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About TremoliteHide

The tremolite-actinolite series are defined as calcium amphiboles with A(Na+K+ 2Ca)<0.5 apfu and with C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)<0.5 apfu. The W position may contain (OH), F or Cl.

Tremolite is defined with
C2+ position: Mg>4.5 apfu
W position: (OH) dominant.

Tremolite is one of the few amphiboles that has not been redefined or renamed in any of the amphibole nomenclature reports.
White, brown, colourless, grey, light green, green, light yellow, pink-violet
Vitreous, Silky
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
2.99 - 3.03
Crystal System:
Named in 1789 by Johann Georg Albrecht Höpfner for the Tremola Valley (Val Tremola), Central St Gotthard Massif, Tessin, Switzerland, where the type material supposedly came from, according to the dealer from whom he had acquired the specimens. However, modern investigations of what is considered the type material, conserved in Geneva, revealed that the true type locality is Campolungo, 14 km further south. (Unlike Campolungo, Val Tremola lies north of the isograd delineating the first appearance of tremolite). This mineral was earlier (1782) called Säulenspath and Sternspath by Johann Ehrenreich von Fichtel for material from Sebeşu de Jos, Transylvania, Romania (for a full account of the early history of tremolite, see Roth, 2006).
Tremolite forms a continuous series with the other minerals in the actinolite-tremolite series. It also forms a continuous series with edenite and richterite. At elevated PT conditions (upper amphibolite - granulite facies), the actinolite-tremolite series minerals also form a continuous series with the hornblende root name group minerals. Intermediate compositions between cummingtonite and tremolite are also known. Tremolite is one of the few amphiboles that can be identified by EDS with reasonable certainty.

Fibrous habit.
Byssolite habit
Star and fan formed aggregates
single crystal
Pseudomorph after diopside
Fibrous habit.
Byssolite habit
Star and fan formed aggregates
single crystal
Pseudomorph after diopside
Fibrous habit.
Byssolite habit
Star and fan formed aggregates
single crystal
Pseudomorph after diopside

Tremolite is an important rock-forming mineral and occurs most commonly as a white to light green, granular to fibrous component of metamorphosed carbonate rocks, especially skarns and dolomite marbles, where the crystals and aggregates can become quite large. Any light colored amphibole in a marble will normally be tremolite. Large isolated and well-terminated crystals are rare. In this environment, it commonly forms as pseudomorphs of tremolite after diopside, but can also be primary. Tremolite is also common in many metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks such as amphibolites and metabasalts although actinolite and other iron-rich amphiboles usually dominate there. Fibrous (asbestiform) tremolite veins are common in many metamorphic rock types, especially where they are carbonate-bearing. In meta-igneous rocks, cummingtonite and anthophyllite can be difficult to distinguish from tremolite, but these are more restricted to metamorphosed Ca-poor ultramafic rocks like serpentinites.

dark brown tremolite
green tremolite, colored by Fe
var. hexagonite, colored by Mn
var chrome-tremolite colored by Cr and/or V
dark brown tremolite
green tremolite, colored by Fe
var. hexagonite, colored by Mn
var chrome-tremolite colored by Cr and/or V
dark brown tremolite
green tremolite, colored by Fe
var. hexagonite, colored by Mn
var chrome-tremolite colored by Cr and/or V

Although the most common color of tremolite is white or other pale colors, it may also be brown, greenish (coloured by Fe), grass green (colored by Cr and/or V) or purple (coloured by Mn).

Tremolite colored by Chrome is often called chrome-tremolite, whereas the purple variety is called hexagonite.

The amphibole varieties byssolite (hair-like fibres), and nephrite can consist, fully or partly, of tremolite.

Tremolite may be highly fibrous to asbestiform, and can then be included in the group of materials called asbestos, though it was rarely used commercially. As with all asbestiform minerals, this fibrous variety is considered carcinogenic if ground into fine dust and inhaled in large amounts, so people should use care in its handling.

For further information, see the tremolite best minerals article, see link:

Visit for gemological information about Tremolite.

