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Strickland Quarry (Eureka Quarry), Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries), Collins Hill, Portland, Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USA

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 41° 35' 31'' North , 72° 35' 30'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 41.59222,-72.59167
GeoHash:G#: drkks5sk7
Locality type:Quarry
Köppen climate type:Dfa : Hot-summer humid continental climate


A former feldspar-mica-Be-Nb-Ta-REE-Sn quarry in granite pegmatite located on the west side and near the summit of Collins Hill, 2½ miles (4 km) NE of Portland. It operated in the Strickland pegmatite along with the separate, underground Schoonmaker or Cramer Mine to the immediate north (a separate locality), though the two were not connected until perhaps the last few years of operations. All the dumps formerly around the quarry except the largest, northernmost one belonged to the Strickland Quarry. The northernmost dump belonged to the Schoonmaker or Cramer Mine. Because most collectors did not realize the northern dump belonged to a different operation, most specimens are referred to as coming from the Strickland Quarry no matter where collected. The difference is largely academic anyway because all the minerals came from the same pegmatite and the mineralogy, pegmatite zoning, and host rocks of the Strickland Quarry and Schoonmaker Mine are similar. Any specimen can be generically attributed to the Strickland pegmatite. When a golf course on the site was constructed in the 1990s all of the dumps were removed, and although the flooded quarry pit is still present, collecting is no longer allowed or possible.

Mining supposedly began in the 1840s according to Foye (1922) who stated:

"The quarry was opened as early as 1840. There is a pitcher, bearing in gilt the name of Strickland, now preserved in Wesleyan Museum, which was made from feldspar taken from the quarry at that early date."

If so, it must have been a minor operation as it is not mentioned in Beers' (1884) History of Middlesex County. Ralph Pelton's quarry is mentioned, but this is a separate locality just east of Collins Hill.

Strickland Quarry was operated by F. E. Strickland from 1904 to 1945. It was leased to Eureka Flint & Spar Co., Eureka Mining & Operating Co. or Eureka Mica & Mining Co. Successive operators were F. E. Strickland, George Wilkes, and William Wilkes.

Mostly it was involved in feldspar production before 1937 but was a big mica producer 1930-37, 1942-45, and 1952-53 (from wall zones). It produced 2,000 to 5,000 long tons of feldspar per year and 200 to 400 tons of mica after 1927; also quartz, beryl, and gemstones. Workings include an open cut 300 feet long by 200 feet wide and 140 feet deep. The east cut quarried up to 100 feet deep & connected mines worked 1914-37. Wall zones were mined underground mostly to the north in the 1940s & 1950s.

Cameron (1954) summarized the pegmatite and its zones as follows:

Exposed in east quarry cut and for over 720 ft N-S by 240 ft E-W, 8-60 ft thick. Dips west 30-75 degrees.
Five lithologic zones:
1. quartz-muscovite-plagioclase border zone, 1-8 in. thick
2. plagioclase-quartz-muscovite wall zone, 1-7 ft thick (mica zone – books up to 6 feet!)
3. microcline perthite-graphic granite-quartz-plagioclase intermediate zone 1-22 ft thick (perthite crystals up to 22 ft!)
4. plagioclase (cleavelandite)-quartz intermediate zone up to 45 ft thick
5. quartz core

Mineralization is a pegmatite deposit (Deposit Model code 33; USGS model code 13a; name: Be-Li pegmatites) Late Permian in age, hosted in the Ordovician Collins Hill Formation (= Partridge Formation of New Hampshire). The ore body strikes N-S and dips 35-40/50W at a thickness of 6.71/9 meters, a width of 73 meters and a length of 229 meters, covering an area of 4.8 HA. It is lenticular in shape. The primary mode of origin was magmatic differentiation and secondary was hydrothermal. Primary ore control was bedding. There is moderate wall rock alteration (silicification).

Located in the Middletown Pegmatite District comprising a swarm of Permian (~260 mya) pegmatite dikes; locally in a north-trending zone, mostly in the Ordovician Collins Hill Formation; but dikes are also present in eastward adjacent Ordovician Glastonbury Gneiss and westward adjacent Ordovician Middletown Formation.

The most diverse mineralogy and miarolitic pockets were mostly found with pale blue to white cleavelandite in zone 4. Descriptions of gem elbaite-rich pockets are found in Bastin (1910), Shannon (1920), Sterrett (1923), and Stearns (1983). Most elbaite is green, but there are concentrically zoned crystals with an olive green exterior, blue intermediate zone, on a core of schorl; classic watermelon tourmaline; and a plethora of pastel shades of gray, pink, green, blue, lavender to colorless. The miarolitic pockets were shattered after initial crystallization as most elbaite crystals are fragmented along with quartz and cleavelandite, with some dissolution of these minerals and so are seldom terminated. If they are terminated they may have a dark blue terminal zone with simple pedion or a very shallow rhombohedral form. Capillary overgrowths cause a schiller effect on many small crystals. Subsequently to pocket collapse, K-rich albite crystallized as separate micro-crystals and as overgrowths on cleavelandite along with quartz as overgrowths on quartz fragments and as tiny microcrystals among the K-rich albite. The latter white to tan colored mineral formed fine-grained masses or druses that host fragmented elbaite and very late forming minerals such as purple fluorapatite, white hydroxylapatite, cookeite, fluorite, pyrite, calcite, chlorite, bertrandite, schernikite, rare zeolites, and masses of fine-grained, secondary, capillary to hairy tourmaline.

The host Collins Hill Formation is a gray, rusty-weathering, medium- to coarse-grained, poorly layered schist, composed of quartz, oligoclase, muscovite, biotite, and garnet, generally graphitic, interlayered with fine-grained two-mica gneiss, especially to the west, and with calc-silicate and amphibolite layers, also rare quartz-almandine [coticule] layers with rare rutile. The schist units contain kyanite, ilmenite, cordierite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite in quartz pods and small alpine-cleft type openings with albite (oligoclase), muscovite, pyrite, chlorite, and anatase. The calc-silicate (skarn) units contain a typical Barrovian assemblage of anorthite, actinolite, augite, calcite, diopside, scapolite, grossular, zoisite, vesuvianite, etc. Within this rock, a rare assemblage of wollastonite with gehlenite, spurrite, larnite, grossular, quartz, diopside, vesuvianite, and calcite was documented by Schooner (circa 1985). These and other host rock primary and secondary (gypsum, pickeringite, melanterite, epsomite, sulfur, etc.) minerals are included in the locality species list.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Strickland Quarry (Eureka Quarry), Strickland pegmatite, Collins Hill, Portland, Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USA

