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Merelani Hills (Mererani), Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania

This page kindly sponsored by Peter Slootweg
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Entrance to the one of the poorest tanzanite mine of the block D (Mererani Area).

Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania
Awful climb-down to the - 400 m level of the one of the Merelani Area tanzanite mine. Without an elevator, oxygen and safety facilities it was a relatively dangerous activity.

Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania
One of the modern schafts of the Mererani tanzanite mines area

Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania
Entrance to the one of the poorest tanzanite mine of the block D (Mererani Area).

Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania
Awful climb-down to the - 400 m level of the one of the Merelani Area tanzanite mine. Without an elevator, oxygen and safety facilities it was a relatively dangerous activity.

Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania
One of the modern schafts of the Mererani tanzanite mines area

Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania
Entrance to the one of the poorest tanzanite mine of the block D (Mererani Area).

Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania
Awful climb-down to the - 400 m level of the one of the Merelani Area tanzanite mine. Without an elevator, oxygen and safety facilities it was a relatively dangerous activity.

Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mts, Simanjiro District, Manyara Region, Tanzania
Name(s) in local language(s):Merelani tanzanite mines (Mererani)
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 3° 34' 59'' South , 37° 0' 29'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -3.58333,37.00833
GeoHash:G#: kz67d5sts
Locality type:Group of Hills
Köppen climate type:Aw : Tropical savanna, wet


The Merelani tanzanite mines or Merelani Gem mining area is an area 2km wide and 50 km long. It is located in the Merelani Hills, on the slopes of the Lelatema Mountains (which actually are located politically-geographically in the Manyara Region, and not in the Arusha Region), about 70 km southeast of the town of Arusha (located in the Arusha Region), where tanzanite was first found in 1968.
Subdivided into four mining blocks (A, B, C, D) and additional mines.

The occurrence of gem-quality tanzanite and grossular has been found to occur mainly in boudinaged pegmatitic veins and hydrothermal fracture fillings. These fracture fillings occur in brecciated and hydrothermally altered graphite-bearing gneiss in a mineral association containing glass-clear quartz, diopside, zoisite, graphite and calcite.

Gem-quality yellow-green to green diopside and tremolite contain traces of V and possibly Cr (Fritz et al., 2007).

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Merelani Hills (Mererani), Lelatema Mts, Arusha Region, Tanzania
Merelani Hills, Arusha, Tanzania
Merelani Hills, Tanzania

