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Kyanite

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Formula:
Al2(SiO4)O
Colour:
Blue, white, light gray, green, rarely yellow, orange, pink
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Hardness:
5½ - 7
Specific Gravity:
3.53 - 3.67
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
Named in 1789 by Abraham Gottlieb Werner from the Greek word "kyanos", meaning "blue," the common color of the species. The French spelling, "Cyanite", was commonly used by mineralogists through much of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Polymorph of:
Common metamorphic silicate mineral.
The generally bluish colour is caused by Fe(II)-Fe(III) charge transfer (Faye and Nickel, 1969).


Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Kyanite.


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Classification of KyaniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AF.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
52.2.2c.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
2 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
15.2

15 : Silicates of Aluminum

Physical Properties of KyaniteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Somewhat pearly on {100} || to the perfect cleavage
Colour:
Blue, white, light gray, green, rarely yellow, orange, pink
Streak:
Colorless
Hardness:
5½ - 7 on Mohs scale
Comment:
5.5 parallel to [001], 7 parallel to [100]
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on (100), good on (010)
Parting:
On (001)
Fracture:
Splintery
Density:
3.53 - 3.67 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.67 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KyaniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.712 - 1.718 nβ = 1.720 - 1.725 nγ = 1.727 - 1.734
2V:
Measured: 82° to 83°, Calculated: 84°
Birefringence:
0.015
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.015 - 0.016
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v weak
Optical Extinction:
Inclined. Z>Y>X; X perpendicular to {100}, Z' ^ c = 30° on {100}, Z' ^ c = 7° on {010}.
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= colorless
Y= violet-blue
Z= cobalt blue

Chemical Properties of KyaniteHide

Formula:
Al2(SiO4)O
IMA Formula:
Al2OSiO4

Crystallography of KyaniteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Setting:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.1262(12) Å, b = 7.8520(10) Å, c = 5.5724(10) Å
α = 89.99(2)°, β = 101.11(2)°, γ = 106.03(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.908 : 1 : 0.71
Unit Cell V:
293.60 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals bladed or tabular.
Twinning:
Lamellar on (100), common
Comment:
Non-standard setting.

Crystallographic forms of KyaniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Kyanite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.35 (100)
3.18 (20)
2.70 (40)
2.51 (50)
2.35 (40)
2.16 (20)
1.960 (50)
1.929 (80)
Comments:
ICDD 11-46

Synonyms of KyaniteHide

Other Language Names for KyaniteHide

Basque:Zianita
Croatian:Kianit
Dutch:Kyaniet
Esperanto:Kianito
Estonian:Küaniit
Finnish:Kyaniitti
Hungarian:Kianit
Italian:Cianite
Japanese:藍晶石
Polish:Dysten
Portuguese:Cianite
Russian:Кианит
Simplified Chinese:蓝晶石
Slovak:Kyanit

Varieties of KyaniteHide

RhätiziteA white to gray-white variety of Kyanite.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz141 photos of Kyanite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Staurolite66 photos of Kyanite associated with Staurolite on mindat.org.
Biotite28 photos of Kyanite associated with Biotite on mindat.org.
Muscovite26 photos of Kyanite associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Garnet26 photos of Kyanite associated with Garnet on mindat.org.
Corundum24 photos of Kyanite associated with Corundum on mindat.org.
Pyrite21 photos of Kyanite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Rutile17 photos of Kyanite associated with Rutile on mindat.org.
Talc15 photos of Kyanite associated with Talc on mindat.org.
Hematite14 photos of Kyanite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.10KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.20MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-xOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.AF.30MagnesiostauroliteMg(Mg,Li)3(Al,Mg)18Si8O44(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30StauroliteFe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30ZincostauroliteZn2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.40NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.50Manganhumite(Mn2+,Mg)7(SiO4)3(OH)2Orth.
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.55ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon.
9.AF.55SonoliteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon.
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.65Ribbeite(Mn2+,Mg)5(SiO4)2(OH)2Orth.
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
9.AF.75FranciscaniteMn2+6(V5+,☐)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Hex.
9.AF.75ÖrebroiteMn2+3(Sb5+,Fe3+)(SiO4)(O,OH)3Hex.
9.AF.75WeliniteMn2+6(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
9.AF.80EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10Hex.
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon.
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

15.1AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
15.3SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
15.4MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-xOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
15.5PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
15.6DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.7NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.8KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
15.9MetahalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
15.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.11Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.