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


119 valid minerals. 15 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite ?
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: crystalline masses
Colour: green
Description: A purported component of calc-silicate layers in the host Collins Hill formation. At least one specimen apparently of such material has proven to be magnesio-hornblende based on TEM-EDS analysis.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Habit: primary crystals blocky, complex, striated. Secondary ones tabular, rhombic, as druses or overgrowths
Colour: white, tan
Description: Mostly a rock-forming mineral, as coarse, white grains in the outer zones of the pegmatite. But also as a very late crystallizing K-rich variety (described by Jenks 1935), very fine-grained and tan colored with cleavelandite in the inner mineralized zone. The K-rich variety forms tiny, tabular, rhombic crystals or saw-toothed overgrowths on cleavelandite in numerous small pockets in this zone.
Reference: Jenks, William F. (1935): Pegmatites at Collins Hill, Portland, Conn. American Journal of Science: s. 5, 30: 177-197.; Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Stugard, Frederick, Jr. (1958): Pegmatites of the Middletown Area, Connecticut. USGS Bulletin 1042-Q.
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Habit: tabular
Colour: white to pale blue or green
Description: Coarse tabular aggregates, commonly with terminations in interstitial spaces, forms much of the matrix of the up to 45-foot-thick plagioclase-quartz intermediate zone that hosts much of the interesting mineralization such as morganite, elbaite, spodumene, lepidolite, montebrasite, K-rich albite, cookeite, columbite, tantalite, wodginite, quartz crystals, etc.
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Habit: anhedral grains to parallel-growth
Colour: white
Description: The typical albite variety in host metamorphic rocks, best crystals are parallel growth habit in Alpine-cleft type openings within the host Collins Hill Formation schist unit, with cubic pyrite, chlorite and tiny anatase crystals.
Reference: Stugard, Frederick, Jr. (1958): Pegmatites of the Middletown Area, Connecticut. USGS Bulletin 1042-Q.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: Only a generic mention of occurring in the pegmatites of Portland, Schooner (1955) just mentions Schairer and says he "has not observed it at the locality."
Reference: Schairer, J. F. (1931): The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: trapezohedral, granular
Colour: maroon to red-brown
Description: As generally small crystals in the outer zones of the pegmatite, but also massive concentrations mixed with fluorapatite, zinnwaldite/masutomilite, elbaite and columbite-(Fe) in cleavelandite. Gemmy crystals in this assemblage confirmed using Raman spectroscopy typically partially replaced by waxy yellow fine-grained muscovite (also confirmed by Raman). Also, in the host metamorphic rocks as a component of "coticule" rock. This rock is described by Lundgren (1979) (the bedrock quadrangle report for Haddam - QR37) as a "bedded garnet-quartz rock (coticule) that consists of thin layers (millimeter-to-centimeter thick) of fine-grained spessartine-quartz granofels. Plagioclase, biotite [annite], and hornblende are present in some layers, but the rocks are essentially aggregates of very small (less than 0.05-0.1 mm) garnet crystals and quartz." Though coticule from around New England has been described as containing spessartine, the particular garnet species here was recently confirmed as almandine using Raman spectroscopy by Paul Bartholomew at U. New Haven. Schooner describes coticule as "a granular pink spessartine rock...can be found in many parts of the area, as in the vicinity of the Strickland quarry. Veins are usually thin and sinuous, but may reach a thickness of several inches. Such material is attractive in large polished slabs."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Description: Re-identified as montebrasite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Habit: trapezohedra
Colour: white
Description: Very late crystallizing with fluorite and siderite in pockets of K-rich albite and cleavelandite of the inner mineralized zone.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Habit: crude to perfect elongated bipyramidal
Colour: metallic to honey-brown
Description: Tiny micro-crystals <1 mm crudely to perfectly crystalline and appear metallic on the crystal surfaces, broken ones reveal honey-brown, resinous interior. Associated with cubic pyrite and chlorite crystals in spaces between vuggy albite in host schist Alpine-type openings. Schooner (circa 1985) reports: "A micromount of anatase and rutile crystals, associated with adularia, was once collected at the Strickland quarry. Narrow alpine-type veins are encountered in the schist adjoining the pegmatite."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Anglesite ?
Formula: PbSO4
Habit: coating
Colour: gray
Description: Schooner (1955): a thin grayish coating on galena which had been exposed to much weathering on the oldest of the Strickland Quarry dumps. The matrix, in his one good specimen, is a mixture of secondary albite and gray lepidolite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: tabular to bladed
Colour: black
Description: fka biotite, mostly in the outer zones, can be interlaminated with muscovite and partly altered to chlorite. Zodac (1937) gives this summary: One interesting specimen penetrating muscovite, on albite, was collected. Associated with the albite was smoky quartz. Small biotite plates, fair in quality, were found imbedded in large plates of muscovite. Minute flakes of biotite are dis¬seminated in muscovite sheets. Large black plates, of good quality, and imbedded in muscovite, were also found. One specimen of muscovite, 3x4 inches in size, had a biotite crystal 1 ¾ x 3 inches in size, imbedded in it in such a way that the muscovite was present only as narrow strips on the biotite’s two long edges. In some parts of the quarry biotite is very plentiful. The south end of the open part of the quarry had to be abandoned because there was so much biotite in the spar. The old dump (No. 1) contains a lot of biotite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Zodac, Peter. (1937): Minerals of the Strickland Quarry. Rocks & Minerals: 12: 131-144.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Habit: massive granular
Colour: yellowish
Description: According to Schooner (circa 1985): "Yellowish anorthite is rather common in the calc-silicate assembly [in the host Collins Hill Formation]".
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
'Apatite'
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy (http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/lacroixite.pdf)
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: coatings
Colour: white
Description: as thin coatings on other minerals...invariably mediocre
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Arsenolite ?
Formula: As2O3
Habit: powder
Colour: yellowish
Description: Schooner (1955): "as yellowish powdery incrustations on decomposed arsenopyrite at the Strickland Quarry. One rather large mass of the unusual material was taken out of the pegmatite which adjoins the schist in the cut above the main pit. Pyrite is associated, in all the specimens."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Description: Schooner (1955): "crystals, of the finest quality, though of small size, are rarely collected from the pegmatite at the Strickland Quarry. The author has several specimens, showing the mineral in a variety of matrices, and he saw the remains of a 1 inch crystal, in the wall of the aforementioned cut." Schooner (circa 1985): "Excellent little crystals are rarely found at the Strickland quarry, either isolated or with sphalerite and pyrite. A few 1/2 inch rough crystals were embedded in the interior of a large pseudomorph of muscovite after schorl."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Augelite
Formula: Al2(PO4)(OH)3
Colour: gray
Description: Specimens of metasomatically altered natromontebrasite, collected at the Strickland quarry around 1950 by Charles Thomas, consist of gray augelite crystals intergrown with pink brazilianite, pink hydroxylapatite, and yellow lacroixite. Very little such material was preserved, and most of it was consumed in study at the U.S. Geological Survey. Natromontebrasite was discredited in 2007, being a mixture of montebrasite, lacroixite, and wardite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985) Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Handbook of Mineralogy (http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/lacroixite.pdf)
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Habit: massive granular
Colour: brown
Description: "A striking brown clinopyroxene, with a silky luster, collected at the Strickland quarry, gives an X-ray pattern closer to fassaite than diopside or augite. As learned from similar material, at the railroad cut two miles west, the surficial alteration is a smectite, corroborating the aluminum content. Fassaite also accompanies zoisite, quite abundantly, at ledges immediately west of the Strickland quarry." Schooner (circa 1985).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Habit: massive granular
Colour: brown
Description: "A striking brown clinopyroxene, with a silky luster, collected at the Strickland quarry, gives an X-ray pattern closer to fassaite than diopside or augite. As learned from similar material, at the railroad cut two miles west, the surficial alteration is a smectite, corroborating the aluminum content. Fassaite also accompanies zoisite, quite abundantly, at ledges immediately west of the Strickland quarry." Schooner (circa 1985).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Habit: tabular flakes, coatings
Colour: pale yellow
Fluorescence: bright green
Description: Should be referred to as meta-autunite as all such material is dehydrated. Associated with uraninite and uranophane.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Bazzite
Formula: Be3Sc2(Si6O18)
Reference: From Richard Schooner collection, now int he Anthony J. Albini collection, personally collected by Richard and analyzed.
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Habit: tabular or as v-twins
Colour: colorless to pale green
Description: Clear, glassy, micro-crystals in pockets with secondary albite. Groups of distinct crystals and reticulated platy aggregates up to several inches in diameter have been collected.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Henderson, William A., Jr. (1975): The Bertrandites of Connecticut. Mineralogical Record: 6(3): 114-123.; Henderson, William A. (1995): Microminerals of Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 70(6): 420-425.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Habit: hexagonal prisms with pinacoids
Colour: pale green
Description: Large rough masses, plenty of ore grade material, less commonly as subhedral to euhedral hexagonal crystals in matrix.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Habit: elongated hexagonal prisms with pinacoids
Colour: blue
Description: Typically rough masses or subhedral to euhedral hexagonal crystals in matrix. Gem material was common.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Habit: massive to subhedral hexagonal crystals
Colour: yellow
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Habit: anhedral to subhedral tabular hexagonal
Colour: pink to rosy
Description: Usually anhedral to subhedral filling spaces in cleavelandite. Some gems have been cut. The Peabody Museum of Yale University exhibits a superb, gemmy, rose beryl crystal, six or eight inches across and no more than two inches thick. Sterrett (1923) describes another morganite on display at Wesleyan: "in one pocket an irregularly shaped fragment of transparent pale salmon-pink beryl was found. It is 2 1/2 inches long and 1 inch thick, with an exceedingly rough honeycombed and drusy surface. It is evidently the remnant of a much larger crystal, most of which has been dissolved, leaving only a part with a rough etched surface."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Jarnot, Bruce. (1995): Connecticut Gems and Gem Minerals. Rocks & Minerals: 70(6): 378-382.; Sterrett, Douglas B. (1923), Mica Deposits Of The United States, USGS Bulletin 740: 65-67.
Bismite ?
Formula: Bi2O3
Description: Schooner (1955) only says it was reported "many years ago".
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Bismuthinite ?
Formula: Bi2S3
Description: "Not seen" by Schooner (1955). Schairer (1931) seems to be the source of all later repetition, and he said it was found "very rarely" in Portland. This generic reference could mean the much older Pelton Quarry where it is known.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schairer, J. F. (1931): The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Bismutite ?
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Description: Early references such as Schairer (1931) only attribute the mineral to "Portland" and this could easily mean the older Pelton Quarry where it is known. Schooner (1958) says: "The Wesleyan University collection...contains a solid two inch mass of the mineral from Portland. The exact source may have been the Strickland Quarry, though it is not specified on the label".
Reference: Schairer, J. F. (1931): The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Bityite
Formula: LiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Habit: hexagonal
Colour: white
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) says: "When the Strickland quarry was last active, the author found a boulder of cleavelandite with a small vug of aggregated lustrous white hexagonal-looking crystals with calcite and a trace of lepidolite. It was many years before the mineral was recognized as being a mica! Its unusual X-ray pattern aroused some curiosity, and it was forwarded to Pete J. Dunn at the Smithsonian. He identified it as bityite, and made an analysis by electron microprobe."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Brazilianite
Formula: NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Colour: pink
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) says: "A few masses of Strickland quarry natromontebrasite, from the pollucite zone in the middle eastern wall, halfway down, are composed of intergrown metasomatic or hydrothermal alterations. Pink brazilianite, containing a trace of Mn (analysis by the USGS), is associated with augelite, lacroixite, and hydroxylapatite. This mineral was collected by Charles Thomas, and studied by Mary E. Mrose. Ronald E. Januzzi had earlier collected material, on the old dumps, in which the brazilianite occurs as confused white aggregates, with hydroxylapatite and possibly morinite." Natromontebrasite was discredited in 2007, being a mixture of montebrasite, lacroixite, and wardite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985) Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Handbook of Mineralogy (http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/lacroixite.pdf)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: tabular hexagonal, isolated or in stacks or as "nail heads"
Colour: white, pale yellow, tan
Description: Typically as micro crystals or cleavable masses in pockets in K-rich albite of the inner mineralized zone associated with pyrite and fluorite. Crystals up to 1/2 inch or more.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Habit: twinned bipyramids
Colour: deep red-black to dark brown
Description: Tiny, dark, lustrous, sharp crystals typically embedded in lepidolite or spodumene with K-rich albite. Can easily be confused with tantalite-(Mn) or wodginite, though these minerals are differentiated from it by their strong iridescence.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: massive
Description: usually intergrown with pyrrhotite in quartz veins in the Collins Hill Formation, but it is seldom seen as more than traces
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
'Chlorite Group'
Habit: hexagonal vermiformed micro-crystals, dusty flakes, massive replacing almandine or annite
Colour: dark green
