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Manganite

This page kindly sponsored by Dana Slaughter
Formula:
Mn3+O(OH)
Colour:
gray-black, black
Lustre:
Resinous, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Hardness:
4
Specific Gravity:
4.29 - 4.34
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1827 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger in allusion to the manganese content.
Polymorph of:
Frequently as crystalline-looking material, either as well-formed crystals or tight aggregates with a fibrous structure due to the mineral's perfect cleavage. May be compact fine-grained or in botryoidal formation.


Classification of Manganite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.FD.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
D : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
6.1.3.1

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
1 : XO(OH)
7.18.7

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Physical Properties of Manganite

Resinous, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
gray-black, black
Streak:
Reddish brown to black
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN100=630 - 743 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{010} perfect; {110} and {001} good.
Fracture:
Splintery
Density:
4.29 - 4.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.38 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Calculated also (ICDD 18-805) = 4.32

Optical Data of Manganite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.250(2) nβ = 2.250(2) nγ = 2.530(2)
Birefringence:
0.028
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.280
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Bireflectance:
Distinct in grays
Dispersion:
r > v extreme
Colour in reflected light:
Gray-white with brown tint
Internal Reflections:
Blood-red
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X = reddish brown
Z = red brown

Chemical Properties of Manganite

Formula:
Mn3+O(OH)
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ba,Pb,Cu,Al,Ca

Crystallography of Manganite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Setting:
P21/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.94 Å, b = 5.28 Å, c = 5.74 Å
β = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.693 : 1 : 1.087
Unit Cell V:
270.95 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals striated and short to long prismatic [001] alone; by {001} with macrodomes, or by a series of macropyramids; highly modified at times. Prismatic faces deeply striated [001], and terminal {h0l} or {hkl} faces striated parallel to their mutual intersections. Crystals often grouped or markedly composite subparallel [001]. Stalactitic; granular (rare).
Twinning:
1. On {011}, both as contact and penetration twins. Twinning often repeated with composition face either parallel or inclined. 2. Twin plane {100} lamellar, presenting as monoclinic symmetry for the species.
Comment:
Space group B21/d (non-standard setting); pseudo-orthorhombic.

Crystallographic forms of Manganite

Crystal Atlas:
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Manganite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.41 (100)
2.65 (50)
2.52 (10)
2.41 (80)
2.36 (2)
2.28 (30)
2.20 (30)
1.781 (20)
1.710 (6)
1.675 (90)
1.637 (2)
1.502 (10)
1.435 (16)
1.323 (6)
1.262 (2)
1.214 (2)
1.182 (2)
1.158 (2)
1.139 (2)
1.118 (2)
1.099 (2)
1.077 (2)
1.015 (2)
0.993 (2)
Comments:
ICDD 18-805 (synthetic); ICDD 9-99 is superseded

Type Occurrence of Manganite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Coarse rectangular prism, often with multiple parallel growth.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Hydrothermal veins
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of Manganite

Other Language Names for Manganite

Common Associates

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Rhodochrosite93 photos of Manganite associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.
Calcite46 photos of Manganite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Quartz40 photos of Manganite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Baryte39 photos of Manganite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Sturmanite23 photos of Manganite associated with Sturmanite on mindat.org.
Hausmannite17 photos of Manganite associated with Hausmannite on mindat.org.
Ettringite16 photos of Manganite associated with Ettringite on mindat.org.
Hematite15 photos of Manganite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Andradite12 photos of Manganite associated with Andradite on mindat.org.
Manganoan Calcite12 photos of Manganite associated with Manganoan Calcite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

4.FD.05SpertiniiteCu(OH)2
4.FD.10BracewelliteCrO(OH)
4.FD.10DiasporeAlO(OH)
4.FD.10GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
4.FD.10GuyanaiteCrO(OH)
4.FD.10Montroseite(V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)
4.FD.10TsumgalliteGaO(OH)
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3
4.FD.20Unnamed (Nd-analogue of Yttrotungstite-(Ce))(Nd,Ce,La)W2O6(OH)3
4.FD.25FrankhawthorneiteCu2Te6+O4(OH)2
4.FD.30KhinitePb2+Cu2+3[Te6+O6](OH)2
4.FD.30Khinite-3TPb2+Cu2+3Te6+O6(OH)2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

7.18.1ManganositeMnO
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4
7.18.3PyrolusiteMnO2
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
7.18.12Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn4+3O7 · 3H2O
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2O

Fluorescence of Manganite

Not fluorescent in ultraviolet

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Manganite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
von Haidinger, Wilhelm Karl (1826) Edinburgh Journal Science: 4: 41.
Buerger, Martin J. (1936) Zs. Kr.: 95: 163.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 646-650.
American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 1296.
Graham, J. (1978) American Mineralogist 63: 1166.
Golden, D. C., C. C. Chen, and J. B. Dixon (1987) Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite, and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment: Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 271-280.
Kohler, T., Armbruster, T., and Libowitzky, E. (1997) Hydrogen bonding and Jahn-Teller distortion in groutite, α-MnOOH, and manganite, γ-MnOOH, and their relations to the manganese dioxides ramsdellite and pyrolusite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 133: 486-500.

Internet Links for Manganite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-2519.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Manganite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Manganite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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