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

46 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: John A. Jaszczak, Simon Harrison, Mike Keim collections
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'
Reference: Collection of Werner Radl.
'Apophyllite'
Axinite-(Mg) (TL)
Formula: Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Type Locality:
Reference: P Bongaerts collection; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40: 347-408; Jaszczak, John (2014), Mineralogical Miracles at Merelani, presentation to the 41st. Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 25, 2014.
Axinite-(Mn)
Formula: Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Tanz. J. Sci. Vol.29(2) 2003: 55-70; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
'Chabazite'
Reference: Collection of Werner Radl.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Can. Mineral. 46 (2008) 1183-1194; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Frank K. Mazdab specimen
Colusite
Formula: Cu13VAs3S16
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Fritz, E.A., Laurs, B.M., Downs, R.T. and Costin, G. (2007): Yellowish green diopside and tremolite from Merelani, Tanzania. Gems & Gemology 43, 146-148. [https://www.gia.edu/doc/Yellowish-Green-Diopside-and-Tremolite-from-Merelani--Tanzania.pdf]; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Diopside var: Chromian Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408. Rocks and Minerals (2013) 88(2):179-183.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Germanocolusite
Formula: Cu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Can. Mineral. 46 (2008) 1183-1194; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408; Rocks and Minerals 88(2) 154-165 (2013); Rocks and Minerals 88(2) 179-183 (2013).
Gravegliaite
Formula: Mn2+SO3 · 3H2O
Reference: Gunnar Färber
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Grossular var: Tsavorite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: [MinRec 31:63]
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Collection of Werner Radl.; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Heulandite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
'Heulandite subgroup'
Karelianite
Formula: V3+2O3
Reference: Can. Mineral. 46 (2008) 1183-1194; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Tanz. J. Sci. Vol.29(2) 2003: 55-70; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: John A. Jaszczak by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS
Merelaniite (TL)
Formula: Mo4Pb4VSbS15
Type Locality:
Reference: Jaszczak, J., Rumsey, M.S., Bindi, L., Hackney, S.A., Wise, M.A., Stanley, C.J. & Spratt, J. (2016): Merelaniite, Mo4Pb4VSbS15, a New Molybdenum-Essential Member of the Cylindrite Group, from the Merelani Tanzanite Deposit, Lelatema Mountains, Manyara Region, Tanzania. Minerals: 6 115; doi:10.3390/min6040115
Mesolite
Formula: Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Reference: John A. Jaszczak by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Mukhinite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Frank K. Mazdab collection (epoxy mount FKM-26)
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Rob Lavinsky specimen, minID U1L-74C.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Can. Mineral. 46 (2008) 1183-1194; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Can. Mineral. 46 (2008) 1183-1194; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Can. Mineral. 46 (2008) 1183-1194; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408; Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Collection of Werner Radl.; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: A. E. Seaman Mineral Museum (ex Simon Harrison) collection
'Scapolite'
Reference: [www.thamesvalleyminerals.com]; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Scolecite
Formula: CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Reference: Collection of Werner Radl.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Tanz. J. Sci. Vol.29(2) 2003: 55-70; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Collection of Werner Radl.; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: Harrison et al., Mineralogical Record 45:553-570 (2014).
'Stilbite subgroup'
Reference: Collection of Werner Radl.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Jordi Fabre photo
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Can. Mineral. 46 (2008) 1183-1194; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Fritz, E.A., Laurs, B.M., Downs, R.T. and Costin, G. (2007): Yellowish green diopside and tremolite from Merelani, Tanzania. Gems & Gemology 43, 146-148. [https://www.gia.edu/doc/Yellowish-Green-Diopside-and-Tremolite-from-Merelani--Tanzania.pdf]; Collection of Werner Radl; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Tremolite var: Chrome-Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: PXRD by John Attard (Attars Minerals)
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Barot, N.R. and Boehm, E.W. (1992) Gem Quality Green Zoisite, Gems & Gemology: Spring 1992: 28(1).; Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:347-408
Zoisite var: Tanzanite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Alabandite'2.CD.10MnS
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Clausthalite2.CD.10PbSe
Colusite2.CB.30Cu13VAs3S16
Germanocolusite2.CB.30Cu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Wurtzite2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Gravegliaite4.JE.05Mn2+SO3 · 3H2O
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Karelianite4.CB.05V3+2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
'Allanite-(Ce)'9.BG.05b{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Axinite-(Mg)' (TL)9.BD.20Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
'Axinite-(Mn)'9.BD.20Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
var: Chromian Diopside9.DA.15Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Tsavorite9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Heulandite-Ca9.GE.05(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Mesolite9.GA.05Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Mukhinite9.BG.05{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite9.EC.15K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Scolecite9.GA.05CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Sillimanite9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
var: Chrome-Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Zoisite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
var: Tanzanite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Apophyllite'-
'Chabazite'-
Heulandite subgroup-
Merelaniite (TL)-Mo4Pb4VSbS15
Scapolite-
Stilbite subgroup-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Alabandite2.8.1.4MnS
Clausthalite2.8.1.2PbSe
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Colusite3.1.1.1Cu13VAs3S16
Germanocolusite3.1.1.2Cu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Karelianite4.3.1.4V3+2O3
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 34 - SELENITES, TELLURITES AND SULFITES
A(XO3)·xH2O
Gravegliaite34.2.5.2Mn2+SO3 · 3H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Sillimanite52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Axinite-(Mg) (TL)56.2.2.2Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Axinite-(Mn)56.2.2.3Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Allanite-(Ce)58.2.1a.1{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Mukhinite58.2.1a.10{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Zoisite58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Heulandite-Ca77.1.4.1(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Mesolite77.1.5.4Na2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Scolecite77.1.5.5CaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Apophyllite'-
'Chabazite'-
Diopside
var: Chromian Diopside
-Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Grossular
var: Tsavorite
-Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
'Heulandite subgroup'-
Merelaniite (TL)-Mo4Pb4VSbS15
Muscovite
var: Fuchsite
-K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
'Scapolite'-
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tremolite
var: Chrome-Tremolite
-☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Zoisite
var: Tanzanite
-{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
H Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
H Tremolite (var: Chrome-Tremolite)☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
H GravegliaiteMn2+SO3 · 3H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
H Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
H Zoisite (var: Tanzanite){Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
BBoron
B Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
B Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C GraphiteC
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
O Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
O CalciteCaCO3
O Tremolite (var: Chrome-Tremolite)☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
O GravegliaiteMn2+SO3 · 3H2O
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
O KarelianiteV23+O3
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
O Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O Zoisite (var: Tanzanite){Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Grossular (var: Tsavorite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Na MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Mg Tremolite (var: Chrome-Tremolite)☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Al Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Al Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Zoisite (var: Tanzanite){Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Grossular (var: Tsavorite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Si Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Si Tremolite (var: Chrome-Tremolite)☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Si Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Zoisite (var: Tanzanite){Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Grossular (var: Tsavorite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S AlabanditeMnS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ColusiteCu13VAs3S16
S GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
S GravegliaiteMn2+SO3 · 3H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MerelaniiteMo4Pb4VSbS15
S MilleriteNiS
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Ca Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Tremolite (var: Chrome-Tremolite)☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Heulandite-Ca(Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca MesoliteNa2Ca2Si9Al6O30 · 8H2O
Ca Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
Ca Zoisite (var: Tanzanite){Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Grossular (var: Tsavorite)Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
VVanadium
V ColusiteCu13VAs3S16
V GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
V KarelianiteV23+O3
V MerelaniiteMo4Pb4VSbS15
V Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
CrChromium
Cr Diopside (var: Chromian Diopside)Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
Cr Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn AlabanditeMnS
Mn Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Mn GravegliaiteMn2+SO3 · 3H2O
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ColusiteCu13VAs3S16
Cu GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
GeGermanium
Ge GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
AsArsenic
As ColusiteCu13VAs3S16
SeSelenium
Se ClausthalitePbSe
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MerelaniiteMo4Pb4VSbS15
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
SnTin
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
SbAntimony
Sb MerelaniiteMo4Pb4VSbS15
CeCerium
Ce Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
PbLead
Pb ClausthalitePbSe
Pb MerelaniiteMo4Pb4VSbS15