Description: In vugs on albite rarely associated with anatase and pyrite in Alpine-type clefts in the host schist. In the pegmatite as pseudomorphs after almandine or annite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Description: Thoroughly unreasonable guess.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State (Taylor Assoc./Mineralogical Press).
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: In the host metamorphic rocks.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State (Taylor Assoc./Mineralogical Press).
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: FeNb2O6
Habit: tabular to elongated prisms
Colour: black with yellow, blue to purple iridescence
Description: As small pocket crystals to large subhedral masses in the intermediate plagioclase-quartz mineralized zone. Schooner (1958): "innumerable specimens, including well developed crystals up to three or four inches across; heavy aggregates of parallel tabular crystals in cleavelandite were abundant when the locality was active in 1953."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Habit: micro-globular aggregates, masses, pseudomorphs after spodumene
Colour: pale yellow
Description: Typically as tiny spheres of crystal aggregates with K-rich albite, micas, elbaite, quartz, calcite, pyrite, fluorite, and bertrandite in cleavelandite of the mineralized intermediate plagioclase-quartz zone. Rare pseudomorphs of spodumene. Schooner (1955) says: "solid masses of bright yellow fine-grained material. Some pieces were seen to be as much as 4 or 5 inches thick, the mineral having occurred as a lining in a long cavity or series of cavities."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Description: Foye (1922): "found within the Bolton [Collins Hill] schist a few centimeters from its contact with the pegmatite".
Reference: Foye, Wilbur. G. (1922): Mineral Localities in the Vicinity of Middletown, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 7(1): 4-12.
Crandallite ?
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Description: Schooner (1955) reports it "as microscopic crystals associated with bertrandite" found by Gunnar Bjareby. However, he does not mention it in any of his subsequent writings on the area.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)
Formula: {KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn2+13}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
Habit: flakes, coating on altered lithiophilite
Colour: olive green
Description: Schooner (1955): "Little scales of the rare phosphate are seen on a few specimens."
Reference: Schairer, J. F. (1926): Lithiophilite and Other Rare Phosphates from Portland, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 11(4): 101-104.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Habit: massive
Colour: light green
Description: Common in calc-silicate units in the host Collins Hill Formation intergrown with actinolite and grossular.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Habit: elongated prisms
Colour: olive to grass green; blue-green; bright pink; pastel green, pink (watermelon), blue and gray to colorless
Fluorescence: blue
Description: Mostly subhedral, shattered crystals in matrix but several crystal-rich pockets are described in the literature. Crystals common in late-stage vuggy cleavelandite with tan, high-K albite, quartz, pyrite, mica, cookeite, micas, etc. Most crystals grass green throughout, usually poorly terminated in cookeite or albite, may show pedion or shallow rhomb or grade into parallel asbestiform crystals. Crystals generally concentrically rather than longitudinally color zoned. Green and blue-green overgrowths (these may be foitite) on schorl common or concentrically zoned with very dark blue-green core, grass green intermediate zone and olive green outer zone. Smaller crystals can be pure bright pink, these are commonly etched. Pastel colored crystals can be watermelon zoned (some pink cores fluoresce blue) or almost blue-gray and lavender-gray to colorless. A blue-gray alteration is common in fractures through the lavender crystals.
Reference: Bastin, Edson S. (1910): Economic Geology of the Feldspar Deposits of the United States. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 420, Government Printing Office.; Sterrett, Douglas B. (1923), Mica Deposits Of The United States, USGS Bulletin 740: 65-67.; Shannon, Earl V. (1920): Strickland's Quarry, Portland, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 5(3): 51-54.; Stearns, H. T. (1983): Memoirs of a Geologist: From Poverty Peak to Piggery Gulch. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, Honolulu.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1945), Structural And Economic Characteristics Of New England Mica Deposits. Economic Geology: 11(6): 378-380. Bastin (1910), Shannon (1920), Sterrett (1923), and Stearns (1983)
Eosphorite
Formula: Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Description: Rarely occurs with rhodochrosite and other secondary alterations of lithiophilite nodules.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Habit: efflorescence
Description: Schooner (1958): "occurs very sparingly with pickeringite, in efflorescences on protected schist ledges in the cut above the Strickland Quarry. It is distinguished from pickeringite by its different taste… the same as that of artificial Epsom salt."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Eucryptite
Formula: LiAlSiO4
Description: Speculation by Schooner.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Description: Reference by Januzzi (1976) to this mineral being found by Schooner in "Portland" correlates only with a report by Schooner (circa 1985) from the Hale Quarry in Portland. Schooner makes no mention if it from Strickland in his various comprehensive publications, especially his last, Schooner (circa 1985).
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State (Taylor Assoc./Mineralogical Press): 234-5.
Fairfieldite
Formula: Ca2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Habit: radiating
Colour: white
Description: radiating fans of micro crystals in altered lithiophilite, with hureaulite, hydroxylapatite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Habit: tabular to short hexagonal prisms
Colour: white, pink, green, blue, lavender
Fluorescence: bright yellow
Description: Primary crystallization as typically massive and skeletal segregations mixed with almandine, dark brown mica, and columbite-(Fe) in a cleavelandite matrix. Tons of it were removed during the activity in 1953. But more interesting as a secondary crystallization characterized by clear, white, lavender to pale blue, tabular to short, euhedral micro-crystals (mostly <<1") in pockets with K-rich albite, elbaite, fluorite, pyrite, calcite, micas, etc.
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Fluorapatite var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Habit: anhedral to stubby subhedral hexagons
Colour: grayish green to blue-green, white, pale blue
Fluorescence: yellow
Description: An old term that should be abandoned, see description under fluorapatite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Habit: cubic to octahedral
Colour: purple, pale green, pale yellow, colorless
Description: Typically as small rounded to cubo-octahedral crystals <1-inch, commonly etched, in pockets in secondary K-rich albite of the mineralized quartz-plagioclase intermediate zone, commonly with pyrite and calcite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Description: Grading into elbaite, associated with wodginite, cassiterite, quartz and gobbinsite.
Reference: Jarnot, Bruce M. (2011): Letters: Connecticut Update. Rocks & Minerals: 86(4): 299.
Gahnite ?
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) reports that "Rudolf Bartsch, in his 'New England Notes', 'Rocks and Minerals' magazine, somewhere around 1940, described a large specimen of lepidolite studded with green crystals of gahnite. It is well to remember, however, that green microlite also occurs there in lepidolite." Considering the lack of confirmed specimens, they are likely microlite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Habit: cleavable masses
Description: Schooner (1955) says: "often been found at the Strickland Quarry by the author. His specimens are mostly of small size, but they show galena in close association with lepidolite, lithiophilite, spodumene, amblygonite albite, manganotantalite, green tourmaline, and yellow sphalerite". In Schooner (circa 1985) he further elaborates: "At the Strickland quarry, little cleavages of galena have often been collected, intimately associated with feldspar or calcite; also in the whole range of lithium minerals, elbaite, spodumene, montebraesite, petalite, and lepidolite; additionally, in the cesium zeolite, pollucite. The largest mass is about an inch in diameter. Occasionally, there are intergrowths of galena with brown sphalerite. In the pollucite zone, a narrow, irregular seam was filled with galena, yielding the odd combinations already cited."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Gehlenite
Formula: Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Habit: tetragonal prisms
Colour: light brown
Description: Tiny crystals in lens-like bodies of calc-silicate rock in the host Collins Hill Formation. Optical and X-ray study by Waldemar T. Schaller at the USGS indicate gehlenite, associated with diopside, grossular, wollastonite, and spurrite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Gobbinsite
Formula: Na5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2O
Description: Asociated with foitite grading into elbaite, wodginite, cassiterite, and quartz.
Reference: Jarnot, Bruce M. (2011): Letters: Connecticut Update. Rocks & Minerals: 86(4): 299.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: earthy crusts
Colour: dark brown
Description: In pockets in secondary K-rich albite encrusting other associated minerals and pseudomorphing pyrite, from which it is probably derived.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Goslarite ?
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Habit: efflorescence
Colour: white
Description: "A thin coating of white goslarite, with a characteristic sharp taste, was found on the protected bottom of a pegmatite boulder, containing sphalerite and pyrite, on a Strickland quarry dump. Such material is, of course, ephemeral, because of its hydrosoluble nature." (Schooner, circa 1985).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Graphite
Formula: C
Habit: anhedral
Description: Minor component of the host metamorphic rocks.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Greenockite ?
Formula: CdS
Habit: encrustation
Colour: yellow
Description: Schooner (1955) says it: "was discovered at Collins Hill by the author, about ten years ago. Little was seen, and only one example was collected. The mineral consisted of bright yellow coatings on sphalerite, from the cut above the Strickland Quarry". There is so much else this could be....
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: massive
Colour: orange
Description: A component of the calc-silicate units in the host Collins Hill Formation, with diopside, and a dark green amphibole (described by Schooner as actinolite, but one specimen analyzed by TEM-EDS has proven to be magnesio-hornblende).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Groutite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Habit: massive crust
Colour: black
Description: Thick black crust on altered lithiophilite with hureaulite and hydroxylapatite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: crusts of microcrystals
Colour: white to gray
Description: Schooner (1958) reports it as clusters of very delicate white or gray crystals on protected ledges of schist and gneiss.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Description: Reference by Januzzi (1976) to this mineral being found by Schooner in "Portland" correlates only with a report by Schooner (circa 1985) from the Walden Gem Quarry in Portland. Schooner makes no mention if it from Strickland in his various comprehensive publications, especially his last, Schooner (circa 1985).
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State (Taylor Assoc./Mineralogical Press): 234-5.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Habit: encrustation
Colour: red
Description: Schooner (1955) reports it "as rouge-like coatings on mica schist, is abundant in the cut which is located above the main part of the Strickland Quarry".
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Hureaulite
Formula: (Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Habit: massive, etched
Colour: red-brown, orange-red to pink
Description: massive, earthy to vitreous, translucent, etched, cellular alteration of lithiophilite, with white hydroxylapatite and sicklerite. Confirmed again in 2014 using Raman spectroscopy, by Paul Bartholomew, U. New Haven.
Reference: Schairer, J. F. (1926): Lithiophilite and Other Rare Phosphates from Portland, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 11(4): 101-104.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Habit: pearly opalescent crust or stubby, rounded hexagons
Colour: white
Description: As white overgrowth on purple fluorapatite as a late crystallization hosted by K-rich albite and as a massive to micro chalky-white crystals and opalescent rind around altered lithiophilite with hureaulite and groutite. Schooner (circa 1985) calls the latter opaline or chalcedonic variety francolite (under the heading for carbonate fluorapatite).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Harold Moritz collection.
Hydroxylherderite
Formula: CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Habit: microscopic chisel-shaped
Colour: colorless
Description: Very fine grained granular alteration of beryl (with moraesite) with tiny, chisel-like clear crystals in tiny voids.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Ilmenite ?
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Description: Zodac (1937) reports it as occurring as "Black plates along contact of white albite and grayish microcline." This is an odd, very questionable occurrence and later in the same document, he describes "smoky quartz...which had through its center a minutely thin vein of black tourmaline resembling a thin plate of ilmenite", which makes one wonder about the other piece. Schooner does not describe any other specimens.
Reference: Zodac, Peter. (1937): Minerals of the Strickland Quarry. Rocks & Minerals: 12: 131-144.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Colour: white
Description: chalky masses, in association with calcite and pyrite
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Former Ronald Januzzi collection
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Colour: creamy
Description: Microcrystals in voids in amphibolite with tremolite.
Reference: Former Ronald Januzzi collection
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Habit: elongated blades
Colour: blue
Description: Found in metamorphic host rock, especially above a small rock quarry on the west side of the hill to the right of the road which ascends Collins Hill. Crystals to a few inches.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Lacroixite
Formula: NaAl(PO4)F
Habit: granular
Colour: pale yellow
Description: From Schooner (circa 1985): "Mary E. Mrose [USGS] studied some exceptional material collected at the Strickland quarry by Charles Thomas, when the last sporadic work was done in the non-flooded pit. Lacroixite formed rather granular pale yellow areas in a mixture of augelite, brazilianite, and hydroxylapatite (?), replacing natromontebrasite. Her paper redefined the species, which had been in question." Natromontebrasite was discredited in 2007, being a mixture of montebrasite, lacroixite, and wardite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard (circa 1985) Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Handbook of Mineralogy (http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/lacroixite.pdf).
Larnite
Formula: Ca2SiO4
Colour: grayish
Description: Schooner (circa 1985): "One of the calc-silicate pods at the Strickland quarry contained the usual fine-grained diopside, grossularite, and wollastonite, with the addition of a 1/2 inch zone of grayish cleavable larnite, giving a distinct X-ray pattern." Studied by Waldemar T. Schaller of USGS.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