Fluorescence of KyaniteHide

Not fluorescent.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ceramics

Kyanite in petrologyHide

References for KyaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth, M.H. (1810) Chemische Untersuchung des Kyanits, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Fünfter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 6-11.
Clark, S.P., Robertson, E.C., Birch, F. (1957) Experimental determination of kyanite-sillimanite equilibrium relations at high temperatures and pressure: American Journal of Science: 255: 628-640.
Pearson, G.R., Shaw, D.M. (1960) Trace elements in kyanite, sillimanite and andalusite. American Mineralogist: 45: 808-817.
Burnham, C.W. (1963) Refinement of the crystal structure of kyanite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 118: 337-360.
Sgarlata, F. (1965) La struttura della cianite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma, 241-256.
Hafner, S.S., Raymond, M. (1967) Nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors of Al27 in kyanite. American Mineralogist: 52: 1632-1642.
Chinner, G.A., Smith, J.W., Knowles, C.R. (1969) Transition metal contents of Al2SiO5 polymorphs: American Journal of Science: 267A: 96-113.
Faye, G.H., Nickel, E.H. (1969) On the origin of colour and pleochroism of kyanite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 10: 35-46.
Winter, J.K., Ghose, S. (1979) Thermal expansion and high-temperature crystal chemistry of the Al2SiO5 polymorphs. American Mineralogist: 64: 573-586.
Kerrick, D.M. (1990) Metamorphic reactions. In D.M. Kerrick, Ed., The Al2SiO5 polymorphs. 22, 223-253. Reviews in Mineralogy. Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.
Kerrick, D.M. (1990) The Al2SiO5 polymorphs, 22, 406 p. Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.
Comodi, P., Zanazzi, P.F., Poli, S., Schmidt, M.W. (1997) High-pressure behavior of kyanite: decomposition of kyanite into stishovite and corundum. American Mineralogist: 82: 460-466.
Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Finger, L.W., Hazen, R.M., Prewitt, C.T. (1997) Compressibility and crystal structure of kyanite at high pressure. American Mineralogist: 82: 467-474.
Pan, Y., Fleet, M.E. (1999) Kyanite in the Western Superior Province of Ontario: implications for Archean accretionary tectonics. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 359-373.
Rao, M.N., Chaplot, S.L., Choudhury, N., Rao, K.R., Azuah, R.T., Montfrooji, W.T., Bennington, S.M. (1999) Lattice dynamics and inelastic neutron scattering from sillimanite and kyanite Al2SiO5. Physical Review: B60: 12061.
Dahaoui, S., Ghermani, N.E., Ghose, S., Howard, J.A.K. (2001) Electric field gradient tensors at the aluminum sites in the Al2SiO5 polymorphs from CCD high-resolution X-ray diffraction data: comparison with 27 Al NMR results. American Mineralogist: 86: 159-164.
Iglesias, M., Schwarz, K., Blaha, P., Baldomir, D. (2001) Electronic structure and electric field gradient calculations of Al2SiO5 polymorphs. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 67-75.
Winkler, B., Hytha, M., Warren, M.C., Milman, V., Gale, J.D., Schreuer, J. (2001) Calculation of the elastic constants of the Al2SiO5 polymorphs andalusite, sillimanite, and kyanite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 216: 67-70.
Wieczorek, A.K., Beran, A. (2002) Infrared spectroscopic characterization of OH defects in kyanite. 18th IMA General Meeting 1st to 6th September Edinburgh, Scotland (2002).
Bell, D., Rossman, G.R., Maldener J., Endisch, D., Rauch, F. (2004) Hydroxide in kyanite: a quantitative determination of the absolute amount and calibration of the IR spectrum. American Mineralogist: 89: 998-1003.
Friedrich, A., Kunz, M., Winkler, B., Le Bihan, T. (2004) High-pressure behavior of sillimanite and kyanite: compressibility, decomposition and indications of a new high-pressure phase. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 219: 324-329.
Ohuchi, F.S., Ghose, S., Engelhard, M.H., Baer, D.R. (2006) Chemical bonding and electronic structures of the Al2SiO5 polymorphs, andalusite, sillimanite, and kyanite: X-ray photoelectron- and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies. American Mineralogist: 91: 740-746.
Chadwick, K.M., Rossman, G.R. (2009) Orange kyanite from Tanzania. Gems & Gemology: 45: 146-147.
Manfred Wildner, Anton Beran, Friedrich Koller (2013) Spectroscopic characterisation and crystal field calculations of varicoloured kyanites from Loliondo, Tanzania. Mineralogy and Petrology: 107: 289-310.

Internet Links for KyaniteHide

Localities for KyaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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