Classification of TremoliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
1 : Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
6 : Silicates of Ca with alkali or Mg or both

Pronounciation of TremoliteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of TremoliteHide

Vitreous, Silky
Transparent, Translucent
White, brown, colourless, grey, light green, green, light yellow, pink-violet
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
on {110}
on {010} {100}
2.99 - 3.03 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.964 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of TremoliteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.599 - 1.612 nβ = 1.613 - 1.626 nγ = 1.625 - 1.637
Measured: 88° to 80°, Calculated: 82° to 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.026
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v weak

Chemical Properties of TremoliteHide


The tremolite-actinolite series are defined as calcium amphiboles with A(Na+K+ 2Ca)<0.5 apfu and with C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)<0.5 apfu. The W position may contain (OH), F or Cl.

Tremolite is defined with
C2+ position: Mg>4.5 apfu
W position: (OH) dominant.

Tremolite is one of the few amphiboles that has not been redefined or renamed in any of the amphibole nomenclature reports.
IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of TremoliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.84 Å, b = 18.02 Å, c = 5.27 Å
β = 104.95°
a:b:c = 0.546 : 1 : 0.292
Unit Cell V:
902.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Elongated, stout prismatic, bladed, fibrous, granular, columnar crystals and aggregates.

Simple or multiple: common parallel to {100}, rarely parallel to {001}

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000368TremoliteSueno S, Cameron M, Papike J J, Prewitt C T (1973) The high temperature crystal chemistry of tremolite American Mineralogist 58 649-66419730673
0000369TremoliteSueno S, Cameron M, Papike J J, Prewitt C T (1973) The high temperature crystal chemistry of tremolite American Mineralogist 58 649-66419730973
0000384TremoliteCameron M, Gibbs G V (1973) The crystal structure and bonding of fluor-tremolite: A comparison with hydroxyl tremolite American Mineralogist 58 879-88819730293
0001835TremoliteYang H, Evans B W (1996) X-ray structure refinements of tremolite at 140 and 295 K: Crystal chemistry and petrologic implications American Mineralogist 81 1117-112519960140
0001836TremoliteYang H, Evans B W (1996) X-ray structure refinements of tremolite at 140 and 295 K: Crystal chemistry and petrologic implications American Mineralogist 81 1117-112519960295
0002280TremoliteSharma A, Jenkins D M (1999) Hydrothermal synthesis of amphiboles along the tremolite-pargasite join and in the ternary system tremolite-pargasite-cummingtonite American Mineralogist 84 1304-131819990293
0002418TremoliteMerli M, Ungaretti L, Oberti R (2000) Leverage analysis and structure refinement of minerals American Mineralogist 85 532-54220000293
0003771TremoliteOberti R, Camara F, Ottolini L (2005) Clinoholmquistite discredited: The new amphibole end-member fluoro-sodic-pedrizite sample from Tastyg spodumene deposit, Tuva, Siberia, Russia American Mineralogist 90 732-73620050293
0004630TremoliteBallirano P, Andreozzi G B, Belardi G (2008) Crystal chemical and structural characterization of fibrous tremolite from Susa Valley, Italy, with comments on potential harmful effects on human health American Mineralogist 93 1349-13552008Condove, Susa Valley, Italy0293
0005124TremoliteHawthorne F C, Grundy H D (1976) The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles: IV. X-ray and neutron refinements of the crystal structure of tremolite The Canadian Mineralogist 14 334-34519760293
0005125TremoliteHawthorne F C, Grundy H D (1976) The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles: IV. X-ray and neutron refinements of the crystal structure of tremolite The Canadian Mineralogist 14 334-34519760293
0005419TremoliteJenkins D M, Hawthorne F C (1995) Synthesis and rietveld refinement of amphibole along the join Ca2Mg5Si8O22F2 - NaCa2Mg4Ga3Si6O22F2 The Canadian Mineralogist 33 13-241995Synthetic0293
0006113TremoliteHawthorne F C, Oberti R, Martin R F (2006) Short-range order in amphiboles from the Bear Lake diggings, Ontario The Canadian Mineralogist 44 1171-11792006Bear Lake diggings, Bancroft area of Ontario, Canada0293
0006210TremoliteAntao S M, Hassan I, Wang J, Lee P L, Toby B H (2008) State-of-the-art high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) illustrated with Rietveld structure refinement of quartz, sodalite, tremolite, and meionite The Canadian Mineralogist 46 1501-15092008Gouverneur district, New York0293
0006413TremoliteComodi P, Mellini M, Ungaretti L, Zanazzi P F (1991) Compressibility and high pressure structure refinement of tremolite, pargasite and glaucophane European Journal of Mineralogy 3 485-49919910293
0006414TremoliteComodi P, Mellini M, Ungaretti L, Zanazzi P F (1991) Compressibility and high pressure structure refinement of tremolite, pargasite and glaucophane European Journal of Mineralogy 3 485-49919910293
0006601TremoliteOberti R, Ungaretti L, Cannillo E, Hawthorne F C, Memmi I (1995) Temperature-dependent Al order-disorder in the tetrahedral double chain of C2/m amphiboles European Journal of Mineralogy 7 1049-106319950293
0018086TremoliteWarren B (1929) The structure of tremolite H2 Ca2 Mg5 (Si O3)8 _cod_database_code 1011222 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 72 42-5719290293
0018031TremoliteWarren B (1930) The crystal structure and chemical composition of the monoclinic amphiboles. _cod_database_code 1011146 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 72 493-51619300293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
3.12 Å(100)
8.38 Å(100)
2.71 Å(90)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
A common rock-forming mineral in contact metamorphosed Ca+/-Mg siliceous carbonate sediments, regional greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks and dolomitic rocks, many skarns and veins, and some metamorphic ore deposits. See Deer et al., 1997.