'Lepidolite'
Habit: tabular books, micaceous to globular
Colour: purple
Description: Common associated minerals are cleavelandite, quartz, spodumene, montebrasite, elbaite, microlite, cassiterite. Usually granular, but books to a few inches across occur.
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Habit: crusts and coatings
Colour: brown
Description: stains or coatings on other minerals
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Lithiophilite
Formula: LiMn2+PO4
Habit: nodules
Colour: orange through salmon-pink to light brown
Description: Specimens up to 8 inches are known, but most are nearer to an inch or two. Much is altered. Slight alteration shows a yellowish, granular, glassy mineral that may be stewartite. More heavily altered material is typically pinkish hureaulite, brown rhodochrosite, a rind of granular to earthy and opalescent hydroxylapatite, fairfieldite, sicklerite as a very thin brown crust, groutite as a thick black crust. These can occur in microcrystallized vugs. Schairer (1926) found it be fairly pure and Moore (2000) found an Mn/Mn + Fe ratio of 0.97.
Reference: Schairer, J. F. (1926): Lithiophilite and Other Rare Phosphates from Portland, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 11(4): 101-104.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Moore, P. B. (2000): Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine: 333-336.
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Habit: tabular microcrystals
Colour: iridescent
Description: Some beautifully developed crystals have come from the Strickland Quarry, including small brilliant ones in granular lepidolite (Schooner, 1961). A few years ago, some tiny iridescent tabular crystals were noted in specimens of coarsely granular golden-brown zinnwaldite from the Strickland quarry. X-ray study indicates they are loellingite (Schooner. circa 1985).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1961): The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Habit: acicular masses
Colour: dark green
Description: Crystalline masses matching the description of "actinolite" by Schooner with grossular and rutile, part of a calc-silicate assemblage in the Collins Hill Formation hosting the pegmatite. Identified by TEM-EDS in 2016.
Reference: Eric Quinter collection
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Habit: micro inclusions in mica
Colour: black
Description: Magnetite inclusions are present in many mica books, especially in mica from the part of the wall zone along the footwall.
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.
'Manganese Oxides'
Habit: dendritic encrustations
Colour: black
Reference: Van King
'Manganese Oxides var: Manganese Dendrites'
Habit: dendritic encrustations
Colour: black
Reference: Van King
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Description: Speculation by Schooner (1958). Black crusts associated with altered lithiophilite are groutite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Masutomilite
Formula: (K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Habit: alteration crust on pyrite
Colour: gray
Description: Very fragile grayish crystals on decomposing pyrite and pyrrhotite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Meta-autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Habit: tabular flakes
Colour: pale yellow
Fluorescence: bright green
Description: Forming thin, sometimes invisible crusts (detected by their bright green SW and LW UV fluorescence) around altered uraninite, with yellow uranophane.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Metatorbernite ?
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Description: Schooner (1955) states only that it has been reported. Details and specimens lacking. Though certainly possible, examined specimens of alterations around uraninite show uranophane and meta-autunite but no green metatorbernite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Habit: anhedral to blocky subhedral
Colour: white, tan
Description: The principal mineral mined by the 1000s of tons for creramic glaze. From Cameron et al (1954): "The [microcline] perthite-graphic granite-quartz-[albite] plagioclase intermediate zone ranges from 1 to about 22 feet thick. The principal mineral is coarse blocky [microcline] perthite in crystals as much as 15 feet in maximum diameter, with subordinate quartz, in part graphically intergrown with [microcline] perthite".
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Habit: dodecahedral often with octahedral and cubic forms
Colour: black, honey brown, dark green, yellow-green
Description: Crystals typically up to a few mm, mostly as broken black crystals in lepidolite and cleavelandite, yellow crystals are rarely embedded in tantalite. Zoned crystals are common, wherein yellow and black sectors are sharply divided. Like most regional microlite, they are radioactive.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Mitridatite
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Habit: alteration
Colour: yellow-green
Description: Rare coating on altered lithiophilite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Habit: tabular hexagonal to anhedral scales
Colour: silvery metallic
Description: Sharp little crystals to 1/2-inch, shapeless scales, "foil-like wads" in vein quartz with pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite in the host metamorphic rocks or in marginal pegmatite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Colour: brown
Description: Brown crystals to nearly an inch are rarely intergrown with small columbite crystals and fluorapatite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Habit: blocky anhedral
Colour: white to pale grey
Description: Initially identified as amblygonite, which turns out to be very rare in general. Usually isolated, blocky, subhedral to anhedral crystals found in the cleavelandite-rich quartz-plagioclase intermediate zone. Associated minerals are lepidolite, spodumene, colored tourmaline, quartz and cleavelandite. Some crude crystals, up to 3 inches ore more in diameter, have been collected. Several tons of montebrasite were removed at one time, prior to 1940. George Wilkes reported that five tons were taken out at one time, in the late 1930s, and thrown on the high dump. A fine white cleavage, five inches across, from this discovery, is in the Wesleyan University museum; the back of the specimen shows several contiguous crystal faces. There is also a four inch twinned crystal on display that Dick Schooner collected at the pollucite vein, halfway to the bottom of the pit. Quite a number of good crystals have come from the dumps.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Habit: earthy
Colour: pink
Description: As crumbly, soft, pink masses where spodumene has decomposed.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.
Moraesite
Formula: Be2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
Habit: Acicular, encrustations
Colour: white
Description: Merged sprays of acicular crystals forming a white crust on massive beryl, with hydroxylherderite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Morinite ?
Formula: NaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
Description: Unconfirmed. According to Schooner (circa 1985): "A few masses of Strickland quarry natromontebraesite, from the pollucite zone in the middle eastern wall, halfway down, are composed of intergrown metasomatic or hydrothermal alterations. Pink brazilianite, containing a trace of Mn (analysis by the USGS), is associated with augelite, lacroixite, and hydroxylapatite. This mineral was collected by Charles Thomas, and studied by Mary E. Mrose [USGS]. Ronald E. Januzzi had earlier collected material, on the old dumps, in which the brazilianite occurs as confused white aggregates, with hydroxylapatite and possibly morinite."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: tabular, waxy secondary replacement of gemmy almandine
Colour: yellowish-green to pale brown
Description: According to Cameron et al (1954), in the albite-quartz-muscovite wall zone muscovite forms books 2 inches to 6 feet broad and ½ to 12 inches thick. These were heavily mined in the early 1940s. Smaller crystals occur in the other zones, except the quartz core. The output of the Schoonmaker mine and Strickland Quarry places the Strickland pegmatite among the most productive mica pegmatites in the country with a total yield estimated at more than 4,500 tons of mine-run mica. Waxy, yellow fine-grained replacement of gemmy almandine (both confirmed by Raman spectroscopy at the University of New Haven) showing included, remnant, etched pieces of the garnet.
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Sterrett, Douglas B. (1923), Mica Deposits Of The United States, USGS Bulletin 740: 65-67.
Muscovite var: Schernikite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: parallel-growth fibers with rhombic section
Colour: lavender to pink
Description: Typically as overgrowths on muscovite, or as micro-crystals in vugs with K-rich albite, cookeite, bertrandite, elbaite, etc. Similar to, but not as well developed, as the overgrowths found at the Gillette Quarry.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
'Natromontebrasite'
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) reports: "A few years ago, John Gillespie did a spectrographic analysis on a sample submitted by the author, finding much Na and hardly any Li. It is quite possible that natromontebrasite was fairly common... A few masses of Strickland quarry natromontebrasite, from the pollucite zone in the middle eastern wall, halfway down, are composed of intergrown metasomatic or hydrothermal alterations. Pink brazilianite, containing a trace of Mn (analysis by the USGS), is associated with augelite, lacroixite, and hydroxylapatite. This mineral was collected by Charles Thomas, and studied by Mary E. Mrose [USGS]." This mineral was discredited in 2007 as a mixture of montebrasite, lacroixite and wardite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985) Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Handbook of Mineralogy (http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/lacroixite.pdf)
Natrophilite
Formula: NaMn2+PO4
Habit: elongated subhedral grains
Colour: light yellow
Description: Subhedral, glassy, elongated grains embedded in lithiophilite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Habit: coatings, bubbly crusts
Colour: colorless to pale green
Fluorescence: bright green
Description: Typically as thin coatings only easily visible under SW UV light. Minor clear, bubbly crusts occur in secondary mineralizations.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Habit: coatings, bubbly crusts
Colour: colorless to pale green
Fluorescence: bright green
Description: Typically as thin coatings only easily visible under SW UV light. Minor clear, bubbly crusts occur in secondary mineralizations.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Old references often refer to K-feldspar in pegmatites as orthoclase, but Stugard (1958) and Cameron et al (1954) show that it is microcline.
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Stugard, Frederick, Jr. (1958): Pegmatites of the Middletown Area, Connecticut. USGS Bulletin 1042-Q.
Parsonsite
Formula: Pb2(UO2)(PO4)2
Habit: alteration of uraninite
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) reports: "A soft uraninite alteration, on a Wesleyan University sample from the Strickland quarry, gave the X-ray pattern of parsonsite. The available material was consumed in testing."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Petalite
Formula: LiAl(Si4O10)
Habit: granular to cleavable masses
Colour: pale grey to white
Description: Schooner (1958) says: "sparingly associated with the pollucite which the author discovered at the Strickland Quarry in Portland in l954. It was in the form of glassy white or colorless cleavages and coarsely crystalline aggregates." Later, in Schooner (circa 1985), he elaborates: "Good specimens of white petalite, closely associated with colorless pollucite, were collected deep in the Strickland quarry, in the early 1950s. The author appears to have the only such material. It is usually granular, so the perfect cleavage is not as conspicuous as might be expected. The petalite was verified by X-ray diffraction. Similar petalite has been found on the dumps, intergrown with spodumene; the spodumene may be thoroughly altered to 'pinite', whereas the petalite, being much more stable, is in a fresh condition."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Habit: striated, slightly etched elongated prisms
Colour: colorless
Description: Clear crystals to 3 mm in vug in cleavalandite with K-rich albite, bertrandite to 5 mm, quartz and goethite after pyrite.
Reference: Robinson, George W. and Vandall T. King. (1988), What's New in Minerals? Mineralogical Record: 19(5): 332.; specimen observations by Harold Moritz.
Phlogopite ?
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: micaceous
Colour: dark brown
Description: Schooner (1958) speculates that the brown mica in the calc-silicate units in the host Collins Hill Formation is dravite. In Schooner (circa 1985) he writes that "blocks of intergrown dravite and phlogopite have been collected; they came from the pegmatite near its contact with schist". In both cases, analytical data are lacking.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Habit: reniform crusts
Colour: white
Description: Schooner (1955) says that it "used to be found in magnificent specimens at the small cut above the main part of the Strickland Quarry. Water from the adjacent Schoonmaker shaft, in flowing over a ledge of schist, decomposed the sulphides and mica, producing this hydrosoluble sulphate in limited abundance when the pumping was halted for a while." In Schooner (1958) he elaborates: "At times, especially when water was being drained down over the ledges, the author saw several square feet of rock surface completely covered with reniform pickeringite. Even leaves and twigs, on the ground below, were incrusted. The color was frequently pure white, and the material was solid enough to obtain in sizeable pieces. A peculiar mass, over an inch thick, was found under an overhanging ledge in the principal part of the quarry."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
'Pinite'
Habit: massive, fine-grained alteration of spodumene
Colour: grayish shades of green, yellow, purple
Description: Multi-colored alteration pseudomorphs after spodumene, with a soapy feel, like serpentine. Schooner (1958) elaborates: "During the active period at the locality, a bewildering array of 'pinite' specimens were encountered. They were of all colors and resembled jade, petrified wood, and other things. Many were perfect pseudomorphs after the original mineral."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Planerite
Formula: Al6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) writes that "A Boston Mineral Club list of Strickland quarry minerals, dating from about 1940, describes planerite as green crusts on fractured quartz. Several pieces of that material, resembling variscite, were collected at the time; unfortunately, none is now available for study."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Pollucite
Formula: (Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Habit: massive, granular
Colour: colorless to pale grey
Description: Schooner (1958) discovered it in l954. "He obtained specimens of glassy material, up to well over a foot across, from a wedge-shaped vein of alkaline minerals which had been exposed by quarrying and subsequently developed by a number of collectors… who threw the pollucite aside, in the belief that it was quartz. The author himself was deceived by this material for a while, even though he had been diligently searching for the mineral in the area. The pollucite, not previously reported from Connecticut, was intimately associated with petalite, spodumene, pink and green tourmaline, amblygonite [montebrasite], cleavelandite, lepidolite, and quartz. Two or three masses had been completely altered to a clay which became waxy on drying, but most of the pollucite was fresh and had a high cesium content."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Purpurite
Formula: (Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Habit: encrustation
Colour: purple
