N. (1989) Nomenclature of pyroxenes. The Canadian Mineralogist: 27: 143-156.

Brizi, E., Mellini, M. (1992) Kinetical modelling of exsolution textures in igneous pyroxenes. Acta Vulcanologica: 2: 87-93.

Bell, D.R., Ihinger, P.D., Rossman, G.R. (1995) Quantitative analysis of trace OH in garnet and pyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 80: 465-474.

Wodland, A.B. (1998) The orthorhombic to high-P monoclinic phase transition in Mg-Fe pyroxenes. Can it produce a seismic discontinuity? Geophysical Research Letters: 25: 1241-1244.

Papike, J.J., Karner, J.M., Shearer, C.K. (2005) Comparative planetary mineralogy: Valence-state partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti and V among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel from planetary basalts. American Mineralogist: 90: 277-290.

Nespolo, M. & Aroyo, M.I. (2016): The modular structure of pyroxenes. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 189-203.

Hawthorne, F.C. (2016): Short-range atomic arrangements in minerals. I: The minerals of the amphibole, tourmaline and pyroxene supergroups. Eur. J. Mineral. 28, 513-536.

Internet Links for Pyroxene Group URL:
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Significant localities for Pyroxene Group

Showing 55 significant localities out of 14,279 recorded on

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
[Diopside] Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
[Kushiroite] Makoto Kimura, Takashi Mikouchi, Akio Suzuki, Masaaki Miyahara, Eiji Ohtani, and Ahmed El Goresy (2009): Kushiroite, CaAlAlSiO6: A new mineral of the pyroxene group from the ALH 85085 CH chondrite, and its genetic significance in refractory inclusions. American Mineralogist, 94, 1479-1482.
  • Carinthia
    • Koralpe
      • Moschkogel - Weinebene area
        • Brandrücken
[Spodumene] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Zillertal
        • Zemmgrund
          • Ochsner-Rotkopf massif
[Diopside] R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagesrtääten Österreichs (1993)
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
[Hedenbergite] Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec Hudon, Pierre; Friedman, Richard M.; Gauthier, Gilles; Martignole, Jacques Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43, issue 9, pp. 1237-1249 Olivier Langelier Collection
  • Fujian Province
    • Fuzhou Prefecture
      • Jin'an District
        • Kuai'an
[Aegirine] Suwa, K., Enami, M., Hiraiwa, I., and Yang, T. (1987): Mineralogy and Petrology 36, 111-120; Wenkui Wang, Shanrong Zhao, and Xinxi Niu (1990): Geology of Fujian 9(1)
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
[Esseneite] Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
[Esseneite] Favreau G., Meisser N., Chiappero P.J. (2004), Saint-Maime (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence): un exemple de pyrométamorphisme en région provençale, n°3, pp: 59-92
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Münchberg Metamorphic complex
        • Stammbach
          • Weißenstein
[Omphacite] [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
  • Aosta Valley
    • Saint-Marcel
[Diopside var: Violan] August Breithaupt (1838) Journal Prackt. Chemie, 15:329
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Omegna
        • Agrano
[Jervisite] Mellini, M., Merlino, S., Orlandi, P., Rinaldi, R. (1982): Cascandite and jervisite, two new scandium silicates from Baveno, Italy. American Mineralogist, 67, 599-603.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
[Johannsenite] De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Recoaro Terme
[Johannsenite] De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
  • Hokkaido
    • Oshima peninsula
      • Kumaishi
[Kanoite] Kobayashi, H. (1977): Kanoite, (Mn2+,Mg)2[Si2O6], a new clinopyroxene in the metamorphic rock from Tatehira, Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan. Chishitsugaku Zasshi 83, 537-542.
  • Zomba District
[Aegirine] []; Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Mineralogical Record (1997) 28:64; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.; Cairncross, B. (2002). Aegirine and Associated Minerals from Mount Malosa, Malawi. Rocks & Minerals, 77(1), 31-37.
  • Mexico
    • Jiquipilco (Xiquipilco)
[Kosmochlor] Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Laspeyres, H. 1897 Die steinigen Gemengtheile im Meteoreisen von Toluca in Mexico. Z. Kristallogr. Kristallgeom. 27, 586-600.
  • Béni Mellal-Khénifra Region
    • Khénifra Province
      • M'Rirt
[Diopside] Nerci K., Les minéralisations aurifères du district polymétallique de Tighza (Maroc central) : un exemple de mise en place péri granitique tardi-hercynienne. Thèse de doctorat, Univ. Orléans, 210p, (2006)
[Jadeite] C.R.Acad.Sci.Paris (1863) 56, 861
  • Buskerud
    • Øvre Eiker
[Aegirine] Strøm, P. (1821): Undersökning af ett nytt Fossil. Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, 160-163; Berzelius, J. (1821): Tillägg til föregående Afhandling. Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, 163-166; Möller, N.B. (1825a) : Achmit fra Eger. Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, 6, 174-181
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
[Aegirine] Berzelius, [J]. (1835): [without titel dated 13 jan. 1835]. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Gegnosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, 1835, 184-185 ; Murad E (2006) Mineralogy of aegirine from Låven Island, Langesundfjorden, southern Norway, Norwegian Journal of Geology, 86, 435-438
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