Type Occurrence of TremoliteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Dolomite marble

Synonyms of TremoliteHide

Other Language Names for TremoliteHide

Varieties of TremoliteHide

Chrome-TremoliteA Cr-bearing tremolite.
Chromium-bearing Tremolite
HexagoniteSupposedly a hexagonal form of tremolite, but shown to be monoclinic. A Mn-bearing variety distinguished by its pale lilac to purplish color.

Relationship of Tremolite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Actinolite◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Cannilloite Root Name GroupCaCa2(Z2+4Z3+)(Si5Al3O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
Edenite Root Name GroupACa2Z5(AlSi7O22)((OH),F,Cl)2Mon.
Hastingsite Root Name GroupACa2(Z2+4 Fe3+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
Hornblende Root Name Group◻(Ca2)(Z2+4Z3+}(AlSi7O22)(OH,F,Cl)2Mon.
Pargasite Root Name Group(A)(Ca2){Z2+4Z3+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
Sadanagaite Root Name GroupA (Ca2)(Z2+3Z3+2)(Si5Al3O22)(OH,F,Cl)2Mon.
Tschermakite Root Name Group◻(Ca2)(Z2+3Z3+2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
41 photos of Tremolite associated with QuartzSiO2
39 photos of Tremolite associated with CalciteCaCO3
30 photos of Tremolite associated with PyriteFeS2
29 photos of Tremolite associated with Fluor-uviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
23 photos of Tremolite associated with DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
14 photos of Tremolite associated with Manganocummingtonite◻{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
13 photos of Tremolite associated with TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
12 photos of Tremolite associated with Scapolite
11 photos of Tremolite associated with Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
11 photos of Tremolite associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DE.Clino-suenoite◻{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name Group◻{Li2}{Z2+3Z3+2}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2Mon.
9.DE.05Grunerite◻{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe3+2Li}(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Actinolite◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite◻{Ca2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende◻Ca2(Mg4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Tschermakite◻(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite◻{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Ferro-ferri-hornblende◻Ca2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Fluoro-edeniteNaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22F2Mon. 2/m : P2/m
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsiteNaCa2(Mg4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsiteKCa2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsiteKCa2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasiteKCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsiteKCa2(Mg4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasiteKCa2(Fe2+4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-pargasiteKCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Ferri-kaersutiteNaCa2(Mg3Fe3+Ti)(Si6Al2O22)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Vanadio-pargasiteNaCa2(Mg3+4V)(Al2Si6)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe2+3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNa(NaCa)(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite◻{CaNa}{Fe2+3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ◻{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Winchite◻{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite◻[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite◻[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-fluoro-katophoriteNa(CaNa)(Mg4Fe3+)(AlSi7O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe2+3,Mg)Fe3+2](AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe2+3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraiteNaNa2(MgMn3+2Ti4+Li)Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNaNa2(Mg3Mn3+Ti4+)Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe2+2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe2+2Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-fluoro-pedriziteNa(Li2)(Fe2+2Al2Li)[Si8O22]F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe2+3Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