Description: Rare alteration of lithiophilite. Parent lithiophilite has Mn/Mn + Fe = 0.97 (Moore, 2000).
Reference: Moore, P. B. (2000): Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine: 333-336.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: cuboctahedral to pyritohedral, cubic
Colour: brassy
Description: In the pegmatite, typically as small crystals typically <1/2-inch, commonly with a red hematite patina, in pockets with K-rich albite of the mineralized cleavalandite-quartz intermediate zone, associated with fluorite, calcite, micro-quartz, cookeite, bertrandite. Some altered to goethite. In Alpine-cleft type openings in the host schist of the Collins Hill Formation as aggregates of staggered cubes to 5mm on albite with chlorite and anatase.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Description: Speculation by Schooner.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Description: No pyrolusite dendrite or staining in a granite pegmatite in the world has been verified as pyrolusite. The name was a mistake in the nineteenth century which has been widely publicized. See "manganese oxides" for description.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Habit: massive
Colour: reddish metallic
Description: Massive concentrations in quartz in the host Collins Hill Formation and as inclusions in diopside in calc-silicate units within.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: trigonal prisms
Colour: colorless to pale grey, black, light brown, pink, yellow
Description: Besides the ubiquitous massive material in all zones, large, distorted and rough pocket crystals, clear to smoky, sometimes gemmy, are known from the quartz-cleavelandite intermediate zone. These crystals are overgrowths on earlier fragmented quartz with "healed" faces and are commonly coated with albite, cookeite or fragments of matrix and included with white, acicular, hollow cavities of a former unknown mineral. Glassy micro-crystals associated with K-rich albite, cookeite, micas, bertrandite in secondary crystallizations.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Habit: scepters
Colour: purple
Description: As scepter overgrowths on pocket milky quartz crystals.
Reference: Alfred Patrie collection
Quartz var: Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Description: Schooner (1958): "Citrine, of fine gem quality, was formerly found at the Strickland Quarry, and a few stones were facetted from it... evidently the “topaz” which some people say was taken from there."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Quartz var: Milky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: elongated prismatic with rhombohedral terminations
Colour: white
Description: Smaller pocket crystals are often the milky variety.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Habit: large distorted crystals and delicate elongated micro-crystals
Colour: colorless
Description: Large blocky, distorted crystals that are overgrowths on earlier fragmented quartz can be colorless, though they are typically smoky. In vugs with secondary minerals such as K-rich albite, bertrandite, micas, cookeite, etc., it occurs as delicate, glassy, doubly-terminated microcrystals sometimes in spindly aggregates.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Quartz var: Rose Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: massive
Colour: rosy
Description: Not very common, most rosy material turned out to be morganite beryl.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: distorted prismatic crystals typically as overgrowths on earlier fragmented quartz
Colour: gray to light brown, black
Description: Magnificent clear and smoky crystals, up to at least a foot in length, and almost as broad came from many large pockets. These commonly distorted crystals are mostly overgrowths of earlier fragmented quartz and show complex "healed" faces and inclusions of fragmented bits of albite, and secondary minerals like cookeite, K-rich albite, fluorapatite and and an acicular mineral that later dissolved leaving voids filed by albite and/or cookeite. Much gem material was produced including black cairngorm.
Reference: Jarnot, Bruce. (1995): Connecticut Gems and Gem Minerals. Rocks & Minerals: 70(6): 378-382.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Reddingite ?
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
Habit: micro-crystals
Colour: dark red
Description: Rare micro-crystals in altered lithiophilite may be this typical alteration product (Schooner, circa 1985).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Habit: microcrystalline rhombs and scalenohedrons
Colour: pale pink to brownish white
Description: Granular pink to tan aggregates, with poor crystals in vugs in altered lithiophilite with hureaulite, hydroxylapatite and groutite. Masses up to 4 inches have been reported. Such rhodochrosite grades into siderite. Rarely, little bright pink cleavages have been seen with lithiophilite. An overgrowth on yellow calcite is a unique item. In a single instance, 1/8 inch euhedral deep pink crystals were found in a vug of albite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Description: Turned out to be lithiophilite.
Reference: Foye, Wilbur G. (1919): A New Occurrence of Rhodonite. American Mineralogist: 4(10): 124.
'Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Habit: elongated, striated prisms
Colour: pink to rosy
Fluorescence: blue
Description: Pink to rosy variety of elbaite, usually pastel, commonly fragmented and etched and associated with K-rich albite, cookeite, quartz in the cleavelandite-quartz intermediate zone. Pink cores of some concentrially-zoned "watermelon" tourmaline fluoresce blue.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: massive
Colour: very dark red-brown
Description: Massive grains in almandine coticule found in the host metamorphic rocks around the pegmatite. Micro grains as an accessory in these rock. Raman spectroscopy confirmation by Paul Bartholomew, U. New Haven. Also small crystalline masses scattered in magnesio-hornblende and grossular calc-silicate rock from the host Collins Hill Formation.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Samarskite-(Y) ?
Formula: (Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Description: Schooner says it has been "reported" but details and specimens lacking.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
'Scapolite' ?
Habit: massive
Colour: white
Description: A likely component of the calc-silicate units of the host Collins Hill Formation, but not confirmed.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Habit: tiny grains
Fluorescence: bright bue-white
Description: Schooner says he found it as tiny fluorescing specks in granular orange-fluorescing "wollastonite" with very tough quartz in the schist which adjoined the pegmatite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Habit: elongated prisms
Colour: black
Description: Typically as large subhedral prisms in pegmatite matrix and as small scattered crystals in contacting schist. Can reach several inches in cross-section. Some concentrically overgrown by blue-green and olive-green elbaite. Schooner (1958) reports: "Enormous black crystals, occasionally well developed, were encountered in considerable profusion during the operation of the quarry in 1952 and 1953. They were embedded in cleavelandite, with manganapatite and spodumene; the point of origin in the pegmatite was a tunnel, perhaps two hundred feet below the surface."
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Scorodite ?
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Habit: encrustation
Colour: green
Description: Schooner (1955) says "a small piece of badly weathered arsenopyrite had a bright green coating of the mineral".
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Sicklerite
Formula: Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Habit: crusts
Colour: brown
Description: Thin brown crust on altered lithiophilite with hureaulite and hydroxylapatite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Habit: curved rhombohedra
Colour: tan
Description: Microscopic crystals with fluorite and analcime, SEM-EDS analysis shows some Mn impurity. This is consistent with Schooner's claim that rhodochrosite from altered lithiophilite grades into siderite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955), 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Harold Moritz collection
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: massive to trapezohedral
Colour: orange-red
Description: 2017 SEM-EDS analysis of an orange-red crystal in fine-grained greenish muscovite confirms the identification. Orange colored crystals are likely spessartine, however, as there is much almandine and likely both a chemical and color gradation between these two species here, each suspected crystal may need analysis to confirm the identification.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Habit: cleavable anhedral grains
Colour: black to dark yellow-brown
Description: Usually cleavable small grains, rarely pocket crystals, in the mineralized cleavelandite-quartz intermediate zone with K-rich albite and other sulfides.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Habit: elongated prisms
Colour: exterior tan to pale grey, interior white to lavender
Fluorescence: lavender-pink in SW, orange-pink in LW
Description: Tons of fragmented crystals were in the dumps, many well terminated. Most crystals etched on the exterior to a "woody" appearance, some crystals altered to pinite. The interior of good crystals is white to lavender and translucent with some rare gem material. Schooner (1958) says that "Rather large crystals, a yard long and a foot wide, were abundant when the locality was active. During the last period of operation, in l954, a great deal of the mineral was uncovered in the lower east wall of the main pit. Part of a wedge-shaped vein of lithium minerals was composed of virtually solid white spodumene. Green and lavender material was also present there, associated with pollucite, amblygonite, lepidolite, and cleavelandite. Most of the green and some of the pink has a good orange fluorescence and a vivid and long sustained orange phosphorescence under short-wave ultra-violet light. Cleavages are still found in the old dumps. Several fine specimens of translucent to semi-transparent light purple kunzite have been secured in recent years."
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Colour: lavender
Description: Most spodumene from this pegmatite is not gemmy and much of it is altered or etched to various degrees, although some of the better crystals have translucent, lavender interiors.
Reference: Jarnot, Bruce. (1995): Connecticut Gems and Gem Minerals. Rocks & Minerals: 70(6): 378-382.
Spurrite
Formula: Ca5(SiO4)2(CO3)
Colour: bluish-gray
Description: Schooner (circa 1985): "In some of the wollastonite pods at the Strickland quarry, bluish-gray spurrite occurs as very thin layers with grossularite and larnite. X-ray confirmation was obtained from a number of samples. Spurrite also is mixed with the granular wollastonite and its embedded minute gehlenite crystals; only X-ray peaks revealed its presence in that material." Studied by Waldemar T. Schaller of USGS.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Habit: prismatic
Colour: dark brown
Description: Thumbnail sized crystals in the Collins Hill Schist west of the pegmatite.
Reference: Anthony Albini collection
Stewartite ?
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Colour: pale yellow
Description: According to Schooner (circa 1985) occurs as tiny yellow crystals in altered hureaulite. Specimens of hureaulite from the dump bulldozed in 1984 show small areas of a yellow alteration, possibly stewartite. So far an SEM-EDS analysis (2017) of yellow grains in lithiophilite have proven to be natrophilite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
'Stilbite subgroup'
Habit: elongated tabular micro-crystals
Colour: yellow
Reference: Anthony Albini collection
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Habit: efflorescence on pyrite or pyrrhotite
Description: Schooner (1958): "as a powdery incrustation on decomposing pyrite and pyrrhotite. A bottled specimen from the Strickland Quarry in Portland, in the author’s collection, shows a piece of albite and drusy pyrite coated with microcrystallized yellow sulfur and fragile gray melanterite efflorescences."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: MnTa2O6
Habit: elongated to tabular prisms
Colour: deep maroon with iridescence
Description: Usually as small (<1") but well-formed crystals in the mineralized part of the cleavelandite-quartz intermediate zone. Schooner (1958) reports: "W. G. Foye reported [it] in 1929. An analysis of such material, made for Ronald Januzzi, showed the manganese oxide content to be 13.96%. Many rich specimens have been found on the old dumps. The author obtained several superb examples at the vein of lithium minerals in the bottom of the quarry, in 1954. Half inch crystals, and larger masses, were embedded in a matrix of cleavelandite and amblygonite [montebrasite]. The material showed a gradation from dark brown to bright red... the latter nearly transparent and of great beauty. Some was iridescent. The luster was resinous and the manganotantalite exhibited a perfect parting which gave it a micaceous appearance." Some more brown crystals have later proven to be wodginite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Habit: micro-crystals
Colour: brown
Description: Minor accessory in the calc-silicate units of the host Collins Hill Formation.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Colour: white
Description: At least one recognizable crystal about 5 cm long was collected by Richard Schooner. Confirmed by Bruce Jarnot, Anthony Albini, and Harold Moritz. Schooner (1958) states that: "There have been reports of topaz...but most evidently refer to the gem quality citrine quartz (the 'topaz' of commerce) which was produced many years ago. Nevertheless, John Tweedy, former operator of the locality, told the author that his company geologist had identified the mineral there in 1953." Later, in Schooner (circa 1985) he says: "Topaz was supposedly verified from the Strickland quarry, at Yale University, a decade ago. It must be quite rare."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Habit: elongated prisms, acicular, capillary, asbestiform
Colour: black, greens, blue, pink, lavender, gray, white
Fluorescence: pink variety fluoresces blue
Description: See descriptions of elbaite, foitite, and schorl for details. In the mineralized portion of the cleavelandite-quartz intermediate zone, associated with much K-rich albite and elbaite, occurs much secondary acicular to capillary tourmaline, some of it forming asbestiform mats. Some of it has distinct color and is likely elbaite, but much is white to black and could be other species. Analyses are lacking.
Reference: Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: needles
Colour: white
Description: Microcrystals in voids in amphibolite with adularia.
Reference: Former Ronald Januzzi collection
Triplite
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Habit: irregular massive nodules
Colour: red-brown
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) reports: "Rich specimens, some dark red, garnet-like, with a conchoidal fracture, up to an inch across, were collected by the author on the old dump bulldozed in 1984. X-ray study confirmed the identity. Some of the triplite is altered to hureaulite, occurring as vugs of tiny crystals. It may be surrounded by white or tan fluorapatite, very fine-grained."
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951): The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 667, 851.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Habit: octahedral to irregular grains
Colour: black
Description: Easily identified by its association with colorful secondary mineralization. Schooner (1955) states that: "crystals, of excellent form, ranging up to a quarter of an inch in diameter were obtained from near the surface of Collins Hill, during the early years [around 1920] of the Strickland Quarry. Wesleyan University, in neighboring Middletown, has many fine specimens. The crystals are octahedral, with cubic modifications." See http://www.mindat.org/photo-626775.html. Columbite-(Fe) and sphalerite were associated.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Uranophane