[Natalyite] ZVMO,(1985) 114, 630-635; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bosi, F., Reznitskii, L., Skogby, H., & Hålenius, U. (2014). Vanadio-oxy-chromium-dravite, NaV3 (Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3) 3 (OH) 3O, a new mineral species of the tourmaline supergroup. American Mineralogist, 99(5-6), 1155-1162.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Taikan Ridge
        • Ir-Nimi manganese deposit
[Namansilite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
[Namansilite] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
[Hedenbergite] [MinRec 32:9]; Rogulina, L.I., and Sveshnikova, O.L. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 60-74.; Dobovol'skaya, M. G., Baskina, V. A., Balashova, S. P., Kenisarin, A. M., Arakelyants, M. M., Klimachev, L. A., & Muravitskaya, G. N. (1990). Order of Formation of the Ores and Mafic Dikes of the Nikolayevsk Deposit (Southern Primor'ye). International Geology Review, 32(4), 391-403.
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Asbest
[Diopside] [MinRec 32:41]; Antonov A.A. [Антонов А.А.] (2003): Mineralogy of rodingites of the Bazhenovsk ultrabasic massif [Минералогия родингитов Баженовского гипербазитого массива]. Nauka, Sankt-Peterburg, 129 pp. (in Russian).
  • Södermanland
    • Nyköping
      • Tunaberg
        • Tunaberg Cu-Co Ore Field
[Hedenbergite] Hedenberg, A.L. in Afhandlingar i Fysic, Kemi och Mineralogi. Utgifne af W. Hisinger och J. Berzelius. (Stockholm, 1806-18),Vol 2, p. 164; Berzelius, J.J. (1819): Nouveau Système de Minéralogie. A Paris, Chez Méquignon-Marvis, 1819. p.206
    • Utö
[Spodumene] d’Andrada, J. B. (1800): Der eigenschaften und kennzeichen einiger neuen fossilien aus Schweden und Norwegen nebst einigen chemischen bemerkungen ueber dieselben. Allgemeines Journal der Chemie 4, 28-39 ; Langhof, J., Jonson, E, Gustafsson, L. & Otter, B. (1998): Utö- en klassisk svensk mineralfyndort. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 14, 29-31
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
[Aegirine var: Urbanite] Sjögren, H. (1894): Contributions to Swedish mineralogy. Bull. Geol. Inst. Univ. Upsala. 2 (3), 39-74.
[Hedenbergite] Flink, G. 1885 Öfversigt K. Vet.-Ak. Förh.
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Warner Springs District
        • Warner Springs
[Spodumene var: Kunzite] Larson, W. F. (2011), Personal collection of William F. Larson. On display at the Collector in Fallbrook, California.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
[Spodumene] Brush and Dana (1880); Shainin (1946); Cameron et al (1954) USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Canaan
        • Falls Village
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
      • New Milford
        • Boardman's Bridge
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
      • North Canaan
[Diopside] Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (1961), The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schairer, J. F. (1931), The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Hartford Connecticut Bulletin 51.
      • Torrington
[Diopside] Mike Polletta specimen
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
[Spodumene] Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
    • New Haven Co.
      • Orange
[Diopside] Harold Moritz collection
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Newry
[Spodumene var: Kunzite] King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
  • Massachusetts
    • Essex Co.
      • Essex
[Aegirine] Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Huntington (Norwich)
[Spodumene] Emerson, Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597), p.257.
  • Minnesota
    • Cook Co.
[Pigeonite] A. N. Winchell ,Am. Geol.,26, 1900 p. 203.; Am Min 16:195-208
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
[Hedenbergite] Van King
[Johannsenite] Schaller, W.T.: Am.Min.:23:575-582 (1938); Dunn(1995):Pt3:434-435.
[Petedunnite] Essene, E.J. and Peacor, D.R. (1987) Petedunnite (CaZnSi2O6), a new zinc clinopyroxene from Franklin, New Jersey, and phase equilibria for zincian pyroxenes. American Mineralogist (1987): 72: 157-166; Dunn, Pete J. (1995): Franklin and Sterling Hill New Jersey: the world's most magnificent mineral deposits, Part 3: 436.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
[Augite] Dunn(1995):Pt3:432.; Leavens, P. B., Zullo, J., & Verbeek, E. (2009). A complex, genthelvite-bearing skarn from the Passaic pit, Sterling Hill mine, Ogdensburg, New Jersey. Axis, 5, 26.
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
        • Balmat
[Donpeacorite] Fleischer's Glossary of Mineral Species 2004; Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483; Peterson, E.U., Anovitz, L.M., Essene, E.J. (1984) Donpeacorite, (Mn,Mg)MgSi2O6 a new orthopyroxene and its proposed phase relations in the system MnSiO3-MgSiO3-FeSiO3. American Mineralogist: 69: 472-480.
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
[Spodumene] Jan H.Bernard and Jaroslav Hyrsl,2004,Minerals and their Localities,pg # 567; Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Keystone
[Spodumene] Rocks & Minerals: 57: 160 &/or 60: 110 & 112.; USGS Bull 380D; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Norton, James J. (1964) Pegmatites and other Precambrian Rocks in the Southern Black Hills; Geology and mineral deposits of some pegmatites in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. USGS Professional Paper 297E.
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Golden Horn Batholith
[Aegirine] MinRec 14:51; Rocks and Minerals 66:6, p453; Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.49
    • Snohomish Co.
      • Sultan District
        • Sultan Basin
[Hedenbergite] Rocks & Minerals (1991) 66:478-484
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Reno Junction
[Esseneite] Am.Min. 72 (1987), 148
    • Park Co.
[Clinoferrosilite] Amer.J.Sci.(1935) ser. 4, 30, 481-494
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