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Gladstone Hill Mine (Waihi Gladstone), Waihi, Hauraki District, Waikato Region, North Island, New Zealand

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 23' 32'' South , 175° 51' 43'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -37.39224,175.86220
GeoHash:G#: rcm53bfyq
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


Gold-silver.

Silicified caps, quartz veins and hydrothermal breccias in andesite.
An hydrothermal eruption occurred in vent structure. Vent breccias are overlain by an eruption breccia tuff ring and by carbonaceous sediments that filled the eruption crater.
Three stages of alteration :
- Calcite-chlorite-smectite (early stage)
- Adularia-quartz-illite (early stage)
- Illite-smectite-kaolinite-pyrite (late stage)

The Gladstone Hill site is immediately west of the present Waihi Mine processing plant, 2 kilometres east of Waihi. It was the location of minor historic mining, and recent exploration. The veins occupy the far southern section of what is now called the Favona vein system.

The earliest reference found was 1889, when the mine was owned and operated by William Brooks, employing about six men. The lease was forfeited to Henry Brett in 1891. Much development work then was undertaken, under the supervision of F. Hollis. The lease, together with the Salisbury, and Joker claims were floated in London in 1895 with £15,000 working capital. Little appears to have come of this and the lease by 1901 is in the name of Henry Gilfillan, who works it until at least 1911.

The veins contain erratic Au-Ag mineralisation, with local rich sections up to 150 g/t Ag, and 63.5 g/t Au, but most of the deposit is uneconomic. The total mined historically is 502 tonnes of quartz, yielding 761.6 ounces of gold.

The host is Miocene aged pyroxene andesites, containing phenocrysts of plagioclase, hypersthene, and augite, overlain by the Black Hill hornblende and biotite bearing dacite.

The veins are vertical to steep south-east dipping, and trending north north-east. The veins range in composition from chalcedonic, crudely banded, to quartz replacing calcite, some white clay filling voids and coating fractures, and brecciated. Acid sulphate alteration is best expressed in the brecciated areas.

Quartz-calcite comes in a variety of forms including platy calcite, massive calcite, and quartz as colloform, crustiform banding, lattice bladed, zonal, comb, massive and feathery. The crustiform banded is the dominant form, containing variable Au-Ag grades. Feathery forms in breccia, and colloform also contains mineralisation.

Pyrite veins were the first to form and are common in the deposit. Base metal sulphides increase at depth, containing Au-Ag associated with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, marcasite, and rare chalcopyrite.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


12 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
'Andesite'
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
'Biotite'
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
'Breccia'
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
'Dacite'
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Description: Kaolinite presence is due to acid sulfate fluids (condensation of steam at a shallow level of the geothermal system).
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290. Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill Epithermal System, Waihi, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1989, University of Auckland Geothermal Institute.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'
Reference: Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Electrum1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
Andesite-
Biotite-
Breccia-
Chlorite Group-
Dacite-
Hornblende-
Hypersthene-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
K Feldspar-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Smectite Group-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Andesite'-
'Biotite'-
'Breccia'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Dacite'-
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Chalcedony-SiO2
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O CalciteCaCO3
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca CalciteCaCO3
FeIron
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AgSilver
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary
0 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 3187411
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Ignimbrite(s); felsic volcanic rocks; rhyolite

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Pliocene - Late Miocene
3.6 - 11.62 Ma



ID: 1309379
Coromandel Group Pliocene andesite and basaltic andesite lava

Age: Neogene (3.6 - 11.62 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Coromandel Group

Description: Andesite and basaltic andesite lava, tuff and tuff breccia; andesite and dacite dikes.

Comments: Zealandia Megasequence Extrusive and Intrusive Rocks (Neogene)

Lithology: Andesite, tuffite, tuff-breccia, dacite

Reference: Edbrooke, S.W., Heron, D.W., Forsyth, P.J., Jongens, R. (compilers). Geology Map of New Zealand 1:1 000 000. GNS Science Geological Map 2. [12]

Messinian - Tortonian
5.333 - 11.62 Ma



ID: 1354470
Waiwawa Subgroup andesite and dacite (Coromandel Group) of Coromandel Volcanic Zone

Age: Miocene (5.333 - 11.62 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Waiwawa Subgroup

Description: Andesite, dacite and rhyodacite flows and domes with intercalated tuff, tuff breccia and volcaniclastic sediments. Local, non--welded, dacitic, pumice-rich ignimbrite.

Comments: Neogene igneous rocks. Age based on K-Ar

Lithology: Major:: {andesite},Minor:: {dacite, rhyodacite, tuff, breccia}

Reference: Heron, D.W. . Geology Map of New Zealand 1:250 000. GNS Science Geological Map 1. [13]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Te Aroha News newspaper (1889) Mining News, Vol. V11, issue 397, 28 August 1889.
Thames Star newspaper (1891) Warden's Court, Vol. XX111, issue 6989, 17 September 1891.
Auckland Star newspaper (1895) Warden's Court, Vol. XXV1, issue 198, 20 August 1895.
Auckland Star newspaper (1895) Waihi Notes, Vol. XXV1, issue 238, 05 October 1895.
Daily Telegraph newspaper (1906) Waihi Warden's Court, Vol. V, issue 1558, 15 February 1906.
Oldfield, G. (1989) Gladstone Hill epithermal system Waihi New Zealand, Proc. 11th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop, University of Auckland Geology Department.
Mauk, J.L. (2001) Low-Sulfidation Epithermal Veins at the Gladstone Hill Prospect, Waihi, New Zealand. The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 10 pages.
Brathwaite, R.L., Faure, K. (2002) The Waihi Epithermal Gold-Silver-Base Metal Sulfide-Quartz Vein System, New Zealand: Temperature and Salinity Controls on Electrum and Sulfide Deposition. Economic Geology 97:2, 269-290.


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