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Habit: earthy crust
Colour: yellow
Description: Alteration of uraninite found in contact with it and immediately around it. Associated with hard to see but very fluorescent meta-autunite found a bit further out from the uraninite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
'Verdelite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Colour: green
Description: See elbaite for details.
Vesuvianite ?
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Colour: brown
Description: Possible component of the calc-silicate units in the host Collins Hill Formation. A single tiny brown potential vesuvianite crystal was noted on a wollastonite(?) specimen.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Vivianite ?
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Habit: thin film
Colour: blue
Description: Reported as thin blue films on weathered lithiophilite. This is unlikely given the absence of Fe in that mineral here. Lithiophilite is commonly associated with blue elbaite here, which could be mistaken for vivianite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Wardite
Formula: NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) reports that "Wardite and wavellite occurred in a fine-grained replacement of natromontebrasite from the Strickland quarry. The rest of the sample was quartz. X-ray study revealed their existence." Natromontebrasite was discredited in 2007 as a mixture of wardite, montebrasite and lacroixite, which were all documented here by the study Schooner mentions.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Wodginite
Formula: Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Habit: tapered, elongated prisms
Colour: dark brown
Description: Fantastic tapered crystals, 2 to 6 cm long, translucent and sometimes showing a little iridescence. Typically in cleavelandite, associated with cassiterite, foitite grading into elbaite, gobbinsite and quartz. Long misidentified as cassiterite or tantalite-(Mn) and too bad as it was not "discovered" until 1963 in Canada and Australia. Strickland could have been the type locality had it been recognized as a new mineral when the quarry was active. Schooner (circa 1985) summarizes its identification: A decade ago, the author found a loose 4 inch mass of montebrasite, studded with sharply formed little dark brown crystals, on one of the Strickland quarry dumps. These were tentatively classified as manganotantalite, despite visual differences. The X-ray pattern was later rechecked, with wodginite in mind, and the fit was close enough to warrant a spectrographic test, which showed the presence of tin. Pete J. Dunn and Peter Cerny have since made probe studies of the material. The original mass was broken into several rich specimens. The wodginite is in equant crystals, transparent under magnification, with a few little tabular amber crystals of manganotantalite. This material obviously represented only part of a concentration of wodginite in montebrasite. Several years ago, Bruce Jarnot encountered a small cleavelandite boulder, on the long narrow dump along the western edge of the hill, yielding maybe a dozen superb thumbnails of sharp, euhedral, reddish-black wodginite crystals, of a pyramidal aspect, up to almost an inch. These, too, were thought to be manganotantalite, until X-ray study proved them to be wodginite. At that point, the author became suspicious of an iridescent brown mineral, embedded in columnar green elbaite, collected around 1950. The X-ray pattern shows it to be wodginite, in yet another habit. Obviously, the mineral has been mistaken for other things!
Reference: Jarnot, Bruce M. (2011): Letters: Connecticut Update. Rocks & Minerals: 86(4): 299.; Jarnot, Bruce. (1989): Minerals New to the Portland Area Pegmatites of Central Connecticut. Abstract from the 16th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium April 7, 1989, in Rocks & Minerals: 64(12): 471.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Habit: granular, bladed
Colour: white
Fluorescence: orange
Description: Found by Schooner in 1953 and 1954, and reported in Schooner (1955): "It is pure white in color, and granular massive in form. Fairly large pieces were obtained from the cores of lenticular quartz-actinolite-grossularite-diopside "horses" [pods] in biotite schist, from near the pegmatite. The mineral is photosensitive, turning brown and ugly if exposed to sunlight for very long. It is faintly fluorescent, in a pale orange tint, and strongly phosphorescent, in a brighter shade of the same color, under short-wave ultra-violet radiations". In Schooner (1958) there is more information: "W. T. Schaller, of the U. S. Geological Survey, made an optical study of this wollastonite, to determine its manganese content through a correlation with the refractive index…which was 1.632, indicating about one percent of iron and manganese oxides." Followed by this passage in Schooner (circa 1985): "Waldemar T. Schaller studied samples submitted by the author. The wollastonite, with tiny embedded tan gehlenite crystals, and occasional light yellow crystals of grossularite, occupies the centers of a few pods, surrounded by concentric zones of fine-grained tan grossularite, white quartz, and greenish diopside. Spurrite, larnite, vesuvianite, and calcite are rarely associated. Spurrite may, indeed, be mixed, granularly, with wollastonite. Small bladed crystals of wollastonite are seen on a few specimens."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Description: Speculation by Schooner.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Wurtzite var: Voltzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Description: Speculation by Schooner.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Description: Schooner (1955) says that "crystals, up to an inch across were occasionally found at the Strickland Quarry, especially on the Schoonmaker dump, at one time. They were both tabular and prismatic, had a chocolate-brown color, and were associated with tiny columbite crystals in a matrix of discolored cleavelandite." He gives a similar passage in Schooner (1958) but in Schooner (circa 1985) appears to retract the identification: "No specimens have been seen by the author. It could easily be confused with zircon, present in so many rocks of the district." It could be that the earlier reports were later identified as wodginite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
'Zinnwaldite'
Habit: micaceous
Colour: golden-brown, purplish-grey
Description: Found in the cleavelandite-quartz intermediate zone. Schooner (circa 1985) reports that "X-ray and spectrographic study, quite recently, have identified rich specimens, consisting of coarse golden-brown aggregates with zoned elbaite-schorl tourmaline. It can also be purplish-gray."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Habit: bipyramids
Colour: grey-brown
Fluorescence: yellow
Description: Small crystals scattered through all zones except the quartz core.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Zircon var: Cyrtolite
Formula: Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Habit: short prismatic, parallel groups
Colour: brown or black
Description: Schooner (1955) says that: "crystals are of small size. Parallel groups are often found in cleavelandite and smoky quartz, and other matrices include manganapatite, microcline, lithiophilite, and various mixtures. The crystals have such short prisms that they resemble distorted dodecahedrons, probably being mistaken for opaque garnets by some collectors." The size rarely exceeds 1/4 inch.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Habit: massive granular
Colour: white to gray, pale pink
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) gives the best description: "Zoisite is very common in calc-silicate rock and amphibolite at the Strickland quarry. It is usually white or gray, but occasionally pale pink, forming veins through a mixture of hornblende and garnet. A number of samples have been X-rayed. Other associated minerals are ferroaxinite, anorthite, and fassaite. Just outside the western edge of the quarry, at the site of an old powder-shed dugout, much calc-silicate rock is composed mainly of green and brown clinopyroxene, with white zoisite. A few excellent crystals, embedded in quartz, have come from there."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite ?2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite ?2.CB.45CdS
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Wurtzite ?2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
var: Voltzite ?2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Arsenolite ?4.CB.50As2O3
Bismite ?4.CB.60Bi2O3
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35FeNb2O6
Euxenite-(Y) ?4.DG.05(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Gahnite ?4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite4.FD.10Mn3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite ?4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Manganite' ?4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrochlore Group ?4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Pyrolusite ?4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
var: Milky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rose Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Samarskite-(Y) ?4.DB.25(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35MnTa2O6
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Wodginite4.DB.40Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Bismutite ?5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite ?7.AD.35PbSO4
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Goslarite ?7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Melanterite'7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Amblygonite' ?8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)F
Augelite8.BE.05Al2(PO4)(OH)3
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Brazilianite8.BK.05NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Crandallite ?8.BL.10CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)8.BF.05{KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn2+13}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
Eosphorite8.DD.20Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Fairfieldite8.CG.05Ca2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite8.BN.05(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Hureaulite8.CB.10(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylherderite8.BA.10CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Lacroixite8.BH.10NaAl(PO4)F
Lithiophilite8.AB.10LiMn2+PO4
'Meta-autunite'8.EB.10Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
'Metatorbernite' ?8.EB.10Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Mitridatite8.DH.30Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Montebrasite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Moraesite8.DA.05Be2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
Morinite ?8.DM.05NaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
Natrophilite8.AB.10NaMn2+PO4
Parsonsite8.EA.10Pb2(UO2)(PO4)2
Planerite ?8.DD.15Al6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
Purpurite8.AB.10(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Reddingite ?8.CC.05(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
Scorodite ?8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Sicklerite8.AB.10Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
Stewartite ?8.DC.30Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Triplite8.BB.10(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Vivianite ?8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Wardite8.DL.10NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Xenotime-(Y) ?8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite' ?9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Allanite-(Ce)' ?9.BG.05b{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Almandine'9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Annite9.EC.20KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Anorthite9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
var: Fassaite9.DA.15(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Bavenite9.DF.25Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Bazzite9.CJ.05Be3Sc2(Si6O18)
Bertrandite9.BD.05Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Heliodor9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Bityite9.EC.35LiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Chrysotile ?9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Eucryptite ?9.AA.05LiAlSiO4
Foitite9.CK.05(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Gehlenite9.BB.10Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Gobbinsite9.GC.05Na5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2O
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Halloysite ?9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Larnite9.AD.05Ca2SiO4
Magnesio-hornblende9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Masutomilite'9.EC.20(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
'Microcline'9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Schernikite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase ?9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Petalite9.EF.05LiAl(Si4O10)
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Phlogopite ?9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pollucite9.GB.05(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Rhodonite ?9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Spurrite9.AH.15Ca5(SiO4)2(CO3)
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Uranophane9.AK.15Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Vesuvianite ?9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
var: Cyrtolite9.AD.30Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Zoisite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Apatite-
Chlorite Group-
K Feldspar-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Lepidolite-
Limonite-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'var: Manganese Dendrites'-
Natromontebrasite-
Pinite-
Rubellite-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Scapolite ?-
Stilbite subgroup-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Verdelite-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Zinnwaldite-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite ?2.8.7.2CdS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite ?2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite ?2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Arsenolite ?4.3.9.1As2O3
Bismite ?4.3.10.2Bi2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite ?4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Pyrolusite ?4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite6.1.1.3Mn3+O(OH)
Manganite ?6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Gahnite ?7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Samarskite-(Y) ?8.1.11.1(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Wodginite8.1.8.1Mn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Microlite Group'8.2.2.1A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
'Pyrochlore Group' ?8.2.1.1A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
AB2O6
Columbite-(Fe)8.3.2.2FeNb2O6
Euxenite-(Y) ?8.3.8.2(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3MnTa2O6
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bismutite ?16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite ?28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Goslarite ?29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
ABXO4
Lithiophilite38.1.1.2LiMn2+PO4
Natrophilite38.1.1.3NaMn2+PO4
Sicklerite38.1.4.2Li1-x(Mn3+xMn2+1-x)PO4
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Purpurite38.4.1.2(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Group 39 - HYDRATED ACID PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5[HXO4]2[XO4]2.xH2O
Hureaulite39.2.1.1(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Fairfieldite40.2.2.1Ca2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Meta-autunite40.2a.1.2Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Metatorbernite ?40.2a.13.2Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Parsonsite40.2a.31.1Pb2(UO2)(PO4)2