66.1.3a.12PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
66.1.3a.16Magnesiosadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.6.1CombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
14.6.2PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
14.6.4DenisoviteK14+x(Ca,Na,Mn,Fe)48[Si60O162]F16(Ox,OH4-x) · 2H2OMon.
14.6.6MountainiteKNa2Ca2[Si8O19(OH)] · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
14.6.7RhodesiteKHCa2Si8O19 · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.6.8MiseriteK1.5-x(Ca,Y,REE)5(Si6O15)(Si2O7)(OH,F)2 · yH2OTric.
14.6.9ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
14.6.11MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.6.12DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
Asbestiform varieties of tremolite can cause lung disease when inhaled, as with other species of asbestos minerals.
This mineral is known to be a respirable carcinogen, and is an uncommon form of asbestos. Exposure to very dusty air or long-term exposure to low level airborne dusts containing fine fibres of the mineral has been found to cause a high risk of serious lung disease including mesothelioma and lung cancer. Care should be taken working with samples that contain fibrous forms of this mineral, to avoid creating or inhaling dusts. Non-fibrous forms, such as in many amphibolites, are safer to handle, but can still produce potentially carcinogenic respirable fibre when crushed. Appropriate dust masks should be worn if working in areas which have dusts likely to be rich in this mineral. Storage and careful handling of specimens has little or no risk.

References for TremoliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Fichtel, J.E.v. (1782) Geschichte und Beschreibung einer in Siebenbürgen neu entdeckten Steinart, welche man Säulenspath und Sternspath nennen könnte. Schriften der Berlinischen Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde 3, 442-455. [as Säulenspath and Sternspath]
Höpfner, J.G.A. (1789) I. Ueber die Klassifikation der Fossilien in einem Schreiben des Herausgebers an Herrn Dr. Karsten in Halle. II. Versuch einer neuen Classifikationsmethode der Stein- und Erdarten, nach den neuesten chemischen Erfahrungen. Magazin für die Naturkunde Helvetiens: 4: 255-332.
Von Buch L. (1809) Der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neuesten Entdeckungen in der gesammten Naturkunde, 3, p. 172.
Stemple, I.S. and Brindley, G.W. (1960) A structural study of talc and talc-tremolite relations. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 43: 34-43.
Ross, M., Smith, W.L., Ashton, W.H. (1968) Triclinic talc and associated amphiboles from Gouverneur mining district, New York. American Mineralogist 53: 763-765.
Hawthorne, F.C., Grundy, H.D. (1976) The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles; IV, X-ray and neutron refinements of the crystal structure of tremolite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 334-345.
Hawthorne, F.C., Della Ventura, G., Robert, J.-L. (1996) Short-range order of (Na,K) and Al in tremolite: An infrared study. American Mineralogist: 81: 782-784.
Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J. (1997) Rock-forming Minerals: Double-Chain Silicates, Volume 2B. Geological Society of London.
Mandarino, J.A. (1998) The Second List of Additions and Corrections to the Glossary of Mineral Species (1995). The Amphibole Group. Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.
Ishida, K. Hawthorne, F.C., Ando, Y. (2002) Fine structure of infrared OH-stretching bands in natural and heat-treated amphiboles of the tremolite-ferro-actinolite series. American Mineralogist: 87: 891-898.
Roth, P. (2006) The early history of tremolite. Axis: 2(3): 1-10. (
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R. (2006) On the classification of amphiboles. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 1-21.

Internet Links for TremoliteHide

Localities for TremoliteHide

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