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Pleistocene
0.0117 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 3188312
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Pleistocene (0.0117 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Intermediate volcanic rocks; trachyte

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Cryogenian - Tonian
635 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3310707

Age: Neoproterozoic (635 - 1000 Ma)

Lithology: Volcanic-sedimentary

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Barot, N.R. and Boehm, E.W. (1992) Gem Quality Green Zoisite, Gems & Gemology, 28(1) (Spring 1992).
Malisa, E.P.J. (2003) Trace elements characterization of the hydrothermally deposited tanzanite and green grossular in the Merelani-Laletema shear zone, northeastern Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Science, 29, 45-60.
Fritz, E.A., Laurs, B.M., Downs, R.T. and Costin, G. (2007) Yellowish green diopside and tremolite from Merelani, Tanzania. Gems & Gemology, 43, 146-148. [https://www.gia.edu/doc/Yellowish-Green-Diopside-and-Tremolite-from-Merelani--Tanzania.pdf]
Canadian Mineralogist (2008) 46, 1183-1194.
Olivier, Bernard (2008) The geology and petrology of the Merelani tanzanite deposit, NE Tanzania. Doctoral thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. [https://scholar.sun.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10019.1/1093/olivier-b-2008.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y ]
Pardieu, Vincent and Hughes, Richard W. (2008- latest update 2014) Working the Blueseam: The Tanzanite Mines of Merelani. Ruby-sapphire.com.
Wilson, W.E., Saul, J.M., Pardieu, V., and Hughes, R.W. (2009) Famous Mineral Localities. The Merelani Tanzanite Mines, Lelatema Mountains, Arusha Region, Tanzania. Mineralogical Record, 40, 347-408.
Jaszczak, J.A. and Trinchillo, D. (2013) Miracle at Merelani: A remarkable occurrence of graphite, diopside and associated minerals from the Karo Mine, Block D, Merelani Hills, Arusha Region, Tanzania. Rocks and Minerals, 88(2), 154-165.
Pohwat, P.W. (2013) Connoisseur's Choice: Diopside- Merelani, Arusha Region, Tanzania. Rocks and Minerals, 88(2), 166-173.
Americolo, F. (2013) Merelani (Mererani): A pictorial of an incredible place. Rocks and Minerals, 88(2), 174-177.
Long, J.M., Rakovan, J., Jaszczak, J.A., Sommer, A.J., and Anczkiewicz, R. (2013) Fluorapatite from a remarkable occurrence of graphite and associated minerals from the Karo Pit, Block D, Merelani Hills, Arusha Region, Tanzania. Rocks and Minerals, 88(2), 179-183.
Jaszczak, J.A. (2014) Mineralogical Miracles at Merelani. Presentation to the 41st Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 25, 2014.
Harris, C., Hlongwane, W., Gule, N., and Scheepers, R. (2014) Origin of Tanzanite and Associated Gemstone Mineralization at Merelani, Tanzania, South African Journal of Geology, 117, 15-30.
Harrison, S., Jaszczak, J.A., Keim, M., Rumsey, M., and Wise, M.A. (2014) Spectacular Sulfides from the Merelani Tanzanite Deposit, Manyara Region, Tanzania. Mineralogical Record, 45, 553-570.
Jaszczak, J.A., Rumsey, M.S., Bindi, L., Hackney, S.A., Wise, M.A., Stanley, C.J., and Spratt, J. (2016) Merelaniite, Mo4Pb4VSbS15, a New Molybdenum-Essential Member of the Cylindrite Group, from the Merelani Tanzanite Deposit, Lelatema Mountains, Manyara Region, Tanzania. Minerals, 6, 115. doi:10.3390/min6040115
Jaszczak, J.A. (2017) The Where of Mineral Names: Merelaniite, Merelani (Mererani), Manyara Region, Tanzania. Rocks and Minerals, 93, 382-385.

External Links

https://www.mindat.org/mesg-11-437013.html (discussion on cause of colour of "chrome tremolite" from Merelani)

Localities in this Region
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Tanzania

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