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Reddingite ?40.3.2.3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
Vivianite ?40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite ?40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Amblygonite ?41.5.8.1LiAl(PO4)F
Brazilianite41.5.7.1NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Hydroxylherderite41.5.4.2CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Lacroixite41.5.5.1NaAl(PO4)F
Montebrasite41.5.8.2LiAl(PO4)(OH)
'Natromontebrasite'41.5.8.3
A2(XO4)Zq
Augelite41.6.8.1Al2(PO4)(OH)3
Triplite41.6.1.2(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq
Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)41.7.2.2{KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn2+13}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Morinite ?42.4.2.1NaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
A2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Moraesite42.6.1.1Be2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Crandallite ?42.7.3.1CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Eosphorite42.7.1.2Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Wardite42.7.8.2NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Mitridatite42.8.4.1Ca2Fe3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Planerite ?42.9.3.6Al6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Stewartite ?42.11.10.2Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Eucryptite ?51.1.1.3LiAlSiO4
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Larnite51.5.1.1Ca2SiO4
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 53 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions or Complex Cations
Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions of Complex Cations with (CO3)
Spurrite53.1.1.1Ca5(SiO4)2(CO3)
Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions of Complex Cations with (UO2)
Uranophane53.3.1.2Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Group 55 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
Gehlenite55.4.1.2Ca2Al(AlSiO7)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Bertrandite56.1.1.1Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Allanite-(Ce) ?58.2.1a.1{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite ?58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Zoisite58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Bazzite61.1.1.2Be3Sc2(Si6O18)
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite61.3.1.1(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite ?65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 70 - INOSILICATES Column or Tube Structures
Column or Tube Structures with chains linked by Be
Bavenite70.5.3.1Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Chrysotile ?71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Halloysite' ?71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Annite71.2.2b.3KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Bityite71.2.2c.3LiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Masutomilite71.2.2b.12(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite ?71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with tetrahedral Al cross-linking
Petalite72.6.1.1LiAl(Si4O10)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase ?76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Gobbinsite77.1.3.4Na5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2O
Pollucite77.1.1.2(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite ?-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Apatite'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
Augite
var: Fassaite
-(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Heliodor-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Chlorite Group'-
Fluorapatite
var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite
-(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Lepidolite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnesio-hornblende-☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Manganese Oxides'-
'var: Manganese Dendrites'-
Muscovite
var: Schernikite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
'Pinite'-
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Citrine-SiO2
var: Milky Quartz-SiO2
var: Rock Crystal-SiO2
var: Rose Quartz-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
'Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Scapolite' ?-
Spodumene
var: Kunzite
-LiAlSi2O6
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Wurtzite
var: Voltzite ?
-(Zn,Fe)S
Xenotime-(Y) ?-Y(PO4)
'Zinnwaldite'-
Zircon
var: Cyrtolite
-Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H AugeliteAl2(PO4)(OH)3
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
H BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)
H BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
H BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
H BrazilianiteNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
H Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H FairfielditeCa2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
H Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
H GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
H HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
H MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
H MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
H Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
H MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
H MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H ParsonsitePb2(UO2)(PO4)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
H Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
H Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
H Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
H Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
H UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
H WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
LiLithium
Li AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Li BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li EucryptiteLiAlSiO4
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Li Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Li MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Li PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Li SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Be BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)
Be BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Be Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Be MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
BBoron
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
B RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C GraphiteC
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C SpurriteCa5(SiO4)2(CO3)
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O AnataseTiO2
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O AragoniteCaCO3
O ArsenoliteAs2O3
O AugeliteAl2(PO4)(OH)3
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
O BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)
O BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O BismiteBi2O3
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
O BrazilianiteNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CassiteriteSnO2
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
O Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O EucryptiteLiAlSiO4
O Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
O FairfielditeCa2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
O Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
O GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O HematiteFe2O3
O Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
O HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
O LarniteCa2SiO4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
O Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
O MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Quartz (var: Milky Quartz)SiO2
O MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
O Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O ParsonsitePb2(UO2)(PO4)2
O PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
O Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
O Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
O Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Rose Quartz)SiO2
O RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O RutileTiO2
O Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
O SideriteFeCO3
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O SpurriteCa5(SiO4)2(CO3)
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
O Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
O UraniniteUO2
O UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
O VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
O WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FFluorine
F AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
F LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
F Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
F Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
F MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)
Na BrazilianiteNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Na GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2O
Na LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
Na NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Na Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Mg Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al AugeliteAl2(PO4)(OH)3
Al BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Al BrazilianiteNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Al EucryptiteLiAlSiO4
Al Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Al Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Al GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2O
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
Al Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
Al Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Si BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)
Si BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si EucryptiteLiAlSiO4
Si Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Si Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Si GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Si GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2O
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si LarniteCa2SiO4
Si Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Quartz (var: Milky Quartz)SiO2
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Rose Quartz)SiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si SpurriteCa5(SiO4)2(CO3)
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
PPhosphorus
P AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
P AugeliteAl2(PO4)(OH)3
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
P BrazilianiteNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
P CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
P EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
P FairfielditeCa2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
P HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
P LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
P LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
P Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
P MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
P MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
P Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
P MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
P MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
P NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
P ParsonsitePb2(UO2)(PO4)2
P PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
P Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
P Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
P SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
P StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
P Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
P WarditeNaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 2H2O
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S GalenaPbS
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S GreenockiteCdS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S SulphurS8
S Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
ClChlorine
Cl Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
K Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Ca BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Ca Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ca FairfielditeCa2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Ca HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Ca LarniteCa2SiO4
Ca Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ca Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Ca MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Ca Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2O
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca SpurriteCa5(SiO4)2(CO3)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
ScScandium
Sc BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ti Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn132+}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2
Mn EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Mn FairfielditeCa2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Mn GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
Mn LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
Mn Fluorapatite (var: Mn-bearing Fluorapatite)(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Mn NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4
Mn Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2O
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Mn SickleriteLi1-x(Mnx3+Mn2+1-x)PO4
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
Mn Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Mn WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Augite (var: Fassaite)(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Fe Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe MitridatiteCa2Fe33+(PO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Fe Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe StewartiteMn2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Fe Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Fe Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
ZnZinc
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
AsArsenic
As ArsenoliteAs2O3
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As LöllingiteFeAs2
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
YYttrium
Y Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Y Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr Zircon (var: Cyrtolite)Zr[(SiO4),(OH)4]
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
Nb Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Nb Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Nb Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
Sn WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
CsCaesium
Cs Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
CeCerium
Ce Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ce Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
TaTantalum
Ta Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Ta Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
Ta WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb ParsonsitePb2(UO2)(PO4)2
BiBismuth
Bi BismiteBi2O3
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
ThThorium
Th Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Th Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
UUranium
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
U Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
U Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
U MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
U ParsonsitePb2(UO2)(PO4)2
U Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
U UraniniteUO2
U UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2 · 5H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Devonian - Silurian
358.9 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 3186140
Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Age: Paleozoic (358.9 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone-carbonate-sandstone-conglomerate

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Ordovician - Middle Ordovician
443.8 - 470 Ma



ID: 2978277
Collins Hill Formation

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 470 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Collins Hill Formation

Description: ( = Partridge Formation of New Hampshire) - Gray, rusty-weathering, medium- to coarse-grained, poorly layered schist, composed of quartz, oligoclase, muscovite, biotite, and garnet, and commonly staurolite, kyanite, or sillimanite, generally graphitic, interlayered with fine-grained two-mica gneiss, especially to the west, and with calc-silicate and amphibolite layers, also rare quartz-spessartine (coticule) layers.

Comments: Part of Eastern Uplands; Iapetus (Oceanic) Terrane - Bronson Hill Anticlinorium; Brimfield Schist and equivalent formations (includes Collins Hill Formation) (Upper? and Middle Ordovician). Original map source: Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, DEP, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, 2000, Bedrock Geology of Connecticut, shapefile, scale 1:50,000

Lithology: Major:{schist}, Minor:{gneiss}, Incidental:{amphibolite, calc silicate rock}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
J. H. Beers & Co. (1884) The History of Middlesex County 1635-1885.
Bastin, Edson S. (1910) Economic Geology of the Feldspar Deposits of the United States. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 420, Government Printing Office.
Schrader, Frank C., Stone, Ralph W., and Sanford, Samuel (1917) Useful Minerals of the United States. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 624: 97-101.
Foye, Wilbur G. (1919) A New Occurrence of Rhodonite. American Mineralogist: 4(10): 124.
Shannon, Earl V. (1920) Strickland's Quarry, Portland, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 5(3): 51-54.
Foye, Wilbur. G. (1922) Mineral Localities in the Vicinity of Middletown, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 7(1): 4-12.
Sterrett, Douglas B. (1923) Mica Deposits Of The United States. USGS Bulletin 740: 65-67.
Schairer, J. F. (1926) Lithiophilite and Other Rare Phosphates from Portland, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 11(4): 101-104.
Schairer, J. F. and Lawson. C. C. (1926) Pickeringite from Portland, Connecticut. American Journal of Science: 11: 301-4.
Rice, W. N. and Foye, Wilbur G. (1927) Guide To The Geology Of Middletown, Connecticut, and vicinity. State Geological and Natural History Survey Of Connecticut Bulletin 41: 87-90.
Schairer, J. F. (1931) The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Otersen, Lillian (1934) Report on New Haven Mineral Trip to Strickland Quarry (Rocks & Minerals Association National Outing, May 20, 1934). Rocks & Minerals: 9(6): 104.
Jenks, William F. (1935) Pegmatites at Collins Hill, Portland, Conn. American Journal of Science: s. 5, 30: 177-197.
Zodac, Peter (1937) Minerals of the Strickland Quarry. Rocks & Minerals: 12: 131-144.
Federal Writer's Project (1938) Connecticut: A Guide to Its Roads, Lore, and People: 402.
Little, L. W. (1942) Recent Finds of Minerals in Central Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 17(8).
Confidential unpublished war min. report (1944) Reg. file Nos. E-816, Strickland Mica-Feldspar Mine, Middlesex County, Connecticut, 1944, 19 [page No. - ?].
Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1945) Structural And Economic Characteristics Of New England Mica Deposits. Economic Geology: 11(6): 378-380.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 667, 851.
Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954) Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.
Schooner, Richard (1955) 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Schooner, Richard (1958) The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Stugard, Frederick, Jr. (1958) Pegmatites of the Middletown Area, Connecticut. USGS Bulletin 1042-Q.
Jones, Robert W. (1960) Luminescent Minerals of Connecticut, a Guide to Their Properties and Locations.
Schooner, Richard (1961) The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Killeen, P. L., and Newman, W. L. (1965) USGS MR-44: 3, - TI.
Brookins, D.G., Fairbairn, H.W., Hurley, P.M., and Pinson, W.H. (1969) A Rb-Sr Geochronologic Study of the Pegmatites of the Middletown Area, Connecticut). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 22: 157-168.
Ryerson, Kathleen (1972) Rock Hound's Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press.
Henderson, William A., Jr. (1975) The Bertrandites of Connecticut. Mineralogical Record: 6(3): 114-123.
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State (Taylor Assoc./Mineralogical Press).
Webster, Bud (1978) Mineral Collector’s Field Guide Connecticut.
Albini, Anthony J. (1979) Selected Pegmatite Quarries of the Central Connecticut Region. Masters thesis. Central Connecticut State College, New Britain, Connecticut.
Webster, Bud and Bill Shelton (1979) Mineral Collector’s Field Guide the Northeast.
Stearns, H. T. (1983) Memoirs of a Geologist: From Poverty Peak to Piggery Gulch. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, Honolulu.
Schooner, Richard (circa 1985) Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Robinson, George W. and Vandall T. King (1988) What's New in Minerals? Mineralogical Record: 19(5): 332.
Jarnot, Bruce (1989) Minerals New to the Portland Area Pegmatites of Central Connecticut. Abstract from the 16th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium April 7, 1989, in Rocks & Minerals: 64(12): 471.
Januzzi, Ronald. E. (1994) Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Robbins, Manuel. (1994) Fluorescence: Gems and Minerals Under Ultraviolet Light. Geoscience Press, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.
Henderson, William A. (1995) Microminerals of Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 70(6): 420-425.
Jarnot, Bruce (1995) Connecticut Gems and Gem Minerals. Rocks & Minerals: 70(6): 378-382.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995) Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 403.
USGS GSC ID # LIST (1995) (July 1995).
Moore, P. B. (2000) Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine: 333-336.
Pawloski, John A. (2006) Connecticut Mining (Mt. Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing): 50-51, 61.
USGS (2005) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10067599 & 10264493.
Jarnot, Bruce M. (2011) Letters: Connecticut Update. Rocks & Minerals: 86(4): 299.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0090070003.

Mindat Articles

History and Mineralology of the Strickland Quarry by Rowan Lytle


External Links



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